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UNIT -I PART-A (2-MARKS) 1) Define User Interface? What are the two components in User Interface?

User interface is a collection of techniques and mechanisms to interact with something .It has 2 components :Input and Output. Input is how the person communicate his or her needs to the computer. Output is how the computer convey the result of its computations and requirement to the user. 2) What is meant by GUI? GUI is a collection of techniques and mechanisms to interact with pointing device of some kind. 3) What are the principles of graphical user interface design? Aesthetically pleasing Clarity Compatibility Comprehensibility Configurability Consistency Control Directness Efficiency Familiarity Flexibility Forgiveness Predictability Recovery Responsiveness Simplicity Transparency Trade - offs 4) Define Pick and Click Interaction? Pick: To identify an element for a proposed action. Click: The signal to perform an action. (Ex)The user moves the mouse pointer to the relevant element (pick) and the action is signaled.(click) 5) What are the human characteristics in design? Perception Memory Sensory storage Visual acuity

Foveal and peripheral vision Information processing Mental models Movement control Learning Skill Individual difference

6) What is an object? Explain its types? Object is an entity. It can be manipulated as a single unit. (Ex)Document. Classification: Data Object: It presents information. This information is either text or graphics. Container Object: It hold other objects. They are used to group2 or more related objects for easy access and retrieval. Device Object: It represent physical objects in the real world such as printers, trash baskets. 7) Mention the user task and job? Type of system use Frequency of use Task or need importance Task structure Social interaction Primary training Turn over rate Job category Life style

8) Define Property/ Attribute Specification? Explain its Sequence? Property/attribute specification action establish or modify the attributes or properties of objects. (ex)Selecting cascaded windows to be displayed, a particular font style, and color property/attribute specification sequence. 9) Define Concurrent performance of function?. The system may divide the processing power into tie slices and allocate portion to each application. Graphic system may do 2 or more things at one time. Multiple programs may run simultaneously

10) What is User Assistance in Web Interface Design? It cannot provide with help system Customer service support, if provided is generally oriented to the product or service offered.

11) Write a note on consistency? Consistency is important because it can reduce requirements for human leaving by allowing skills learned in one situation to be transferred to another like it. It also aids learning of the systems mental model. 12) Explain the Types of Compatibility? User compatibility: Design must be appropriate and compatible with the needs of the user or client. Task and job compatibility: The organization of a system should match the tasks a person must do to perform the job. Product compatibility: While compatibility across products must always be considered in relation to improving interfaces, making new systems compatible with the existing systems. 13) What is meant by Transparency? Permit the user to focus on the task or job, without concern for the mechanics of the interface .i.e working inside the computer should be invisible to the user. 14) Explain five ways to provide Simplicity? Use progressive disclosure, hiding things until they are needed. Present common and necessary function first. Prominently feature important functions. Hide more sophisticated and less frequently used functions Provide defaults Minimize screen alignment points. Make common actions simple at the expense of uncommon actions being made harder. Provide uniformity and consistency. 15) what is meant by human-computer interaction Human Computer interaction is the study, planning and design of how people and computer work together so that a persons needs are satisfied in the most effective way. 16) what are the benefits of good design To improve screen clarity and readability It reduces the decision making time. Training costs are lowered because short period of training. Identifying and resolving problems during the design and development provide economic benefits.

17) Mention any 2 advantages of graphical system. Symbols recognized faster than text: The symbols can be recognized faster and more quickly than text and that the graphical attributes quickly classifying the objects. Faster learning: Graphical ,pictorial representation aids learning and symbols can also be easily learned. 18)what are the visually presented elements in a graphically system? The meaningful interface elements visually presented to the user in a graphical system include: Windows Menus Icons Screen based controls Mouse pointer and cursor. 19)Define visualization? It is cognitive process that allows people to understand information that is difficult to perceive, because it is either too voluminous or too abstract. 20)what are the goals of web interface design. It is to build a hierarchy of menus and pages that well structured. It is a navigation environment where people move between pages of information. It is graphically rich environment. 21)What is meant by web interface design. It is essentially the design of navigation and the presentation of information. Proper interface design is a matter of properly balancing the structure and relationships of menus, content and other linked documents or graphics. 22)What are the similarities between GUI and web interface design. Both are software design Both are used by people. They are interactive. Both are heavily visual experiences presented through screens. Both are composed of many similar components. 23)Write any 2 difference between GUI and web page design. GUI DESIGN WEB DESIGN

In GUI design, the characteristics of interface devices such as monitor and modem are well designed and screen appear exactly as specified. GUI users navigate through structured menus, lists, screens dialogs and wizards. It is weekly established concept.

