The Intersection of Open Source and the Cloud

S. the following recommendations can be derived from the OSS survey results with respect to the potential use of open source: > Open Source is a viable option for the implementation of federal cloud computing. ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. In fact. Inc. Among its many interesting ndings. While most federal respondents believe that open source is the wave of the future. with recommendations for federal IT reform in the areas of operational e ciency and large-scale IT program management. and ensure open source polices are integral to the overall software development and deployment process. released the results of a survey designed to measure awareness and attitudes about cloud computing and cyber security topics. In the OSS study. One of the top initiatives of the 25 point plan calls for agencies to immediately begin a “shift to a cloud. particularly via open source communities. . Yet. > Open source concerns associated with security and reliability can be overcome with more education. acceptance is hindered by a lack of widespread awareness and understanding of OSS. many organizational and IT leaders in both government and contracting organizations understandably still lack awareness and true understanding of cloud computing — despite the fact that the federal government is leading the adoption of this still-evolving technology model. Chief Information O cer (CIO) Vivek Kundra unveiled “The 25 Point Implementation Plan. the Lockheed Martin Cyber Security Alliance and Market Connections. In June 2010. a leading federal market research provider.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In December 2010. four out of ten government survey participants are not sure about their agency’s open source software usage or plans. unsure if their agency is using it. > Develop strategies and policies that leverage open source bene ts. acceptance and support across your organization. yet agencies need to thoroughly investigate cost bene ts.rst policy” and outlines very speci c related short-term deadlines. or not using/discussing it at all. Low awareness and understanding were again prevalent ndings in a separate but related study on the state of open source software (OSS) in government. > Create awareness of OS cloud initiatives to gain deeper understanding. Inc.” from the O ce of Management and Budget. conducted by Market Connections and Lockheed Martin several months later. As agencies continue to investigate and implement cloud computing. > Be pragmatic by investing in training and establishing clear internal support.. four out of ten government survey participants were not sure about their agency’s open source software usage or plans. U. the study revealed that 71% of the 198 respondents were either not familiar with cloud.

As de ned by The National Institute of Standards and Technology. or not using/discussing it at all. It’s clear that many in the federal government want to leverage these bene ts. at the same time. Federal government defense. Inc. defense/military and federal government. servers. and more e cient to manage. it makes information easier to access and share. NASA.S. and intelligence agencies on behalf of the Lockheed Martin Cyber Security Alliance showed that cloud computing has low levels of awareness. networks. The use of open source cloud computing can be found at DISA. early adopters of cloud computing in government have looked to the use of open source software (OSS) to speed implementation. the Department of Energy and the Executive O ce of the President. applications. rapid pace of innovation. cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient. cheaper to store.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 3 The Inevitable Emergence of Federal Cloud Computing and the Related Rise of Open Source Software Cloud computing has been under the spotlight as an emerging IT trend in the federal government for several years. In fact. the study ndings suggest that cloud utilization is poised for rapid gains. A 2010 Market Connections online quantitative research study of U. storage. and freedom to “do it yourself. improved exibility.g. 40% 69% Questions remain. Yet. whether it 17% 10% is considered a viable option. four out of ten government survey participants are not sure about their agency’s open source software usage or plans. and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management e ort or service provider interaction.S. including decreased development costs. It is clear that GOVERMENT INDUSTRY the use of open source is having an impact on the adoption of cloud computing in government. Simultaneously. however. military.. lower costs and drive the development of nascent cloud standards. about the prevalence of open source usage in government. acceptance is hindered by a lack of widespread awareness and understanding of OSS. while most federal respondents believe that open source is the wave of the future.” Yet a dichotomy similar to cloud adoption exists: Namely. The study also revealed that 71% of the 198 respondents were either not familiar with cloud. Market Connections’ most recent study looking at adoption and awareness of OSS in the federal government revealed that agencies are increasingly embracing OSS and its bene ts. as the dramatic bene ts of cloud computing are undisputed. on-demand network access to a shared pool of con gurable computing resources (e. just to name a few. The growing interest is understandable. By reducing redundancy. trust. ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. and adoption among IT decision makers in the U. Currently use OSS Plan to use OSS Not Sure 100% 100% . and what inhibitors may need attention before use of open source 43% 21% becomes widely adopted across government. unsure if their agency is using it.

