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TELENOR

Telenor Group is the incumbent telecommunications company in Norway, with headquarters located at Fornebu, close to Oslo. Today, Telenor Group is mostly an international wireless carrier with operations in Scandinavia, Eastern Europe and Asia, working predominantly under the Telenor brand. At the end of 2010, its 203 million subscribers made it one of the largest mobile phone operators in the world. In addition, it has extensive broadband and TV distribution operations in four Nordic Countries, and a 10-year-old research and business line for Machine technology.

HISTORY
Telegrafverket Telenor started off in 1855 as a state-operated monopoly, named Telegrafverket as a provider of telegraph services. The first ideas for a telegraph were launched within the royal Norwegian navy in 1848, but by 1852 the plans were public and the parliament of Norway decided on a plan for constructing the telegraph throughout the country. Televerket began by building from Christiania (now Oslo) to Sweden (Norway was at that time in a union with Sweden) as well as between Christiania and Drammen. By 1857 the telegraph had reached Bergen (west coast) via sorlendet (south coast) and by 1871 it had reached kirkenes (north coast). Cable connections were opened to Denmark in 1867 and to Great Britain in 1869. The telegraph was most important for the merchant marine that now could use the electric telegraph to instantly communicate between different locations, and get a whole new advantage within logistics.

TECHNOLOGY
The first telephone service in Norway was offered in 1878 between Arendal and Tvedestrand, while the first international telephone service between Christiania and Stockholm was offered in 1893. Automation of the telephone system was started in 1920 and completed in 1985. In 1946 the first Telex service was offered, and in 1976 satellite telephone connections to oil platforms in the North Sea were installed. In 1980 the first steps to digitalise the telephone network were taken. Televerket opened its first manual mobile telephone system in 1966, being replaced with the automatic NMT system in 1981 and the enhanced NMT-900 in 1986. Norway was the first country in Europe to get an automatic mobile telephone system. The digital GSM system came into use in 1993; the GSM standard was developed in Norway by the Norwegian University of Science and Technology(NTNU), but no mobile phone manufacturers emerged in the country. The third generation of mobile technology with UMTS system began full operation

2004. The Opera web browser was created in 1994 by Jon Stephenson von Tetzchner and Geir Ivarsy during their tenure at Telenor. Opera Software was established in 1995 after the pair went on to continue development of their browser.

Deregulation and internationalization


The corporation changed its name to Televerket in 1969. In 1994, the then Norwegian Telecom was established as a public corporation. The authorities wanted to deregulate the telecom sector in Norway, and sector by sector was deregulated between 1994 to 1998. An attempt to merge Telenor with its counterpart in Sweden, Telia, failed in 1999, while both still were owned by their respective governments. On December 4, 2000 the company was partially privatized and listed on Oslo Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. The privatization gave the company NOK 156 billion in new capital, the Government of Norway owning 77.7% of the company after the privatization. By 2006 the governments ownership has been reduced to 53%. In the second half of the 1990s, Telenor became involved in mobile operations in a number of countries: Russia (1994), Bangladesh,Greece, Ireland, Germany and Austria (1997), Ukraine (19 98), Malaysia (1999), Denmark and Thailand (2000), Hungary (2002),Montenegro (2004), Pakist an (2004), Slovakia, Czech Republic, Serbia (2006). Operations in Greece, Ireland and Germany were sold in 1999/2000 and profits were re-invested in the emerging markets. In October 2005 Telenor acquired Vodafone Sweden, changing the name to Telenor in April 2006. On 31 July 2006, Telenor acquired 100 per cent share of mobile operator Mobi 63, one of two mobile operations existing in that moment in Serbia for Euro 1.513 billion. Operations Telenor offers a full range of telecommunication services in Norway, including mobile and fixed telephony as well as Internet access and content. Telenor still dominates the market place in Norway. However, competition has at times been intense in the mobile market and ADSL market, but Telenor remains the largest company in both sectors. Telenor holds a prominent position in the Scandinavian Broadband and TV market, both with regard to the number of subscribers and to the extent of coverage. The TV distribution is branded Canal Digital. Telenor used to provide a range of services related to satellite communication, including voice, television and data before its Telenor Satellite Services division was purchased by Vizada in 2007. Telenor Maritime Radio is responsible for the infrastructure for maritime radio communication in Norway, and also includes five manned coast radio stations whose primary purpose is to monitor the maritime radio traffic (over e.g. VHF and MF bands) and to assist marine vessels in distress. Telenor Cinclus develops and sells products related to Automatic Meter Reading and other technologies related to machine to machine communication. Telenor Research and Innovation (Telenor R&I, prior to September 1, 2006 known as Telenor R&D) is Norway's largest research establishment within Information and Communications Technology (ICT), with more than 200 full-time researchers. Telenor R&I have research