In web design, user devices may range from handheld mechanism to high end work station. It will be greatly influenced by both the hardware and software. Web users navigate through links, bookmarks and typed URLs. It is a significant and highly visible concept.

24)Write any 2 difference between printed page vs web pages Printed pages Printed pages are presented as complete entities and their entire contents are available for reading or review immediately. Printed page layout is precise Navigating printed materials is page turning and interaction between pages are rare. Web pages Web page elements rendered slowly depending upon transmission speeds and page content Web page layout is approximation Navigating the web requires many possible links and interaction between pages immediately

25) Differentiate the term internet, intranet. INTERNET The users of intranets being organization employees know more about the organization It is used for an organizations everyday activities The need for cross-platform compatibility is minimized INTRANET Internet sites are used by customers and others who know mush less about the organization It is used to find information. The need for cross-platform compatibility is maximized.

26) Differentiate the term Internet, Intranet and Extranet.

Internet: It is a huge network of computer networks. Intranet: Within Organization internal network over a shared infrastructure using dedicated connections. Extranet: An extranet is a special set of intranet that can be accessed by authorized persons from outside an organization or company. 27)What are the benefits of flexible system. It provides multiple ways to access application functions and perform tasks. It increases the user control Permit people to choose the method of interaction. PART-B(6 MARKS WITH HINTS) 1) What are importance of screen design? Importance of screen design should answer the following questions: We dont care? We dont possess common sense We dont have the time? We still dont know what really makes good design? 2) Benefits of good design? Improves screen clarity Improve readability Separate items Reduced decision making time Lower training cost Increased employee satisfaction Customers benefit due to improved service Economic benefits 3) Characteristics of graphical user interface design? The graphical user interface The popularity of graphics The concept of direct manipulation Graphical system advantage and disadvantage Characteristics of graphical user interface 4) Mention the advantage and disadvantage of graphical systems? ADVANTAGE Symbols recognized faster than text Faster learning Faster use and problem solving Easier remembering More natural Exploits visual/spatial cues Fasters more concentrate thinking Provide context

Fewer errors Increased feeling of control Immediate feedback Predictable system responses Easily reversible actions More attractive May consume less space Replaces national languages Low typing requirements Smooth transition from command language system DISADVANTAGE Greater design complexity Learning still necessary Lack of experimentally- derived design guidelines Inconsistencies in technique and terminology Working domain is the present Not always familiar Human comprehension limitation Production limitation Inefficient for touch typists Inefficient for expert users Not always fastest style of interaction May consume more screen space Human limitation

PART C(10 MARKS WITH HINTS) 1) Explain briefly about the Characteristics of GUI? Sophisticated Visual presentation Pick and click interaction Restricted set of interface options Visualization Object orientation Use of recognition memory Concurrent performance of functions 2) Mention the Advantages and Disadvantages of GUI/Graphical systems in detail? Advantages: Symbols are recognized faster than text Faster learning Faster use and problem solving Easier remembering More natural

Exploits visual/Spatial cues Fewer errors More attractive May consume less space Low typing requirements Immediate feedback Disadvantages: Greater design complexity Learning still necessary Lack of experimentally derived guidelines Not always familiar. Working domain is the present. Inconsistencies in techniques and terminology May consume more screen space Inefficient for expert users. Few tested icons exist. Hardware limitations Production limitations 3) Write a detail note on Characteristics of Web User Interface? GUI vs Web page design GUI vs Web interface design Printed page vs Web page Intranet vs Internet 4) Explain the general principles of User Interface Design? Aesthetically Pleasing Clarity Compatibility Comprehensibility Configurability Consistency Control Directness Efficiency Familiarity] Flexibility Forgiveness Recovery Responsiveness Simplicity Transparency Trade-offs

