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AN OVERVIEW ON POWER SCENARIO AND THE NEED OF NUCLEAR POWER IN INDIA

Prepared by: Mukesh Gupta

ELECTRICAL POWER
ELECTRICAL POWER is a critical infrastructural component for nation's economic development and basic human needs.

ELECTRICAL POWER based on consumption categorized as


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Industrial sector Commercial sector Agricultural sector Residential sector Transportation sector

Prepared by: Mukesh Gupta

WORLD POWER SCENARIO


In 2010, world total of electricity production was 21248TWh. 17635TWh (83%) of electric energy was consumed by final users, rest 17% was transmission loss.

Developing countries have higher growth rate of electricity production than developed countries.
At the world level, electricity consumption was cut down by 1.5% during 2009, for the first time since World War II. Electricity demand scaled down by more than 4.5 % in both Europe and north America while it shrank by above 7% in Japan.

Conversely, in China and India (22% of the world's consumption), electricity consumption continued to rise at a strong pace (+6-7%) to meet energy needs related to high economic growth
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Prepared by: Mukesh Gupta

PRESENT POWER SCENARIO IN THE WORLD


Rank
Rank Country

Country

Year 2010 Electricity consumption (TWh)

World

1 2 1 3 2 4 3 5 6 4 7 5 8 6 9 7 10 8 9 10

World China USA Japan China Russia Japan India Germany Russia Canada India France Germany Brazil Canada S. Korea France Brazil S. Korea
USA

Year 2010 Electricity Population consumption (TWh) million 21,248 6,784 21,248 6,784 4,365 307 4,160 1,339 4,365 307 1,065 127 4,160 1,339 1,049 140 1,065 127 918 1,166 625 82 1,049 140 619 33 918 1,166 572 64 625 82 495 199 619 33 487 49 572 64 495 199 487 49
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Population million

Annual KWh per capita

Annual KWh per capita 3132 142183132 3107 14218 8386 3107 7493 787 8386 7622 7493 18757 787 8937 7622 2487 18757 9939 8937 2487 9939
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PRESENT POWER SCENARIO IN THE INDIA

India is a nation in transition and considered an "EMERGING ECONOMY


Indias energy demand has grown an average of 3.6% per annum over the past 30 years

world's 5th largest electricity consumer

accounting for 4.0% of global energy consumption by more than 17% of global population

In August 2011, the installed capacity of India 181.558 GW

In 2010 per capita energy consumption stood at 787kWh

Prepared by: Mukesh Gupta

Prepared by: Mukesh Gupta

Power generation in India during the year 2010-11


c

Category
Thermal Nuclear Hydro Bhutan Import Total

Target 201011(BU) 690.9 22.0 111.4 6.5 830.8

Actual 201011*(BU) 664.9 26.3 114.3 5.6 811.1

% of Target
96.24 119.48 102.64 85.68

97.63

During 2010-11 peak load the demand was for 122,287 MW against availability of 110,256 MW which is a shortage of 12,031 MW i.e. 9.8%.
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Energy resources availability in India


Coal

fossil fuels 65.34%

Gas

oil

Wind power renewable sources 31.95% Hydroelectric 21.53% Solar energy


Others 10.42%

Energy resources

Tidal energy

Geothermal Nuclear power plant

Fission 2.7% nuclear sources 2.7%


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Fusion

PROS AND CONS OF ENERGY RESOURCES


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FOSSIL FUEL
Fossil fuel is used in thermal power plants and presently it contributes around 65.34% of power generation in India.
In India thermal power plants mainly run by coal of installed capacity 93918.38MW, by natural gas 17706.35MW and by oil 1199.75MW.