Inc. and program management communities. and academics. and senior procurement executives and received detailed input and recommendations from industry groups such as TechAmerica. . Nearly two-thirds agree that the open source development approach helps produce reliable. more than half of government participants report that their agencies currently use or plan to use open source software. ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. OSS. and utilizing regional clouds with state and local governments where appropriate. launching private government clouds. industry experts. The plan is the outcome of 18 months spent by Kundra and his team engaging the federal IT. Chief Information O cer (CIO) Vivek Kundra called for agencies to immediately Legal issues 16% begin a “shift to a cloud. while nearly half of participants agree that resistance within the agency culture and security concerns are the two biggest challenges to using open source.S. And.rst policy” in “The 25 Lack of resources to train 15% Point Implementation Plan. acquisition.” which encompasses existing sta recommendations for federal IT reform in the areas A challenging procurement 11% process of operational e ciency and large-scale IT program 0% 20% 40% 60% management. ndings from this study clearly show that OSS is poised for increased adoption.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 4 Like the federal study on cloud computing. and additional investment is needed only as system use increases. high quality software quickly and inexpensively. CIO Kundra’s plan states: “The three-part strategy on cloud technology will revolve around using commercial cloud technologies where feasible. Agency CIOs. in which a low initial investment is required to begin. Three out of four government participants believe that open source is the wave of the future and their organization should get on board. and “The 25 Point Plan” In December 2010. They also held listening sessions with Congress. “Cloud computing brings a wide range of bene ts: > Economical: Cloud computing is a pay-as-you-go approach to IT. U. two-thirds expect OSS use to increase in their organizations in the next 12-18 months. Cloud Computing. CHALLENGES IN USING OPEN SOURCE Resistance within the organization/agency culture Security concerns Incompatibility with legacy technologies Need for software support Lack of familiarity with open source solutions Lack of executive sponsorship Policy issues Lack of skilled sta 46% 42% 28% 27% 26% 19% 18% 16% Speci cally.

Speci cally. OSS is an excellent means of facilitating standards adoption. ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. reliable. An open standard — the enemy of provider lock-in — is developed and maintained in a particularly transparent way with community involvement and is “freely “ available and implementable. With regard to the shift to a “cloud rst” policy. OMB will require that agencies default to cloud-based solutions whenever a secure. they must move one of those services to the cloud within 12 months. Inc. To facilitate this shift. it is critical that agency leadership understand the di erence between open standards and open source. “When evaluating options for new IT deployments. each agency must identify three “must move” services within three months. a lack of standards represents a signi cant obstacle to cloud adoption. we will be standing up secure government-wide cloud computing platforms. common creative licenses should be used for non-source code content in a given application. A standard is a blueprint — it tells you what you must do once you begin building something. as developers can resolve standards bugs in beta releases and use open source code to quickly add software support for standards. on the other hand. From there. while providing a near-limitless selection of services. .” BENEFITS TO USING OPEN SOURCE Save money Flexible Rapid pace of innovation Freedom to DIY (Do It Yourself ) Reliable Increased productivity Streamlined operations Other 0% 66% 58% 51% 43% 20% 20% 14% 2% 20% 40% solutions for sharing collaboration by researchers OTHER MENTIONS INCLUDE: Kundra and his team designed the plan to require a focus on execution and to achieve some early wins to garner momentum for continued e orts.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 5 > Flexible: IT departments that anticipate uctuations in user demand no longer need to scramble for additional hardware and software. cost-e ective cloud option exists. With cloud computing. they can add or subtract capacity quickly and easily. (For example. and the remaining two within 18 months. > Fast: Cloud computing eliminates long procurement and certi cation processes.) 60% 80% The Exponential Power of Open Source Cloud Computing Open source capabilities are impacting adoption of cloud computing in the federal government. It is also built and maintained in a particularly transparent way with community involvement and is “freely” available. To meet the directives set forth by Kundra’s plan. Open source. is code — actual software that may implement or adhere to open standards.

Indeed. Microsoft and IBM are currently developing and o ering cloud applications. Inc. . a newly-launched open source cloud computing initiative. In addition. Because developers’ open source code can be traced back to them. will be in uential.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 6 Security is another concern hindering cloud adoption. +52% OSS Investment next 12-18 months Though there are currently few federal government contributors to open source. platforms and code in OS environments. Equally important. OSS serves as a powerful accelerator of cloud computing adoption as federal agencies and departments strive to comply to the short-term execution requirements of the U. Nebula Senior Engineer Todd Willeys wrote in a July 26. . Red Hat (partnered with reseller DLT Solutions). including the Federal Open Source Alliance.this allows us to interact and work with a larger community to build out new functionality and drive the technology forward at a faster pace. according to the Lockheed Martin Cyber Security Alliance/Market Connections study. +66% OSS Use next 12-18 months Further.rst policy. they are highly motivated to maximize the security of the code they submit. a new program that will serve as a single entity through which the government could authorize cloud services for use by agencies. and Open Cloud Consortium. major technology providers such as Eucalyptus. formed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The industry venues and support they provide further accelerate rapid innovation as well as adoption and growth of the OS cloud market. OSS mitigates interoperability and integration issues associated with cloud computing. which is critical to their success as they strive to get to market rst with rapid innovation. the core technology NASA developed for its Nebula cloud computing platform has been selected as a contributor for OpenStack.S. 24% of survey respondents view OSS as a means for improved cloud security. One example is NASA’s Nebula program. However. the biggest perceived obstacle to cloud outside of security. CIO’s new cloud. . operating systems. This will allow others outside of the NASA community the opportunity to bene t from and participate with NASA’s e orts. 2010 Nebula blog post. numerous OS communities exist in the market.” ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. “…. Furthermore. Federal OS Cloud Success Stories Multiply Numerous impressive implementations of OS cloud applications exist today in the federal government. it’s expected that the Standards Accelerations to Jumpstart Adoption of Cloud Computing (SAJAAC). the federal government is taking a lead role in the convergence of OS and cloud with not only Kundra’s plan but also his department’s establishment of FedRAMP. The Open Cloud Manifesto. In addition. . an all open-source environment that allows NASA scientists and stakeholders to access cloud resources to advance mission programs.