5) Write short note on web user interface. Introduction Reasons for difficulty Characteristics

UNIT-II PART-A (2-MARKS) 1) What is meant by Visual Acuity? The capacity of the eye to resolve details is called visual acuity. Visual acuity is approximately halved at a distance of 2.5 degrees from the point of eye fixation. 2) Differentiate Short Term and Long Term Memory? Short-term memory Long term memory It contains limited amount of It contains unlimited information information It receives information from short It receives information from either term through learning process the senses or long term memory

3) What are the direct method in requirement analysis? The direct method consists of Individual face to face interview Telephone Interview or survey Traditional Focus group Facilitated team Workshop Observational field study Requirements prototyping Usability Laboratory testing 4) What are the indirect method in requirement analysis? The indirect methods include Paper survey Electronic survey Electronic focus group Marketing and sales Support Line Email or Bulletin Board System Testing 5) Write a note on Grouping? Grouping screen elements aids in establishing structure, meaningful relationships and meaningful form. Groupings aids in information recall and results in a faster screen search

7) Write a note on Scrolling and paging? Scrolling: Avoid scrolling to determine page contents A pages subject should be immediately recognizable Elements crucial to identifying Minimize vertical scrolling Avoid horizontal scrolling Paging: Encourage viewing the page throughpaging Create a second version of a website, one consisting of individual screen that are viewed through paging 8) What is meant by Completion aid? Completion aid are a form of instruction but they are directed to the content of specific entry field control and the contents format. As with instructions, the decision whether or not to include text entry control completion aids will be dependent upon the experience of the user, the frequency of screen use and the nature of information itself. 9) What is known as Tabbing? When a screen is first presented , the cursor must be positioned in the first field or control in which information can be entered. Tabbing order must then follow the flow of information as it is organized on the screen. 10) What is meant by Auto Skipping? State its structure. 11) What is meant by Verbal linkage and Spatial Linkage? Verbal linkage and spatial linkage both may be used to provide navigation feedback Verbal linkage involves providing on the current menu screen, a listing of choices made on previous menus that have lead to this position. Spatial linkage can be displayed overlapping the previous menu screen so a succession of choices can be seen in a single view 12) What are the advantages and disadvantages of Cascading Menu? Advantages: The top level menu, are simplified because some choices are hidden Move first letter mnemonics are available because menu possess fewer alternatives. Disadvantages: Access to submenu items requires more steps and a change in pointer movement direction Exhaustive browsing is more difficult. 13) What is meant by keyboard accelerator? The accelerator may be one function key or a combination of keys. For frequently used items, provide a key board accelerator to facilitate keyboard selection.

14) What is meant by Toggled Menu items? What are the advantages and Disadvantages? A toggled menu item is one menu item command that toggles back and forth between the current state and its alternatives state. Use to designate 2 opposite commands that are accessed frequently. Use when the menu item displayed will clearly indicate that the opposite condition currently exists. Advantages: o It shortens menu o Decrease Visual Clutter o Provide Quicker access. Disadvantages: o Limited in use. o The opposite action reflecting the current state of the attribute is not visible can cause uncertainty for novice users. 18) Write a note on Keyboard Accelerators? The accelerators may be one function key or a combination of keys. For frequently used items, provide a key board accelerator to facilitate keyboard selection. 19) What are the advantages and disadvantages of Pull-down Menu? The 20) What are the common pitfalls in the design process. The common pitfalls are No early analysis and understanding of the users needs and expectations Little or no creation of design element prototypes No Usability testing No common design team vision of user interface design goals Poor communication between members of the development team 21) Define usability. Usability describes the effectiveness of human performance. It can be defined as the capability to be used by humans easily and effectively Easily=to a specified level of subjective assessment Effectively=to a specified level of human performance 23) What are the common usability problems. The common usability problems are, Ambiguous menus and icons Highlighting and selection limitations Unclear step sequence Complex linkage between and within applications Inadequate feedback and confirmation 24) Identify human characteristics in design. The important human characteristics in design are perception,

memory, visual acuity, foveal and peripheral vision, sensory storage, information processing, learning, skill and individual differences

