The Intersection of Open Source and the Cloud

In June 2010. the Lockheed Martin Cyber Security Alliance and Market Connections. U. four out of ten government survey participants are not sure about their agency’s open source software usage or plans. In fact. a leading federal market research provider. acceptance and support across your organization.S. the study revealed that 71% of the 198 respondents were either not familiar with cloud. conducted by Market Connections and Lockheed Martin several months later. acceptance is hindered by a lack of widespread awareness and understanding of OSS. Low awareness and understanding were again prevalent ndings in a separate but related study on the state of open source software (OSS) in government. with recommendations for federal IT reform in the areas of operational e ciency and large-scale IT program management. > Develop strategies and policies that leverage open source bene ts. . While most federal respondents believe that open source is the wave of the future. Chief Information O cer (CIO) Vivek Kundra unveiled “The 25 Point Implementation Plan. many organizational and IT leaders in both government and contracting organizations understandably still lack awareness and true understanding of cloud computing — despite the fact that the federal government is leading the adoption of this still-evolving technology model.” from the O ce of Management and Budget. One of the top initiatives of the 25 point plan calls for agencies to immediately begin a “shift to a cloud. In the OSS study. > Be pragmatic by investing in training and establishing clear internal support. > Open source concerns associated with security and reliability can be overcome with more education.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 2 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In December 2010. Inc. Inc. and ensure open source polices are integral to the overall software development and deployment process. Yet. particularly via open source communities. yet agencies need to thoroughly investigate cost bene ts. unsure if their agency is using it. four out of ten government survey participants were not sure about their agency’s open source software usage or plans. Among its many interesting ndings. the following recommendations can be derived from the OSS survey results with respect to the potential use of open source: > Open Source is a viable option for the implementation of federal cloud computing. released the results of a survey designed to measure awareness and attitudes about cloud computing and cyber security topics.. As agencies continue to investigate and implement cloud computing. or not using/discussing it at all. ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections.rst policy” and outlines very speci c related short-term deadlines. > Create awareness of OS cloud initiatives to gain deeper understanding.

As de ned by The National Institute of Standards and Technology. at the same time. and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management e ort or service provider interaction. cheaper to store.. In fact. unsure if their agency is using it. however. Currently use OSS Plan to use OSS Not Sure 100% 100% . Yet. four out of ten government survey participants are not sure about their agency’s open source software usage or plans. and more e cient to manage. The study also revealed that 71% of the 198 respondents were either not familiar with cloud. the study ndings suggest that cloud utilization is poised for rapid gains. the Department of Energy and the Executive O ce of the President.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 3 The Inevitable Emergence of Federal Cloud Computing and the Related Rise of Open Source Software Cloud computing has been under the spotlight as an emerging IT trend in the federal government for several years. storage. NASA. rapid pace of innovation. networks. and freedom to “do it yourself. early adopters of cloud computing in government have looked to the use of open source software (OSS) to speed implementation. By reducing redundancy. ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. The use of open source cloud computing can be found at DISA. It is clear that GOVERMENT INDUSTRY the use of open source is having an impact on the adoption of cloud computing in government. The growing interest is understandable. just to name a few. improved exibility. It’s clear that many in the federal government want to leverage these bene ts. about the prevalence of open source usage in government. Market Connections’ most recent study looking at adoption and awareness of OSS in the federal government revealed that agencies are increasingly embracing OSS and its bene ts.” Yet a dichotomy similar to cloud adoption exists: Namely. and what inhibitors may need attention before use of open source 43% 21% becomes widely adopted across government. 40% 69% Questions remain. whether it 17% 10% is considered a viable option. acceptance is hindered by a lack of widespread awareness and understanding of OSS. applications. including decreased development costs. A 2010 Market Connections online quantitative research study of U. lower costs and drive the development of nascent cloud standards.S. as the dramatic bene ts of cloud computing are undisputed. and adoption among IT decision makers in the U. military. servers. cloud computing is a model for enabling convenient. defense/military and federal government. Inc. trust. Federal government defense. or not using/discussing it at all. it makes information easier to access and share.S. on-demand network access to a shared pool of con gurable computing resources (e.g. and intelligence agencies on behalf of the Lockheed Martin Cyber Security Alliance showed that cloud computing has low levels of awareness. Simultaneously. while most federal respondents believe that open source is the wave of the future.

