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DATES LABORATORY Laboratory Policies Jan. 18 Jan. 24 Jan. 25 Jan. 31 Feb. 1 Feb. 7 Feb. 8 Feb. 14 Feb. 15 Feb. 21 Feb. 22 Feb. 28 Mar. 1 Mar. 7 Mar. 8 Mar. 14 Mar. 15 Mar. 21 Mar. 22 Mar. 28 Mar. 29 Apr. 4 Apr. 5 Apr. 11 Apr. 12 No Laboratory (First week of classes) 1) Motion graphs (First Lab Meeting) 2) Linear Motion 3) Projectile Motion 4) Vector Addition of Forces 5) Centripetal Force 6) Conservation of Energy 7) Springs No Laboratory (Spring Break) 8) Collisions in One Dimension 9) Collisions in Two Dimensions 10) Rotational Inertia 11) Torques & Rotational Equil. (Last Lab) Appendix

ExcelTM is a registered trademark of the Microsoft Corporation. DataStudioTM is a registered trademark of Pasco Scientific. VideoPointTM is a registered trademark of Lenox Softworks.

Page 2

3 8 12 15 20 24 28

32 36 39 43 48

1. There will be NO MAKE-UP LABS under any circumstances. Of the eleven labs this semester, your ten best lab grades will count towards your final grade in the lecture course. This policy does not condone missing the last lab if you have completed the previous ten experiments. 2. DO NOT show up to another lab section if you have missed your own laboratory. If a student comes to a section for which he/she is not enrolled, the lab instructor (T.A.) is REQUIRED to tell the student that he/she cannot attend. 3. If a student is more than 10 minutes late to lab, then he/she must work alone if there is a station available. Late students are not allowed to join groups that have already begun their data collection. Any student who is more than 20 minutes late will under normal circumstances not be allowed to perform the experiment. 4. Students may work with a single lab partner; however, each student must submit an individual lab report reflecting his/her own work. If there are not enough experimental stations for accommodating students in pairs, then the T.A. will assign those groups that are larger than two students. 5. ONLY USE PENCIL to complete your lab report. If pen is used, then there will b a 10% deduction on your lab grade. Points will also be deducted for reports that are not neatly completed. 6. Lab reports are due by the end of the class period during which the experiment is performed. Your graded report should be returned to you at the beginning of the next class period. If your TA is not returning graded reports promptly, then please contact the Chair of Physics (Dr. Baski, aabaski@vcu.edu). 7. Bring your textbook and calculator to the laboratory. Many of the questions in these labs require you to know formulas or concepts from the textbook and to do short calculations. 8. DO NOT USE lab computers for unauthorized purposes. Any student caught modifying the computer setup, downloading and installing software, or using a computer for some other unauthorized purpose is liable to default a large portion of their grade for the lab section. 9. DO NOT USE lab printers for printing out this lab manual. The lab manual is now available as a PDF document on Blackboard and LON-CAPA. If you come to lab without the printout of the experiment, then you will be allowed to print the pages but there will be a 10% deduction for your lab grade that week. 10. There is to be no food or drink in the laboratory. 11. Students should familiarize themselves with the VCU Honor System documentation at: www.provost.vcu.edu/pdfs/Honor_system_policy.pdf. Convincing evidence of honor system violations will result in the submission of formal written charges to the Office of Judicial Affairs & Academic Integrity. Please note that an honor system sanction resulting in a course grade of F cannot be voided by course withdrawal, repeat course option, or grade appeal. A transcript notation is also recorded for such a grade sanction. 12. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 requires Virginia Commonwealth University to provide a reasonable accommodation to any individual who advises us of a physical or mental disability. If you have a disability that requires an accommodation or an academic adjustment, please arrange a meeting with your professor and lab T.A. within the first two weeks of class. If you have any questions or concerns related to the laboratory, you may contact Dr. Baski at aabaski@vcu.edu or 828-8295.

Introduction

Several of the laboratories in Physics 207 involve the use of sensors connected to a computer in order to obtain data. The combination of the sensors, computer interface box, and software was developed by Pasco Scientific and is known as Data Studio. Data Studio is located at every computer station in the room with a black interface box. For this first Data Studio experiment, you will use a motion sensor to produce graphs of position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time. The motion sensor uses ultrasonic pulses that reflect from an object to determine its position. The velocity and acceleration of the object are obtained mathematically from the first and second time derivatives of its motion. In this lab, you will be moving a piece of foam board vertically above a motion sensor located on the floor.

Experimental Procedure

Equipment: Two-meter stick, foam board, motion sensor, and computer equipped with Data Studio.