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CHEAP AND EASILY AVAILABLE

LOW INSTALLATION COST

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GREENHOUSE GASES

GLOBAL WARMING
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ACID RAIN
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OIL SPILLAGE

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RENEWABLE ENERGY
Currently India has 18454.52MW installed capacity renewable energy resources.
SOLAR POWER GEOTHERMAL ENERGY

TIDAL ENERGY

WIND ENERGY

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AVAILABLE IN PLENTY AND CLEANEST ENERGY ON PLANET


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CONS:
Solar and wind plants have relatively low capacity factors Solar energy can be used during the day time and not during night or rainy season Wind energy needs strong wind availability Needs extensive land use Noise pollution (wind) Windmills affect bird population
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HYDROELECTRIC
Energy harnessed by flowing water is utilized in Hydroelectric power plants.

In India around 21.53% hydroelectric power plants.

electricity

is

generated

by

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PROS:
RELIABLE and CONSISTENT than other renewable energy counterparts.

LOW OPERATING COST and clean way to produce energy.


Water reused for agriculture, irrigation, civic water supply, etc.

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CONS:
Huge LAND REQUIREMENT, so relocation of population. High construction COST. Reservoir on river may lead to adverse ECOLOGICAL EFFECTS. DROUGHTS can have a severely adverse impact on hydroelectric power generation.

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NUCLEAR POWER

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Nuclear power plants provide about 1314% of the world's electricity


In October 2011 the IAEA reported 432 nuclear power reactors in operation in 31 countries. U.S., France, and Japan together accounting for about 50% of nuclear generated electricity. India has 4,780 MW installed capacity, Prepared by: Mukesh Gupta 30 contributing 2.7% .

2630TWh

Global nuclear electricity generation in 2010 was 2630TWh The energy availability factor of operating plants in 2010 was 81%, Prepared by: Mukesh Gupta 31 up from 79.4% in 2009

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NUCLEAR ENERGY IS GREEN ENERGY

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DEPLITING FOSSIL FUEL RESERVES

URANIUM PALLETS

Thorium pellets at BARC

India has estimated reserves of about 175,000 tones of Uranium

India possesses 67% of global reserves of monazite, thorium ore, approximately 300,000 tones Prepared by: Mukesh Gupta 34 to 650,000 tones

HIGH POWER DENSITY


1Kg Coal = 3KWh To run 1000MW power plant for 1year needs

26,00,000 t Coal

1Kg Oil = 4KWh

To run 1000MW power plant for 1year needs

20,00,000 t oil

1Kg Uranium = 50,000KWh


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To run 1000MW power plant for 1year needs

30 t Uranium
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LAND REQUIREMENT FOR 1000MW POWER GENERATION

14 km

2050 km

50150 km
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The average availability up to 84% Low operating costs Low operating costs make nuclear electricity costs more stable and less sensitive to swings in fuel prices. Doubling the cost of nuclear fuel would increase the cost of electricity by only 2 to 4%. Doubling the cost of natural gas would increase the cost of electricity by 60 to 70%.

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RESIDUAL HEAT

Heat generated by the decay of radioactive fission products in a nuclear reactor after shutdown - termination of the chain reaction. The residual heat in the first seconds after shutdown amounts to about 5% of the power prior to shutdown. The residual heat in the fuel elements is equal to approx. by: Mukesh per tone nuclear fuel. 2 kW Gupta Prepared 39

RADIATION

Radiation is the emission of energy from any source.


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Why to use NUCLEAR

POWER ?

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NUCLEAR POWER IS

CLEAN, GREEN & SAFE

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DEFENCE IN DEPTH

1. FUEL PELLET

2. FUEL CLADDING
3. REACTOR PRESSURE VESSEL

4. PRIMARY CONTAINMENT WITH STEEL LINER 5. SECONDARY CONTAINMENT

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SAFETY FEATURES
Reactor safety features are either intrinsic or engineered. INTRINSIC SAFETY FEATURE An abnormal rise in the chain reaction rate overheats the coolant fluid, the resulting reduction in the coolant's density should cause the chain reaction to stop.

ENGINEERED SAFETY FEATURE The emergency shutdown-control-rod system is regarded as an engineered safety feature.
An Emergency Core Cooling System ensures that in the event of an accident there is enough cooling water to cool the reactor and remove RESIDUAL HEAT . There are normally multiple sources of Prepared by: Mukesh Gupta 44 water to draw from.

MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT NUCLEAR ENERGY

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DEVESTATING START

1945 AUGUST 6, NUCLEAR ENERGY IS FIRST USED DISTRUCTIVE PURPOSE AGAINST JAPAN IN WORLD WAR II
1951 DECEMBER 20, EXPERIMENTAL BREEDER REACTOR PRODUCED 46 THE FIRST ELECTRIC POWER Prepared by: Mukesh Gupta ENERGY FROM NUCLEAR

RADIATION CAUSES CANCER AND GENETIC CHANGES


The radiation affects human but if the radiation level is below the threshold limit no effect is noticed.

The associations between radiation exposure and the development of cancer are mostly based on populations exposed to relatively high levels of ionizing radiation 50,000 mrem (e.g., Japanese atomic bomb survivors, and recipients of selected diagnostic or therapeutic medical procedures). No cancer cases are found below about 10,000 mrem. No evidence of genetic effects has been observed among the children born to atomic bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki
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In Karunagappally taluk in Kerala, is having low-level radiation largely from the thorium deposited along coast. In certain locations , it is as high as 70 mGy/year. There is no special case of cancer or genetic changes are found in those areas.

Cancers are primarily an environmental disease with 90-95% of cases due to environmental factors and 5-10% due to genetics.
Common environmental factors that contribute to cancer death include tobacco (25-30%), diet and obesity (30-35%), infections (15-20%), radiation (both ionizing and non-ionizing, up to 10%), stress, lack of physical activity, and environmental pollutants.

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12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths are estimated to have occurred in 2008 worldwide, with 56% of the cases and 64% of the deaths in the economically developing world. Top 7 countries having cancer cases:
Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Country Denmark Ireland Australia New Zealand Belgium France (Metropolitan) USA Cases per 100,000 people 326.1 317.0 314.1 309.2 306.8 300.4 300.2

Top four countries Denmark, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand do not have any nuclear power plants, still those countries are suffering with highest cancer cases.
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RADIATION
Radiation is the emission of energy from any source. There are different types of radiation, and many of them are not linked to cancer. Types of radiation Radiation exists across a spectrum from very high-energy (high-frequency) radiation to very low-energy (low-frequency) radiation. The main forms of radiation are: Gamma rays X-rays Ultraviolet (UV) rays Visible light Infrared rays Microwaves Radiofrequency (radio) waves Extremely low-frequency (ELF) radiation

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Cosmic rays Natural background Radiation in earth Radon Imaging test Radiation therapy Nuclear facility Man made source

Ionizing radiation

Medical radiation

Radiation

Consumer products
Airport scanner UV

Power lines Nonionizing radiation


TV Cell phone

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Radio frequency

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Smoking tobacco can account for 1300 mrem/year if consumption is 1 pack/day. Nuclear power plant operations account for less than onehundredth (1/100) of a percent of the average American's total radiation exposure (which is 360mrem/year)

Coal contains 1ppm of U and 2ppm of Th, which comes in ash after burning in Thermal power plant, and its 1% escape to environment via flue gases. Estimated 50 year dose commitments to the whole body is 1.9 millirems per year 1000MW plant. THERMAL POWER PLANTS are also a RADIATION SOURCE.
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SPENT FUEL
Spent fuel, is nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor and is no longer useful in sustaining a nuclear reaction.
Spent fuel is stored in a water-filled spent fuel pool for five years or more in order to remove decay heat and provide shielding from its radioactivity. Radioactivity level of fission products in spent fuel also fade out with time.

Spent fuel contains 96% of Uranium, mainly 238U and small amount (0.83%) of 235U, 3% Fission products and 1% Plutonium in the form of 239Pu and 240Pu which is also Fissile material. Spent fuel is not considered as waste, Fissile material can be reused Prepared by: Mukesh Gupta 53 after reprocessing.