25) Define mental model. It is an internal representation of a persons current conceptualization and understands of something. Mental model are gradually developed in order to understand, explain and do something 26) What are the guidelines for designing conceptual model. Reflect the users mental model Provide action-response compatibility Provide proper and correct feedback Provide design consistency Provide documentation and a help system that will reinforce the conceptual model Promote the development of both novice and expert mental models. 27) What are system training tools. System training will be based on users needs, system conceptual design, system learning goals and system performance goals. Training may include tools such as video training, manuals, online tutorials, reference manuals, quick reference guides and online help. 28) What are the goals of interface design. The goals in interface design are, Reduce visual work Reduce intellectual work Reduce memory work Reduce motor work Minimize or eliminate any burdens 29) What is test for a good design. It simply involves the use of display techniques, consistent location of elements, the proper use of white space and groupings and an understanding of visually pleasing composition. The best interface makes everything on the screen easily seen. 30)How to achieve clarity. Clarity is influenced by a multiple factors, such as consistency in design, visually pleasing composition, a logical and sequential ordering, and the presentation of the proper amount of information, groupings and alignment of screen items. 31)What are the qualities in visually pleasing composition.

Visually pleasing composition contains following qualities such as balance symmetry regularity predictability sequentially economy unity proportion simplicity and groupings. 32)What are the types of statistical graphics. The various types of statistical graphics are, Curve and line graphs Surface charts Scatter plots Bar graphs Histograms Segmented or stacked bars Pie charts 33)What are the elements of screen Elements of a screen include control captions, the data or information displayed on the screen, headings, headlines, instructional information and the screens title. 34)What are the guidelines for browsing. Facilitate scanning Provide multiple layers of structure Make navigation easy Respect the users desire to leave Upon returning, help the user reorient themselves. 35) What are the components of a statistical graphic. Graphics have at least 2 axes, 2 scales, an area to present the data, title, legend and key. 36)What are the structures of menus. A menu structure defines the amount of control given to the user in performing a task. The most common structure are, Single menu Sequential linear menus

Simultaneous menus Hierarchical menus Connected menus Event trapping menus

37)What are the functions of menus. Menu can be used to perform several functions such as, Navigate to new menus Execute an action or procedure Display information Data or parameter input 38) What are the guidelines for menu title. The guidelines for menu title, main menu Create a short simple, clear title describing the purpose of choices. Submenu The title must be worded exactly the same as the menu choice. General Locate the title at the top of the listing choices. Spell out the title using either an uppercase font or mixed case font. 39)What is meant by keyboard equivalents. Keyboard equivalent have meaningful associations with their corresponding choice will be more easily learned and remembered. To facilitate keyboard selection of a menu choice, each menu item should be assigned a keyboard equivalent mnemonic. 40)What is the purpose of mask toggles. It is used to designate menu item or feature is active or inactive over a relatively long period of time. When it is active an indicator is displayed adjacent to the item description. For nonexclusive choice, a check mark is displayed. For mutually exclusive diamond or circle is displayed. When the item is no active, no mark or symbol will appear. 41) What are the navigation goals. A well designed navigation system facilitates quick and easy navigation between components whose structure and relationship are easily understandable. Navigation tool, will minimize the problem associated with mental overload and feelings of disorientation. 42) What are the menu navigation aids.

Menu navigation aids menu navigation and learning and provide an easily accessible. It includes menu maps, look-ahead and navigation history. Menu maps or overview of the Menu Hierarchy. A look head at the next level of choices, alternatives will be presented when a currently viewed choice is selected. Navigation history that summarizes the menu choices made leading to the currently displayed menu or screen It improves learning and performances and reduces feelings of disorientation. 43) What are the various kinds of graphical menus. The various kinds of menus are, Menu bar Pull down menu Cascading menu Pop-up menu Tear off menu Iconic menu Pie menu 44) What are the adv and disadvantages of menu bar. Advantages: Menu bar easy to locate consistently on the screen. Menu bar not hidden by windows and dialog boxes. It allow for use of keyboard equivalents. Disadvantages: They consume a full row of screen space The menu options are smaller than full size buttons, slowing, selection time Horizontal orientation is less efficient for scanning and limits the number of choices that can be deployed. 45) Define Pull-down menus. Pull down menus are first level menus used to provide access to common and frequently used application action, that take on a wide variety of different windows. Selection of an alternative from the menu bars result is the display of the exact actions available to the user. These choices are displayed in a vertical ly arrayed listing that appears to pull down from the bar. 46) What are the advantages of Pop-up menus. The advantages of Pop-up menus are, They appear in the working area They do not use window space when not displayed Vertical orientation is most efficient for scanning and grouping They allow for both keyboard equivalents and keyboard accelerators