” which encompasses existing sta recommendations for federal IT reform in the areas A challenging procurement 11% process of operational e ciency and large-scale IT program 0% 20% 40% 60% management. CHALLENGES IN USING OPEN SOURCE Resistance within the organization/agency culture Security concerns Incompatibility with legacy technologies Need for software support Lack of familiarity with open source solutions Lack of executive sponsorship Policy issues Lack of skilled sta 46% 42% 28% 27% 26% 19% 18% 16% Speci cally. and academics. ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. And. Chief Information O cer (CIO) Vivek Kundra called for agencies to immediately Legal issues 16% begin a “shift to a cloud. They also held listening sessions with Congress. industry experts. The plan is the outcome of 18 months spent by Kundra and his team engaging the federal IT. high quality software quickly and inexpensively. launching private government clouds. and “The 25 Point Plan” In December 2010. in which a low initial investment is required to begin.rst policy” in “The 25 Lack of resources to train 15% Point Implementation Plan. and program management communities.S. while nearly half of participants agree that resistance within the agency culture and security concerns are the two biggest challenges to using open source. ndings from this study clearly show that OSS is poised for increased adoption. two-thirds expect OSS use to increase in their organizations in the next 12-18 months. Cloud Computing. Agency CIOs. “Cloud computing brings a wide range of bene ts: > Economical: Cloud computing is a pay-as-you-go approach to IT. Three out of four government participants believe that open source is the wave of the future and their organization should get on board. more than half of government participants report that their agencies currently use or plan to use open source software. and utilizing regional clouds with state and local governments where appropriate. OSS. Nearly two-thirds agree that the open source development approach helps produce reliable. and senior procurement executives and received detailed input and recommendations from industry groups such as TechAmerica. . U. acquisition. Inc. CIO Kundra’s plan states: “The three-part strategy on cloud technology will revolve around using commercial cloud technologies where feasible. and additional investment is needed only as system use increases.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 4 Like the federal study on cloud computing.

as developers can resolve standards bugs in beta releases and use open source code to quickly add software support for standards. and the remaining two within 18 months. . With regard to the shift to a “cloud rst” policy. OSS is an excellent means of facilitating standards adoption. each agency must identify three “must move” services within three months. From there.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 5 > Flexible: IT departments that anticipate uctuations in user demand no longer need to scramble for additional hardware and software. while providing a near-limitless selection of services. “When evaluating options for new IT deployments. common creative licenses should be used for non-source code content in a given application.” BENEFITS TO USING OPEN SOURCE Save money Flexible Rapid pace of innovation Freedom to DIY (Do It Yourself ) Reliable Increased productivity Streamlined operations Other 0% 66% 58% 51% 43% 20% 20% 14% 2% 20% 40% solutions for sharing collaboration by researchers OTHER MENTIONS INCLUDE: Kundra and his team designed the plan to require a focus on execution and to achieve some early wins to garner momentum for continued e orts. A standard is a blueprint — it tells you what you must do once you begin building something. Inc. it is critical that agency leadership understand the di erence between open standards and open source. is code — actual software that may implement or adhere to open standards. OMB will require that agencies default to cloud-based solutions whenever a secure. Open source. > Fast: Cloud computing eliminates long procurement and certi cation processes. It is also built and maintained in a particularly transparent way with community involvement and is “freely” available.) 60% 80% The Exponential Power of Open Source Cloud Computing Open source capabilities are impacting adoption of cloud computing in the federal government. a lack of standards represents a signi cant obstacle to cloud adoption. on the other hand. (For example. Speci cally. we will be standing up secure government-wide cloud computing platforms. they can add or subtract capacity quickly and easily. reliable. cost-e ective cloud option exists. To facilitate this shift. To meet the directives set forth by Kundra’s plan. ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. With cloud computing. they must move one of those services to the cloud within 12 months. An open standard — the enemy of provider lock-in — is developed and maintained in a particularly transparent way with community involvement and is “freely “ available and implementable.

a new program that will serve as a single entity through which the government could authorize cloud services for use by agencies. 24% of survey respondents view OSS as a means for improved cloud security. +66% OSS Use next 12-18 months Further. Indeed. Red Hat (partnered with reseller DLT Solutions). Microsoft and IBM are currently developing and o ering cloud applications. they are highly motivated to maximize the security of the code they submit. 2010 Nebula blog post.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 6 Security is another concern hindering cloud adoption. The industry venues and support they provide further accelerate rapid innovation as well as adoption and growth of the OS cloud market. One example is NASA’s Nebula program. The Open Cloud Manifesto. Federal OS Cloud Success Stories Multiply Numerous impressive implementations of OS cloud applications exist today in the federal government. and Open Cloud Consortium. Nebula Senior Engineer Todd Willeys wrote in a July 26. . Inc. a newly-launched open source cloud computing initiative.S.rst policy. In addition. including the Federal Open Source Alliance. +52% OSS Investment next 12-18 months Though there are currently few federal government contributors to open source. OSS serves as a powerful accelerator of cloud computing adoption as federal agencies and departments strive to comply to the short-term execution requirements of the U. CIO’s new cloud. will be in uential. . This will allow others outside of the NASA community the opportunity to bene t from and participate with NASA’s e orts. In addition. the federal government is taking a lead role in the convergence of OS and cloud with not only Kundra’s plan but also his department’s establishment of FedRAMP. major technology providers such as Eucalyptus. the biggest perceived obstacle to cloud outside of security.” ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. according to the Lockheed Martin Cyber Security Alliance/Market Connections study. . However. an all open-source environment that allows NASA scientists and stakeholders to access cloud resources to advance mission programs. platforms and code in OS environments. which is critical to their success as they strive to get to market rst with rapid innovation. “…. Equally important. OSS mitigates interoperability and integration issues associated with cloud computing. formed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).this allows us to interact and work with a larger community to build out new functionality and drive the technology forward at a faster pace. numerous OS communities exist in the market. operating systems. Because developers’ open source code can be traced back to them. Furthermore. it’s expected that the Standards Accelerations to Jumpstart Adoption of Cloud Computing (SAJAAC). . the core technology NASA developed for its Nebula cloud computing platform has been selected as a contributor for OpenStack.