RADIOACTIVE WASTES
Radioactive wastes are usually by-products of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology, such as research and medicine

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Types of RADIOACTIVE WASTE (RADWASTE)

Low-level Waste is generated from hospitals, laboratories and industry, as well as the nuclear fuel cycle. It comprises paper, rags, tools, clothing, and filters etc. Usually they are compacted and stored. Worldwide it comprises 90% of the volume but only 1% of the radioactivity of all radwaste.
Intermediate-level Waste contains higher amounts of radioactivity and may require special shielding. It typically comprises resins, chemical sludge and reactor components, as well as contaminated materials from reactor decommissioning. It may be solidified in concrete or bitumen for stored. Worldwide it makes up 7% of the volume and has 4% of the radioactivity of all radwaste. High-level Waste is the principal waste separated from reprocessing the spent fuel. While only 3% of the volume of all radwaste, it holds 95% of the radioactivity. It contains the highly-radioactive fission products and some heavy elements with longlived radioactivity. The separated waste is vitrified by incorporating it into borosilicate (Pyrex) glass which is sealed inside stainless steel canisters for eventual disposal deep underground. Generally, from nuclear power plants, only low and intermediate level wastes are generated. Prepared by: Mukesh Gupta 55

Comparison of Death/TW-h for energy sources


Energy Source consumption (TWh) Death Rate (deaths per TWh) Coal world average 161 (26% of world energy, 50% of electricity) World 21,248 6,784 3132 1 USA 4,365 307 14218 Coal China 278 2 China 4,160 1,339 3107 Coal USA 15 3 Japan 1,065 127 8386 Oil 36 (36% of world 140 energy) 4 Russia 1,049 7493 Natural Gas 4 5 India 918 (21% of world energy) 1,166 787 6 625 82 7622 Biomass Germany 12 7 Canada 619 33 18757 Peat 12 8 France 572 64 8937 Solar (rooftop) 0.44 (less than 0.1% of world energy) 2487 9 Brazil 495 199 10 487 Wind S. Korea 0.15 (less than 1%49 world energy) 9939 of Hydro 0.10 (europe death rate, 2.2% of world energy) Hydro-world (including 1.4 (about 2500 TWh/yr and 171,000 Banqiao Banqiao) dead) Nuclear 0.04 (5.9% of world energy)
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Rank Country Year 2010 Electricity Population million Annual KWh per capita

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Why some countries are phasing out nuclear power plant?


Electricity consumption was cut down by 1.5% during 2009 in the world, for the first time since World War II. Electricity demand scaled down by more than 4.5 % in both Europe and North America. Western Europe and North America, where electricity demand is growing relatively slowly and alternatives have been plentiful.
New nuclear plants are expensive and cost three times more to build than fossil-fueled plants. They are large, take longer to build than fossil fuel plants, and face regulatory hurdles . Four Western European nations Germany, Belgium, Netherlands and Sweden have nuclear power phase-out policies. Whereas Swiss electorate rejected a phase-out referendum and France may replace "nuclear with nuclear" as plants reach retirement age.
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China and India (22% of the world's consumption), electricity consumption continued to rise at a strong pace (+6-7%) to meet energy needs related to high economic growth. They have 33 new nuclear power plants are under construction. Both countries have also stressed the low air pollution and low greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by having more nuclear power.
Japan and South Korea, where alternatives are far fewer, have started 4 new nuclear power plants in the last 3 years, and already have 3 more under construction. Because these countries are especially vulnerable to disruptions in imports of natural gas and oil.

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CONCLUSION
Need to cope up the ENERGY DEMAND of country. All the available energy resources need to be utilized. All the energy resources has their PROS and CONS. Countrys power generation needs to be methodically diverse. India has vast thorium resources which are capable of feeding 500 years of nuclear power generation.

Nuclear energy is a GREEN and SAFE energy.


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Nuclear power plants are constructed and operated with stringent quality control and it is under the continuous review of Regulatory Body. Multi tier safety systems, even for a hypothetical accident conditions are built in nuclear plants which is not the case with other industries.
The operation of nuclear plants does not threaten birds or wildlife and does not alter ecosystems. Nuclear power generation costs fewer human lives than virtually any other source of power in history. Nuclear power can reduce a country's reliance on foreign oil, gas and other energy sources.
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