Complete the sketch and Data Table 1 in Part 1 of the Data Analysis sheet BEFORE taking data. Check that the interface box is ON and open a new Data Studio experiment by clicking on the Data Studio icon. Click on Create Experiment. NOTE: In future experiments, the directions for setting up the Data Studio program will usually NOT be included in the procedure section. You will refer to the APPENDIX for Data Studio guidelines. In the Experimental Setup window, add the motion sensor to channel 1 by clicking the Add Sensor or Instrument, then locating the motion sensor icon, which is located in the Science Workshop Digital Sensors droplist. After the motion sensor is added to the experimental setup, set the sample rate to 20 (Hz). Create the graphing window for the motion sensor by double clicking the Graph icon under Displays. Choose Position to display. MAXIMIZE the Graph Display window. Under Data, click and hold the Velocity icon, and drag it inside the graph. There are now two graphs: one for position and one for velocity. Double click on the Position axis, and set the max to 2 and the min to 0. Double click on the Velocity axis, and set the max to 1 and the min to 1. Unselect automatic scaling by un-checking the Adjust Axes to Fit Data box. To change the title of the graph, select the current title (Graph 1) under Displays and click inside the box so that a cursor appears. Change the title to Position and Velocity vs. Time (include your name). The software is now ready to collect your data. Physically connect the motion sensor by inserting the yellow plug of the motion sensor into digital channel 1 of the interface box and inserting the black plug into digital channel 2. Set the motion sensor on the floor facing upwards (verify with the 90 mark located on the side of the sensor). Place a meter stick upright just behind the motion sensor. Once you begin taking data, you will move a piece of foam board vertically above the motion sensor in order to approximately reproduce the position graph in Fig. 1 on the Data Analysis sheet. Note: the minimum distance between the foam board and the motion sensor must be at least 20 cm. Practice taking data by selecting Monitor from the Experiment menu (or typing Alt-m), and then moving the foam board above the motion sensor. The motion sensor will make a faint clicking noise when taking data. The position and velocity graphs of the foam board should be displayed in real time. To stop monitoring data, select Stop from the Experiment menu (or type Alt-. )

When you are ready to begin recording data, select Record from the Experiment menu (or type Altr). After 4 s of recording, select Stop from the Experiment menu (or type Alt-. ) If your graphs do not approximately match Fig. 1, then repeat the process to record another set of data.

Resize the graphs by clicking the Scale to Fit button on the toolbar (left-most icon in graphing window). Determine the experimental velocity during the period of motion. Highlight the sloping part of the position graph by clicking and drawing a rectangle around the slope only. Then, click the Fit Menu button on the toolbar, and select Linear Fit. The slope m is your experimental velocity. Record this value as vEXP in Question 2. Print the graph by selecting Print from the File menu (or typing Ctrl-p).

Complete the sketch and Data Table 2 in Part 2 of the Data Analysis sheet BEFORE taking data. Now, move the foam board to approximately reproduce the velocity graph in Fig. 2 on the Data Analysis sheet. Note: To change the axis on the graph, right click on the label [e.g., Position (m)] and select the appropriate new variable. Change the scale of each graph by double-clicking on the axis and setting the new range. This graph should have velocity and acceleration, and should be titled Velocity and Acceleration vs. Time (include your name). Print the new graph and attach all printouts to the back of your lab report when turning it in. Complete the Data Analysis Sheet.

Name:

Date:

2 Graph Printouts [20 pts] + 2 Tables [20 pts] + 6 Questions [40 pts] + 2 Sketches [20 pts]

Using the position vs. time graph in Fig. 1, sketch the Velocity vs. Time graph below.

1

Position (m)

1.5

Velocity (m/s)

0.5

0 0 -0.5 1 2 3 4

0.5

0 0 1 2 3 4

-1

Time (s)

Time (s)

Fig. 1. Graphs of Position vs. Time and Velocity vs. Time (10 pts) Using the position vs. time graph in Fig. 1, fill in the missing position and time values for the foam board in Data Table 1.

Starting Position: Ending Position: Velocity During Period of Motion: Change in Position: Total Time in Motion:

(10 pts)

1. Show the calculation of the velocity of the board during the period of motion and record in Data Table 1. Also record this as your theoretical velocity vTHEO in Data Table 2. (5 pts)

2. Calculate the percentage error between the experimental and theoretical velocities and record it below. Show the calculation. (See Appendix for %error formula.) (5 pts)

vEXP (m/s):

Calculations:

vTHEO (m/s):

% Error:

Using the velocity vs. time graph in Fig. 2, sketch the Acceleration vs. Time graph below.

