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The Intersection of Open Source and the Cloud

One of the top initiatives of the 25 point plan calls for agencies to immediately begin a “shift to a cloud.rst policy” and outlines very speci c related short-term deadlines. or not using/discussing it at all. conducted by Market Connections and Lockheed Martin several months later. ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. the Lockheed Martin Cyber Security Alliance and Market Connections. with recommendations for federal IT reform in the areas of operational e ciency and large-scale IT program management. > Create awareness of OS cloud initiatives to gain deeper understanding. As agencies continue to investigate and implement cloud computing. particularly via open source communities. a leading federal market research provider. In the OSS study. In June 2010. acceptance and support across your organization. the study revealed that 71% of the 198 respondents were either not familiar with cloud. > Open source concerns associated with security and reliability can be overcome with more education.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In December 2010. four out of ten government survey participants were not sure about their agency’s open source software usage or plans. U. In fact.” from the O ce of Management and Budget. Among its many interesting ndings. the following recommendations can be derived from the OSS survey results with respect to the potential use of open source: > Open Source is a viable option for the implementation of federal cloud computing. released the results of a survey designed to measure awareness and attitudes about cloud computing and cyber security topics. Inc. Chief Information O cer (CIO) Vivek Kundra unveiled “The 25 Point Implementation Plan. > Develop strategies and policies that leverage open source bene ts. Yet. unsure if their agency is using it. many organizational and IT leaders in both government and contracting organizations understandably still lack awareness and true understanding of cloud computing — despite the fact that the federal government is leading the adoption of this still-evolving technology model. Low awareness and understanding were again prevalent ndings in a separate but related study on the state of open source software (OSS) in government. > Be pragmatic by investing in training and establishing clear internal support. . yet agencies need to thoroughly investigate cost bene ts.S. four out of ten government survey participants are not sure about their agency’s open source software usage or plans.. Inc. and ensure open source polices are integral to the overall software development and deployment process. While most federal respondents believe that open source is the wave of the future. acceptance is hindered by a lack of widespread awareness and understanding of OSS.

as the dramatic bene ts of cloud computing are undisputed. As de ned by The National Institute of Standards and Technology. rapid pace of innovation. while most federal respondents believe that open source is the wave of the future. about the prevalence of open source usage in government. whether it 17% 10% is considered a viable option.S. it makes information easier to access and share. and intelligence agencies on behalf of the Lockheed Martin Cyber Security Alliance showed that cloud computing has low levels of awareness.. trust. on-demand network access to a shared pool of con gurable computing resources (e. and freedom to “do it yourself. ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. acceptance is hindered by a lack of widespread awareness and understanding of OSS. and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management e ort or service provider interaction. servers. A 2010 Market Connections online quantitative research study of U. including decreased development costs. or not using/discussing it at all. Market Connections’ most recent study looking at adoption and awareness of OSS in the federal government revealed that agencies are increasingly embracing OSS and its bene ts. the Department of Energy and the Executive O ce of the President. networks. unsure if their agency is using it. and adoption among IT decision makers in the U. In fact. Currently use OSS Plan to use OSS Not Sure 100% 100% . Inc. at the same time. however. NASA. The study also revealed that 71% of the 198 respondents were either not familiar with cloud. cheaper to store. and what inhibitors may need attention before use of open source 43% 21% becomes widely adopted across government.S.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 3 The Inevitable Emergence of Federal Cloud Computing and the Related Rise of Open Source Software Cloud computing has been under the spotlight as an emerging IT trend in the federal government for several years. Federal government defense. It’s clear that many in the federal government want to leverage these bene ts. applications. Simultaneously.” Yet a dichotomy similar to cloud adoption exists: Namely. 40% 69% Questions remain. early adopters of cloud computing in government have looked to the use of open source software (OSS) to speed implementation. defense/military and federal government. It is clear that GOVERMENT INDUSTRY the use of open source is having an impact on the adoption of cloud computing in government.g. The growing interest is understandable. and more e cient to manage. lower costs and drive the development of nascent cloud standards. the study ndings suggest that cloud utilization is poised for rapid gains. just to name a few. By reducing redundancy. Yet. storage. improved exibility. The use of open source cloud computing can be found at DISA. military. four out of ten government survey participants are not sure about their agency’s open source software usage or plans. cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient.