facilities in Fornebu, Kuala Lumpur, Trondheim and tromso. In 2009 Telenor R&I was merged with Global Coordination team, and is now part of the executive entity Telenor Business Development - headed by EVP Morten Karlsen Sorby. Telenor also owns 51.8% of EDB Business Partner that offers a wide range of IT-services. The company is listed on Oslo Stock Exchange. Telenor has sold a number of divisions after its privatisation, including Bravida, the former installation division and Findexa, now part of Eniro that is responsible for telephone directories. Also, the browser vendor Opera Software originated in Telenor's R&D department. At year-end 2005, Telenor held controlling interests in mobile operations in Norway,Denmark, Sweden, Serbia, Ukraine, Hungary, Montenegro, Thailand, Malaysia, Bang ladesh,India and Pakistan. Telenor also holds minority interests in mobile operations in Russia, having recently sold a minority share in Austria. In accordance with Telenor's strategy of consolidating its position in international mobile by obtaining control of selected international mobile operations, and in order to maximize the benefit of cross-border synergies and increase overall profitability, Telenor also made new acquisitions in 2005. In October 2006, Telenor entered into an agreement with Vodafone Group for the acquisition of subsidiary Vodafone Sweden for a consideration of NOK 8,170 million, including assumption of debt. Effective from 26 October 2005, Telenor increased its economic stake in Total Access Communication (DTAC) in Thailand to 56.9 per cent. Following further transactions based on mandatory tender offers, Telenor's economic stake was raised to 69.3 per cent by year-end 2005. Telenor's mobile commitments in Asia and Eastern and Central Europe are becoming increasingly important and to ensure optimal follow-up, Telenor has appointed dedicated Executive Vice Presidents for these regions. Telenor has also strengthened the co-ordination of operational and human resources across all the countries in which the group has operations through the appointment of two new Executive Vice Presidents to the Group Executive Management. During 2005, Telenor successfully extracted a number of cross-border synergies across the group. Common technologies for optimal spectrum and network utilisation have been successfully implemented at each of the group's operations, and Telenor maintains its focus on adopting new technologies to improve service quality and reduce costs. In order to harmonies the group's customer orientation across all markets, Telenor has developed a common segmentation model that enables more effective targeting, while also providing greater insight into the global markets. Telenor has developed a framework that provides affiliates with a proven concept of developing target segmented offerings and optimized go-tomarket strategies. Revenues from voice services include traffic charges, interconnection fees, and roaming charges. All of Telenor's mobile operations derive the greatest share of their total revenues from voice