At DoD.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 7 Nebula will allow NASA to share and collaborate with the OSS community at all levels. Within this virtual environment. Inc. This system passes cost savings on to individual teams. In a June 10. which provides IT support to the Department of Defense (DoD). Ease of using the development platform or tool suite Ease of integration with already developed applications Size of the community using the platform Wide range of applications already exist on the platform Ease of acquiring Ease of deploying the development applications to platform or tool mobile devices suite 60% 40% 20% 0% ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. . DISA has divided the costs of provisioning and operating a single physical server among the users of the various virtual servers. Through virtual server technology.” wrote Willey. “The amount of exibility OpenStack provides and the desire of the community to be able to implement solutions on top of OpenStack means that we will be moving forward at a very rapid pace. users can use a self-service portal to provision computing resources in 50 GB increments with the guarantee that the environment will be secure to DoD standards. 2010 CIO. The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA). RACE is able to provision functional server space to users in 24 hours. However. RACE provide on-demand server space for development teams and is considered more secure and stable than a traditional public cloud. By using virtualization technologies. “RACE consists of many virtual servers inside a single physical server. a dedicated server environment used to take three to six weeks to provision due to lengthy procurement processes. where we can engage with subject matter experts and derive the most value for our scientists. 52% DISA is now extending 49% 46% the open source cloud bene ts to handheld devices and is currently 24% testing various smart15% phone applications with 9% Army eld personnel using Androids. the Rapid Access Computing Environment (RACE).” OPEN SOURCE DEVELOPMENT PLATFORM/TOOL SUITE CONSIDERATIONS With that faster pace. began leveraging cloud computing in 2008 by creating its own secure private cloud.gov article. We are committed to continuing to develop the platform in the open. Federal CIO Kundra wrote. The cost for a user to obtain an environment on RACE is reasonable and can be set up with an approved government credit card.

> Create awareness of OS cloud initiatives: Communicate interim successes to gain deeper understanding. > Develop strategies and policies that leverage open source bene ts and create internal management of source code. OpenNebula and OpenStack. Ensure open source polices are an integral part of the overall software development and deployment process. use of open source warrants a thorough investigation of its cost bene t. state and local government employees and companies Easy to use Well documented serving the government. which included a mix of government employees from federal civilian and independent agencies. . The Market Connections and Lockheed Martin research study on the state of OSS in the government marketplace collected 240 responses. IT implementation Flexible Leading edge or IT policy in their organizations. All survey participants. Participate in open source communities like Open Cloud Manifesto. > Be pragmatic: Invest in training and establish clear internal support.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 8 Recommendations for Adopting OS Cloud Applications The following high-level guidelines will be useful to federal departments and agencies exploring and transitioning to new cloud. Run a pilot or series of pilot programs against clearly de ned and measurable objectives.rst policies: > Open Source is a viable option for the implementation of federal cloud computing. the Department of IDEAL OPEN SOURCE TOOL CHARACTERISTICS Defense including all military services. Build interim successes that incorporate lessons learned and the latest industry best practices. have some level of involvement with open source. > Open source concerns associated with security and reliability can be overcome with more education. Engage professionals from organizations with speci c OS cloud expertise. Learn via small pilots. Inc. However. Con gurable Wide community of users to support each other Supportable with a minimum of e ort Peer reviewed Interoperable yet secure Cheaper relative to legacy systems performing the same function ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. acceptance and support across your organization.

integration and sustainment of advanced technology systems. Chief Strategist.000 people worldwide and is principally engaged in the research. Inc. manufacture. About Market Connections. Celebrating its 15th anniversary this year. Director.greer@lmco. education. and is developing numerous federal applications. state and local governments. and weather and ocean observance. intelligent decisions that drive signi cant and measurable business and process improvements. For more information visit: www. enabling organizations to make informed.. FOR MORE INFORMATION.com.com Cynthia Poole. Market Connections provides comprehensive B2B and B2G market research services. Md. development. SOA/Cloud Computing Lockheed Martin Senior Fellow Melvin. Inc.T H E I N T E R S E C T I O N O F O P E N S O U R C E A N D T H E C LO U D 9 About Lockheed Martin and OS Cloud Computing Headquartered in Bethesda. healthcare. Research Services Market Connections cynthiap@marketconnectionsinc. Lockheed Martin is a global security company that employs about 132.com ©2011 Lockheed Martin Corporation and Market Connections. products and services. healthcare. design. including federal. CONTACT: Melvin Greer. . and associations and non-pro ts. The rm o ers deep domain expertise in numerous markets. information technology and telecommunications. The company has developed and implemented its own OS cloud environment called Eureka Streams.marketconnectionsinc. including those for emergency response.