Three out of four government participants believe that open source is the wave of the future and their organization should get on board. Cloud Computing. acquisition. And. CIO Kundra’s plan states: “The three-part strategy on cloud technology will revolve around using commercial cloud technologies where feasible.” which encompasses existing sta recommendations for federal IT reform in the areas A challenging procurement 11% process of operational e ciency and large-scale IT program 0% 20% 40% 60% management. CHALLENGES IN USING OPEN SOURCE Resistance within the organization/agency culture Security concerns Incompatibility with legacy technologies Need for software support Lack of familiarity with open source solutions Lack of executive sponsorship Policy issues Lack of skilled sta 46% 42% 28% 27% 26% 19% 18% 16% Speci cally.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 4 Like the federal study on cloud computing. and academics. OSS. more than half of government participants report that their agencies currently use or plan to use open source software.rst policy” in “The 25 Lack of resources to train 15% Point Implementation Plan. “Cloud computing brings a wide range of bene ts: > Economical: Cloud computing is a pay-as-you-go approach to IT. ndings from this study clearly show that OSS is poised for increased adoption. U. ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections.S. launching private government clouds. high quality software quickly and inexpensively. and program management communities. The plan is the outcome of 18 months spent by Kundra and his team engaging the federal IT. Chief Information O cer (CIO) Vivek Kundra called for agencies to immediately Legal issues 16% begin a “shift to a cloud. in which a low initial investment is required to begin. Agency CIOs. and “The 25 Point Plan” In December 2010. They also held listening sessions with Congress. while nearly half of participants agree that resistance within the agency culture and security concerns are the two biggest challenges to using open source. industry experts. and utilizing regional clouds with state and local governments where appropriate. two-thirds expect OSS use to increase in their organizations in the next 12-18 months. and senior procurement executives and received detailed input and recommendations from industry groups such as TechAmerica. . and additional investment is needed only as system use increases. Inc. Nearly two-thirds agree that the open source development approach helps produce reliable.

as developers can resolve standards bugs in beta releases and use open source code to quickly add software support for standards. common creative licenses should be used for non-source code content in a given application. cost-e ective cloud option exists. on the other hand. it is critical that agency leadership understand the di erence between open standards and open source. From there. (For example. each agency must identify three “must move” services within three months. they must move one of those services to the cloud within 12 months. Speci cally.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 5 > Flexible: IT departments that anticipate uctuations in user demand no longer need to scramble for additional hardware and software. while providing a near-limitless selection of services. and the remaining two within 18 months. With regard to the shift to a “cloud rst” policy. OMB will require that agencies default to cloud-based solutions whenever a secure. With cloud computing. Open source. “When evaluating options for new IT deployments. a lack of standards represents a signi cant obstacle to cloud adoption. they can add or subtract capacity quickly and easily.) 60% 80% The Exponential Power of Open Source Cloud Computing Open source capabilities are impacting adoption of cloud computing in the federal government. To facilitate this shift. Inc. . we will be standing up secure government-wide cloud computing platforms. > Fast: Cloud computing eliminates long procurement and certi cation processes. To meet the directives set forth by Kundra’s plan. is code — actual software that may implement or adhere to open standards.” BENEFITS TO USING OPEN SOURCE Save money Flexible Rapid pace of innovation Freedom to DIY (Do It Yourself ) Reliable Increased productivity Streamlined operations Other 0% 66% 58% 51% 43% 20% 20% 14% 2% 20% 40% solutions for sharing collaboration by researchers OTHER MENTIONS INCLUDE: Kundra and his team designed the plan to require a focus on execution and to achieve some early wins to garner momentum for continued e orts. OSS is an excellent means of facilitating standards adoption. ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. reliable. An open standard — the enemy of provider lock-in — is developed and maintained in a particularly transparent way with community involvement and is “freely “ available and implementable. A standard is a blueprint — it tells you what you must do once you begin building something. It is also built and maintained in a particularly transparent way with community involvement and is “freely” available.

OSS mitigates interoperability and integration issues associated with cloud computing. Inc. “…. +66% OSS Use next 12-18 months Further. including the Federal Open Source Alliance. 2010 Nebula blog post. Furthermore. CIO’s new cloud. 24% of survey respondents view OSS as a means for improved cloud security. However. This will allow others outside of the NASA community the opportunity to bene t from and participate with NASA’s e orts. an all open-source environment that allows NASA scientists and stakeholders to access cloud resources to advance mission programs. numerous OS communities exist in the market. . Red Hat (partnered with reseller DLT Solutions).this allows us to interact and work with a larger community to build out new functionality and drive the technology forward at a faster pace. it’s expected that the Standards Accelerations to Jumpstart Adoption of Cloud Computing (SAJAAC). . and Open Cloud Consortium. Federal OS Cloud Success Stories Multiply Numerous impressive implementations of OS cloud applications exist today in the federal government. In addition. a newly-launched open source cloud computing initiative. platforms and code in OS environments. operating systems. Indeed. . formed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). . Because developers’ open source code can be traced back to them.” ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. they are highly motivated to maximize the security of the code they submit. the biggest perceived obstacle to cloud outside of security. In addition. the federal government is taking a lead role in the convergence of OS and cloud with not only Kundra’s plan but also his department’s establishment of FedRAMP. One example is NASA’s Nebula program.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 6 Security is another concern hindering cloud adoption. a new program that will serve as a single entity through which the government could authorize cloud services for use by agencies.S. will be in uential. Equally important. major technology providers such as Eucalyptus. The Open Cloud Manifesto. The industry venues and support they provide further accelerate rapid innovation as well as adoption and growth of the OS cloud market. +52% OSS Investment next 12-18 months Though there are currently few federal government contributors to open source. Microsoft and IBM are currently developing and o ering cloud applications.rst policy. Nebula Senior Engineer Todd Willeys wrote in a July 26. according to the Lockheed Martin Cyber Security Alliance/Market Connections study. the core technology NASA developed for its Nebula cloud computing platform has been selected as a contributor for OpenStack. OSS serves as a powerful accelerator of cloud computing adoption as federal agencies and departments strive to comply to the short-term execution requirements of the U. which is critical to their success as they strive to get to market rst with rapid innovation.