services, and Telenor continues to focus on developing new products, services and initiatives to increase Telenor's customer base and encourage higher usage. Fixed-line In Norway, Telenor provides communications solutions on a retail basis to both residential and business customers. Offers include analogue (PSTN) and digital (ISDN) fixed-line telephony, as well as broadband voice services over Internet Protocol (VoIP), Internet access via PSTN/ISDN and digital subscriber lines (ADSL), value-added services and leased lines. Norway has one of the highest numbers of DSL lines per capita, currently at over 80% of households and steadily growing. Through the acquisitions of Bredbandsbolaget and Cybercity, made in July 2005 for NOK 4.5 billion and NOK 1.3 billion, respectively, Telenor has gained a strong position in the fastgrowing broadband markets in Sweden and Denmark. Bredbandsbolaget is Sweden's second largest provider of broadband services, offering full triple-play with high-speed Internet, VoIP and Internet Protocol (IP) television services on an all-IP fibre and xDSL network. Cybercity is Denmark's third largest broadband supplier, providing xDSL-based Internet access and voice services to both residential and business customers. On 8 February 2006, Telenor increased its shareholding in the Swedish residential voice and broadband provider Glocalnet AB by 13.5 per cent, for a consideration of SEK 136 million (NOK 118 million), to secure a 50.1 per cent ownership interest.[7] The acquisition triggered a mandatory offer for all outstanding shares in Glocalnet AB. This offer was valid until 21 April 2006. As at 28 March 2006, Telenor holds a 96.6 per cent ownership interest in Glocalnet.[8] In the fourth quarter of 2005, Telenor disposed of its operations in the Czech Republic and Slovakia with a loss of NOK 63 million.[citation needed] In 2009, Norwegian performing rights agency TONO and the Norwegian section of the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry (IFPI Norge) attempted to force Telenor to block the Pirate Bay BitTorrent website. After several court judgements in favour of the ISP, the case was finally dropped, with an admission from TONO that under Norwegian law the ISP cannot be compelled to block access to the site. Machine-to-machine Telenor started exploring the M2M potentials in 2000, when Telenor R&D established a project both aimed at technology, services and business models. This was further spurred when Telenor acquired the Swedish mobile company Europolitan, which contained parts of Vodafone's research capabilities in the area. As a result, two separate companies have been established: Telenor Connexion in Karlskrona (aiming higher up in the M2M value chain), and Telenor Objects (aiming further down in the value chain). The initiative has resulted in a substantial market share of Europe's fast-growing M2M market and is being used by Nissan in Europe to connect its customers Electric Cars. Broadcast Telenor also operates the national terrestrial broadcast network in Norway, through its subsidiary Norkring. It is also part owner of Norges Television and the content provider Riks

TV. Telenor is also the leading provider of satellite broadcasting services in the Nordic region, utilising three geostationary satellites. Telenor's key objective is to further strengthen Broadcast's position in the Nordic region. Thor is a satellite-family owned by Telenor. On 11 February 2008 the THOR 5 satellite was launched into geostationary orbit by a Proton rocket. The launch was provided by International Launch Services using a launch vehicle built by Khrunichev Space Center. Cato Halsaa, CEO of Telenor Satellite Broadcasting, said the launch, "Demonstrates our commitment to the satellite industry and our firm belief that satellites will continue to play an important role as a distribution platform for TV entertainment." Telenor operates three satellites from its satellite control center at Fornebu (Thor2, Thor3 & Thor5), with Thor6 being launched in 2009. Telenor Broadcast provides TV distribution services to more than three million households and businesses in the Nordic region, offering basic tier, "minipay" and premium pay-TV services to subscribers with Direct to Home (DTH) satellite dishes. In Norway and Sweden, Telenor also offers basic tier TV services, pay-TV and Internet services to cable TV subscribers, and in Denmark, the same services are marketed through a cable network; OE Kabel TV, acquired in November 2005. In Finland, Telenor offers premium pay-TV services to subscribers with access to digital terrestrial television (DTT). Telenor also offers TV services through privately owned satellite master antenna TV networks (SMATV), which serve multiple dwellings such as housing associations and antenna unions. Telenor's wholly owned subsidiary Canal Digital is the leading TV content distributor in the Nordic region, offering a wide range of national and international TV channels to households that rely on DTH, cable, DTT or SMATV for their reception of television services.

International activities and markets


Approximately half of Telenor's employees work outside Norway.

Bangladesh
Launched in 1997, Grameenphone was the first Telenor venture in the Asian telecom market. Today, Grameenphone is the largest mobile provider in Bangladesh, serving more than 28 million subscribers as of third quarter 2010; an increase of 6.7 million since third quarter 2009. Telenor and its partners have boosted network capacity and extended coverage to new and often remote areas, connecting millions of previously unconnected people. Telenor holds 55.8 per cent of Grameenphone. Grameenphone started trading its shares on the stock exchanges in Dhaka and Chittagong on November 16, 2009. The headquarters are located in Dhaka.

Denmark
In Denmark Telenor owns the following companies: Telenor Denmark which is Denmark's second largest provider of mobile telephony with 1.8 million subscribers and which provides IP telephony and broadband and has 280.000 customers. Tele2 which provides telephony and internet. CBB Mobil which provides low cost prepaid mobile telephony. In spring 2009 Telenor also acquired the low cost operator Bibob.

On 15 June 2009 Sonofon, Cybercity and Tele2 were unified under one international brand Telenor. Furthermore the digital distributor of TV-channels Canal Digital owned by Telenor is also present in Denmark.