0.5

Acceleration (m/s2)

0.5

Velocity (m/s)

0.25

0 0 -0.25 1 2 3 4

-0.5

Time (s)

Time (s)

Fig. 2. Graphs of Velocity vs. Time and Acceleration vs. Time (10 pts) Using the velocity vs. time graph in Fig. 2, fill in the missing velocity and time values for the foam board in Data Table 3.

Starting Velocity: Ending Velocity: Acceleration During Period of Motion: Change in Velocity: Total Time in Motion:

(10 pts)

3. Show the calculation of the acceleration of the board during the period of motion and record in Data Table 3. Also record this as your theoretical velocity vTHEO in Data Table 4. (5 pts)

4. Calculate the percentage error between the experimental and theoretical velocities and record it below. Show the calculation. (5pts)

aEXP (m/s2):

Calculations:

aTHEO (m/s2):

% Error:

5. Sketch the horizontal acceleration, velocity, and position graphs for the rolling ball shown below. (15 pts)

A ball rolls at constant velocity along a horizontal surface, rolls up an incline, and then rolls horizontally again. Assume that the ball starts at x = 0, that positive v and a point right, and that no energy is lost due to friction. NOTE: The x and v graphs for a ball traveling on a horizontal with NO incline are shown for reference.

ground

incline

upper surface

x

0

t

v-graph for NO incline

vx

0

ax

0

6. Sketch the acceleration for the ball rolling back down the incline. (5 pts)

upper surface

incline

ground

ax

0

Introduction

The purpose of this experiment is to study the relationship between position x, velocity v, and acceleration a in linear motion. You will use a motion sensor connected to Data Studio in order to study the acceleration of a cart on a horizontal and an inclined frictionless track. When a cart moves on a horizontal track, no net force acts on it and its acceleration is zero, so it will move at its initial constant velocity. When a cart is on a track inclined at angle, a component of the acceleration due to gravity g (= 9.8 m/s2) acts in the direction of the carts motion. For a cart on a track inclined at angle, the acceleration a of the cart is given by:

a = g sin

Experimental Procedure

Equipment: Ruler, cart (springs at both ends), air track (barriers with springs at both ends), motion sensor, ring stand with clamp and short rod, and computer equipped with Data Studio. NOTE LEVEL the track by adjusting the single-threaded leg and re-tightening the wing nut underneath the track.

Refer to the Appendix for the guidelines regarding setting up the Data Studio program. Hook up the motion sensor to channel 1 and set the trigger rate to 20 (Hz). Create the graphing window for the motion sensor. Choose Position to display. MAXIMIZE the Graph Display window. Under Data, click on Velocity and drag it over to the graph, and repeat for Acceleration. There are now three graphs: position, velocity, and acceleration vs. time. Double click on the time axis and set max = 20 s. Double click on the position axis and set max = 1.5 and min = 0. Double click on the velocity axis and set max = 2 and min = 2. Double click on the acceleration axis and set max = 20 and min = 20. Unselect automatic scaling by un-checking the Adjust Axes to Fit Data box. Change the title of the graph to Linear Motion (include your name). Physically connect the motion sensor as shown. The motion sensor is mounted at one end of the air track, about 20 cm away from one of the two track barriers. (The barrier is positioned to ensure that the minimum distance between the cart and the sensor is 20 cm.) Turn on the air supply to power up the track. Give the cart a moderate push along the track. Practice taking data by selecting Monitor from the Experiment menu (or typing Alt-m). The x vs. t graph should resemble a triangular wave. If this is not the case, carefully adjust the angle between the sensor and cart until it does (0 mark on side of sensor). To stop monitoring data, select Stop from the Experiment menu (or type Alt-. ) When ready to begin recording, select Record from the Experiment menu (or type Alt-r). After 10 to 20 s of recording, select Stop from the Experiment menu (or type Alt-. ) If your graphs did not work out, record another set of data. After a reasonable data set is generated, turn off the air supply. Resize the graphs and print. Complete Part 1 on the Data Analysis Sheet before continuing to Part 2.