“RACE consists of many virtual servers inside a single physical server. a dedicated server environment used to take three to six weeks to provision due to lengthy procurement processes. . DISA has divided the costs of provisioning and operating a single physical server among the users of the various virtual servers. At DoD. Federal CIO Kundra wrote. However. users can use a self-service portal to provision computing resources in 50 GB increments with the guarantee that the environment will be secure to DoD standards. We are committed to continuing to develop the platform in the open. RACE provide on-demand server space for development teams and is considered more secure and stable than a traditional public cloud. Ease of using the development platform or tool suite Ease of integration with already developed applications Size of the community using the platform Wide range of applications already exist on the platform Ease of acquiring Ease of deploying the development applications to platform or tool mobile devices suite 60% 40% 20% 0% ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections.gov article. began leveraging cloud computing in 2008 by creating its own secure private cloud.” wrote Willey. which provides IT support to the Department of Defense (DoD).” OPEN SOURCE DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM/TOOL SUITE CONSIDERATIONS With that faster pace. The cost for a user to obtain an environment on RACE is reasonable and can be set up with an approved government credit card. By using virtualization technologies. The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA). the Rapid Access Computing Environment (RACE). Within this virtual environment.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 7 Nebula will allow NASA to share and collaborate with the OSS community at all levels. RACE is able to provision functional server space to users in 24 hours. “The amount of exibility OpenStack provides and the desire of the community to be able to implement solutions on top of OpenStack means that we will be moving forward at a very rapid pace. Inc. 2010 CIO. where we can engage with subject matter experts and derive the most value for our scientists. In a June 10. Through virtual server technology. 52% DISA is now extending 49% 46% the open source cloud bene ts to handheld devices and is currently 24% testing various smart15% phone applications with 9% Army eld personnel using Androids. This system passes cost savings on to individual teams.

OpenNebula and OpenStack. Build interim successes that incorporate lessons learned and the latest industry best practices. use of open source warrants a thorough investigation of its cost bene t. Participate in open source communities like Open Cloud Manifesto. > Create awareness of OS cloud initiatives: Communicate interim successes to gain deeper understanding. IT implementation Flexible Leading edge or IT policy in their organizations. state and local government employees and companies Easy to use Well documented serving the government.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 8 Recommendations for Adopting OS Cloud Applications The following high-level guidelines will be useful to federal departments and agencies exploring and transitioning to new cloud. > Open source concerns associated with security and reliability can be overcome with more education. Con gurable Wide community of users to support each other Supportable with a minimum of e ort Peer reviewed Interoperable yet secure Cheaper relative to legacy systems performing the same function ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. The Market Connections and Lockheed Martin research study on the state of OSS in the government marketplace collected 240 responses. All survey participants. > Be pragmatic: Invest in training and establish clear internal support. . Learn via small pilots. Inc. which included a mix of government employees from federal civilian and independent agencies. have some level of involvement with open source.rst policies: > Open Source is a viable option for the implementation of federal cloud computing. acceptance and support across your organization. the Department of IDEAL OPEN SOURCE TOOL CHARACTERISTICS Defense including all military services. Run a pilot or series of pilot programs against clearly de ned and measurable objectives. However. Engage professionals from organizations with speci c OS cloud expertise. Ensure open source polices are an integral part of the overall software development and deployment process. > Develop strategies and policies that leverage open source bene ts and create internal management of source code.

T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 9 About Lockheed Martin and OS Cloud Computing Headquartered in Bethesda. healthcare. Market Connections provides comprehensive B2B and B2G market research services. The company has developed and implemented its own OS cloud environment called Eureka Streams.greer@lmco. CONTACT: Melvin Greer. design. Chief Strategist. . Celebrating its 15th anniversary this year. Inc. integration and sustainment of advanced technology systems. manufacture. including federal. products and services. healthcare. including those for emergency response.. Md.com. enabling organizations to make informed. FOR MORE INFORMATION. information technology and telecommunications. intelligent decisions that drive signi cant and measurable business and process improvements. and associations and non-pro ts. SOA/Cloud Computing Lockheed Martin Senior Fellow Melvin. and weather and ocean observance. Director. The rm o ers deep domain expertise in numerous markets.com ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. Lockheed Martin is a global security company that employs about 132. state and local governments. Research Services Market Connections cynthiap@marketconnectionsinc.com Cynthia Poole. development. For more information visit: www. About Market Connections. and is developing numerous federal applications. education.000 people worldwide and is principally engaged in the research. Inc.marketconnectionsinc.