47) What are the disadvantages of iconic-menus. The disadvantages are, It consume more screen space They are difficult to organize for scanning efficiency To create meaningful icons requires special skills and an extended amount of time. 48) What are the features of default menu items It will reduce design time and encourage interface consistency System learning time will also be reduced. Part-B(6 MARKS WITH HINTS) 1) Explain the Structure of Menus? Definition-Menus Single menus Sequential Linear menus Simultaneous menus Hierarchical menus Connected menus Event-trapping menus 2) Explain the Menu can be phrased? Menu titles Menu choice description Menu instructions Intent indicators Keyboard equivalents Keyboard accelerators 3) Explain the functions of Menus? Displaying information Navigation to a New menu Execute an action or procedure Data or parameter input 4) Explain briefly about Formatting of Menus? Consistency Display Presentation Organization Complexity Item arrangement Ordering Groupings

5) Explain the Kinds of Graphical Menu? Menu bar Pull-down menu Cascading menu Pop-up menus Tear-off menus Iconic menus Pie menus Default menu items Functions not represented by default items. 6) What are the guidelines used in web site navigation. Website Organization Components of a Navigation System Links Website Navigation Guidelines 7) Give short notes on menu bar and pull-down menu. Give short notes on selecting menu choices. Initial cursor positioning Choice selection Defaults Unavailable choices Mark toggles or settings Toggled menu items 8) Explain default menu items. File Edit View Window Help Part C(10 MARKS WITH HINTS) 1) What is requirement analysis? What are the methods involved in it? What is the impact of it on UI design? A requirement is an objective that must be met. A product description is developed and refined, based on input from users or marketing. Direct methods Individual face-to-face interview Telephone interview or survey Traditional focus group Facilitated team workshop Observational field study Requirements prototyping User-interface prototyping

Usability laboratory testing Card sorting for web sites Indirect methods MIS intermediary Paper survey or questionnaire Electronic survey or questionnaire Electronic focus group Marketing and sales Support line E-mail or bulletin board User group Competitor analyses Trade show Other media analysis System testing

2) What is Statistical Graphics? Explain the Components of a Statistical Graphics? A statistical graphic is data presented in a graphic format. A well-designed Statistical graphic, also referred to as a chart or graph, consists of complex ideas communicated with clarity, precision, and efficiency. Components of a Statistical graphic: Data presentation Axes Scales and scaling Proportion Lines Labeling Title Adding interpretation of numbers 3) Explain the types of Statistical Graphics? Curve and line graphs Surface charts Scatter plots Bar graphs Segmented or stacked bars Pie charts 4) Discuss briefly about Navigating Menus? Web site navigation problems Navigation goals Web site navigation Components of a web navigation system Web site navigation guidelines Maintaining a sense of place

5) Explain the concept of organization screen display elements clearly and meaningfully. Consistency Ordering of screen data and content Upper-left starting point Screen navigation and flow Visually pleasing composition Amount of information Distinctiveness Focus and emphasis Conveying depth of levels or a three-dimensional appearance Presenting information simply and meaningfully 6) Explain the types of Graphs. Curved and Line Graphs Surface Charts Scatter plots Bar Graphs Histogram or Step Chart Segmented or Stacked Bars Pie Charts 7) Write short notes on technological consideration in interface design. Graphical systems System power Screen size Screen resolution Colors Other display features Platform compatibility Development and implementation tool compatibility Style guide compatibility Web systems Browsers Other web considerations The User technology profile Circa 2001