“RACE consists of many virtual servers inside a single physical server. In a June 10. the Rapid Access Computing Environment (RACE). This system passes cost savings on to individual teams. “The amount of exibility OpenStack provides and the desire of the community to be able to implement solutions on top of OpenStack means that we will be moving forward at a very rapid pace. which provides IT support to the Department of Defense (DoD). Federal CIO Kundra wrote. Ease of using the development platform or tool suite Ease of integration with already developed applications Size of the community using the platform Wide range of applications already exist on the platform Ease of acquiring Ease of deploying the development applications to platform or tool mobile devices suite 60% 40% 20% 0% ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. 2010 CIO. began leveraging cloud computing in 2008 by creating its own secure private cloud. Through virtual server technology. At DoD. RACE provide on-demand server space for development teams and is considered more secure and stable than a traditional public cloud. The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA). The cost for a user to obtain an environment on RACE is reasonable and can be set up with an approved government credit card.gov article. Within this virtual environment. DISA has divided the costs of provisioning and operating a single physical server among the users of the various virtual servers. where we can engage with subject matter experts and derive the most value for our scientists. 52% DISA is now extending 49% 46% the open source cloud bene ts to handheld devices and is currently 24% testing various smart15% phone applications with 9% Army eld personnel using Androids.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 7 Nebula will allow NASA to share and collaborate with the OSS community at all levels. users can use a self-service portal to provision computing resources in 50 GB increments with the guarantee that the environment will be secure to DoD standards. . RACE is able to provision functional server space to users in 24 hours. Inc. a dedicated server environment used to take three to six weeks to provision due to lengthy procurement processes.” OPEN SOURCE DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM/TOOL SUITE CONSIDERATIONS With that faster pace. We are committed to continuing to develop the platform in the open. However.” wrote Willey. By using virtualization technologies.

Learn via small pilots. use of open source warrants a thorough investigation of its cost bene t. have some level of involvement with open source. which included a mix of government employees from federal civilian and independent agencies. Build interim successes that incorporate lessons learned and the latest industry best practices. state and local government employees and companies Easy to use Well documented serving the government. > Be pragmatic: Invest in training and establish clear internal support. Con gurable Wide community of users to support each other Supportable with a minimum of e ort Peer reviewed Interoperable yet secure Cheaper relative to legacy systems performing the same function ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 8 Recommendations for Adopting OS Cloud Applications The following high-level guidelines will be useful to federal departments and agencies exploring and transitioning to new cloud. . > Open source concerns associated with security and reliability can be overcome with more education. IT implementation Flexible Leading edge or IT policy in their organizations. > Develop strategies and policies that leverage open source bene ts and create internal management of source code. All survey participants. Participate in open source communities like Open Cloud Manifesto. Ensure open source polices are an integral part of the overall software development and deployment process.rst policies: > Open Source is a viable option for the implementation of federal cloud computing. The Market Connections and Lockheed Martin research study on the state of OSS in the government marketplace collected 240 responses. OpenNebula and OpenStack. the Department of IDEAL OPEN SOURCE TOOL CHARACTERISTICS Defense including all military services. acceptance and support across your organization. Run a pilot or series of pilot programs against clearly de ned and measurable objectives. Engage professionals from organizations with speci c OS cloud expertise. However. Inc. > Create awareness of OS cloud initiatives: Communicate interim successes to gain deeper understanding.

000 people worldwide and is principally engaged in the research. Lockheed Martin is a global security company that employs about 132. products and services. and weather and ocean observance. information technology and telecommunications.com. The rm o ers deep domain expertise in numerous markets. For more information visit: www. including those for emergency response. Director. Inc. design. healthcare. healthcare. development. SOA/Cloud Computing Lockheed Martin Senior Fellow Melvin.greer@lmco.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 9 About Lockheed Martin and OS Cloud Computing Headquartered in Bethesda. state and local governments. enabling organizations to make informed.marketconnectionsinc. Chief Strategist. including federal. and is developing numerous federal applications. integration and sustainment of advanced technology systems. manufacture. Research Services Market Connections cynthiap@marketconnectionsinc. intelligent decisions that drive signi cant and measurable business and process improvements.com Cynthia Poole.com ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. FOR MORE INFORMATION. CONTACT: Melvin Greer. Market Connections provides comprehensive B2B and B2G market research services. Inc. The company has developed and implemented its own OS cloud environment called Eureka Streams. and associations and non-pro ts. Celebrating its 15th anniversary this year.. education. About Market Connections. Md. .

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