Finland
Telenor's operations in Finland are fixed datacom and Canal Digital.

Hungary
The company offers mobile telephony, has 3 million subscribers and a market share of 33%. Telenor Hungary owns Digitania Zrt., a sms company which was run by the Dutch politician James Sharpe, and which was fined twice by the Hungarian competition authority GVH for misleading customers.

India
Uninor started its mobile services on 3 December 2009, in 21 of the 22 circles in India. Telenor has acquired a 67.25% equity stake in Unitech Wireless, which has the requisite government approvals and licenses to provide mobile services pan-India. It has rolled out its network nationwide under the brand name Uninor. Since August 2010, Uninor has been growing at a rapid pace, adding 1.5-2 million customers every month. Optimizing its operations with limited spectrum available, Uninor has pioneered a number of network capacity innovations and operational excellence efforts that can potentially be applied also in other Telenor markets. On Feb 22, 2012 Telenor slated that it will sever ties with its Indian partner and transfer its Indian telecom operations to a new entity after a top court canceled its licenses because of a multibillion dollar corruption scandal in the industry

Malaysia
Telenor holds a 49% stake in DiGi Telecommunications, Malaysia's third largest mobile telephony company.

Montenegro
Telenor Montenegro is Telenor's subsidiary in Montenegro and offers mobile telephony.

Pakistan
Telenor Pakistan is a wholly owned subsidiary that started operations on 15 March 2005 and holds one of six mobile licenses in Pakistan. It's also the fastest growing cellular network of Pakistan - this may be attributed to their aggressive marketing and advertising campaign. Currently, October 2011 Telenor holds the second largest GSM and the largest GPRS and EDGE coverage in Pakistan which competes with Ufone. With the recent launch of its nationwide EDGE-enabled network. It achieved the third largest retailer network in Pakistan within the 2 years span of its operations and has started operations in northern areas of Pakistan and in Azad Jammu and Kashmir . Telenor reached its breakeven in the first quarter of 2007. Telenor proactively participated in the earthquake disaster relief, and carried out a campaign for the

welfare of flood victims in Baluchistan. The current CEO of Telenor Pakistan is Lars Christian Iuel and the CTO is Gyorgy Koller.

Russia and CIS


Russia's second largest mobile telephone company is VimpelCom, which Telenor owns about a third of. VimpelCom also operates in: Armenia, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Ukraine, Uzbekistan and Georgia. The company is listed on New York Stock Exchange.

Serbia
Telenor owns 100% of Telenor Serbia, one of the three mobile vendors in Serbia and has a customer base of 3.137 million subscribers (Q4 2011). It is first mobile operator in the Serbian market founded in 1994 as Mobtel Srbija.

Sweden
Telenor owns a number of different companies in Sweden. Telenor Sverige AB is the result of Telenor's purchase of Vodafone Sweden in 2005, offering mobile telephone services with a market share of approximately 15%. Telenor also owns Bredbandsbolaget, Sweden's second largest provider of broadband and the largest provider of IP telephony. Canal Digital offers TV distribution as well. In 2006 Telenor Sweden purchased Glocalnet, Sweden's fourth largest complete provider of telecom services. Telenor Sverige ABs headquarter is located on Campus Grasvik in the southeastern city Karlskrona.

Thailand
Telenor holds an indirect position in DTAC, a mobile telephony company in Thailand. DTAC currently has about 23 million users which put DTAC as the second-largest mobile operator in the Thai market. Ukraine Telenor owns 56.51% of the shares in one of Ukraine's largest GSM operators, Kyivstar.

Probable strategy
The company started commercial operations in Pakistan on 14 March 2005. It will continue its focus on mobile operations in Scandinavia, Eastern Europe and Asia, become the largest provider of TV and Broadband to customers in Scandinavia, and sell non-core assets outside this scope. Generally, the company's strong growth has derived from focusing on mobile communication in low-income, but fast-growing markets. These potentials being fulfilled, new incomes could come from either new market entries, or increased revenues from more services in existing emerging markets, from both mobile and broadband services.

Telenor hoped to acquire a sixth mobile operator in Vietnam in 2006, in competition with other global Telcos, among them Vimpelcom. Telenor announced to the business newspaper Dagens Nringsliv in 2007 that they are looking at possible prospects for mobile operations in Africa. Telenor is a sponsor of Rosenberg.