Raise the end of the track with the connected motion sensor so that the track becomes inclined. For the first data run, the track should rise a DIFFERENTAL HEIGHT of h = 10 cm over the TOTAL LENGTH of the track (L = 1.65 m from one end to other). To find this differential height, measure the heights of the two ends of the track and then find their difference. (These heights should be measured from the table to the top of the track.) For example, if the track is tilted so that its upper end is 14 cm above the table and its lower end is 4 cm above the table, then its differential height is 10 cm (i.e., 14 cm 4 cm). Turn on the air supply. Place the cart at the top of the track and release it. Record data for 10 to 20 s. The v vs. t graph should resemble an asymmetric triangular wave (sawtooth wave). If your graphs did not work out, repeat the process to record another set of data. Once a reasonable set of data is generated, turn off the air supply. Resize the graphs using Scale to Fit. Highlight one of the sloping parts of the velocity graph and perform a linear least squares fit. The slope of the velocity graph gives the experimental acceleration of the cart. Record this value as aEXP in Data Table 1, re-title the graph, and then print the graphs (type Alt-p). Raise the track at the end with the motion sensor attached to a differential height of h = 20 cm above the lower end and repeat the experiment. Re-title and print the graph, and attach ALL graphs to your lab report. Complete the Data Analysis Sheet for Part 2.

Name:

Partner:

Date:

Lab 2: Linear Motion Data Analysis Sheet 3 Graph Printouts [45 pts] + 1 Data Table [15 pts] + 7 Questions [40 pts] Part 1: Horizontal Track

1. Reading directly from the graphs, what is the velocity of the cart along the horizontal surface in one direction (neglecting when it reflects off the barriers)? Explain how this can be determined from the position and velocity graphs. (5 pts)

Velocity (m/s):

2. What happens to the velocity vector of the cart at the barriers, why? (5 pts)

3. What happens to the acceleration of the cart at the barriers, why? (5 pts)

4. Using trigonometry, calculate the value of sin for each height h and track length L and record in Data Table 1. Show a sample calculation. (5 pts)

10

5. Calculate the theoretical acceleration aTHEO of the cart for each height h using the equation given in the introduction and record in Data Table 1. Show a sample calculation. (5 pts)

6. Calculate the percent error between the experimental and theoretical acceleration of the cart for each height h and record in Data Table 1. Show a sample calculation. (5 pts)

Data Table 1: Acceleration on an Inclined Track h (m) 0.10 0.20 L (m) 1.65 1.65 sin aEXP (m/s )

2

2

% Error

7. Sketch one cycle (not the first) of x, v, and a vs. t for the inclined track. Circle the point on each graph corresponding to the time when the cart is at the top of the track. (10 pts)

vx

t

ax

11

Objective

The purpose of this lab is to show that the horizontal and vertical motions of a projectile are independent of each other, and to experimentally determine the acceleration due to gravity. You will use VideoPoint software and Excel to analyze the motion of a ball tossed into the air.

Experimental Procedure

Open the Projectile Motion video, which is located in L:\PHY\Public\_LAB-VIDEOS. In this lab, you will track one projectile as it travels through the air. Refer to the Appendix for general VideopointTM procedures. Copy the data into an Excel spreadsheet. Open Excel and enter the following headings into the spreadsheet:

1 2 A t (s) B x (m) C y (m) D Vx (m/s) E Vy (m/s)

Find the average velocity in the x direction (Vx) and the average velocity in the y direction (Vy) by entering velocity formulas into cells D3 and E3 that use the data in columns A, B, and C. (Hint: The average velocity uses data from the current point and the previous point.) Copy these formulas into the remainder of cells in those columns that have corresponding data points. The initial cells D2 and E2 should be left blank. Record the entered formulas into Data Table 1 on the Data Analysis Sheet. Create a graph of velocity vs. time that includes both the x and y components of the velocity. See the Appendix for how to create an x-y plot in Excel using the graphing wizard. Highlight the data and headings in columns A, D, and E and use the Chart Wizard. (Note: Use Ctrl-key to highlight nonadjacent columns.) The finished graph should have one set of data points that forms a roughly horizontal line (Vx) and one that forms a downsloping line (Vy). Find the best linear fit to both data sets using the linear trendline feature. Add the equations of the trendlines to the graph. (See Appendix for instructions and additional information.) Position the graph beneath the data and change its background color to white. Highlight the entire data set and add a border, then write your name, partners name, and the date to the right of the data. Print the Excel spreadsheet and turn it in with your lab report. Complete the Data Analysis Sheet.

12

Name:

Partner:

Date:

Lab 3: Projectile Motion Data Analysis Sheet 1 Spreadsheet Printout [30 pts] + 2 Data Tables [15 pts] + 5 Questions [55 pts] Data Table 1: Formulas Used in Excel Spreadsheet Cell D3 E3 Variable Formula (10 pts)

vx (m/s) vy (m/s)

1. From what you know about projectile motion, what should the slopes of the horizontal and vertical velocity graphs be? (5 pts)

2. The trendlines that you added to the graph are the best fit straight lines to your data. What do the trendline equations tell you? How well does this match with your answer to the above question? (5 pts)

3. Using the linear equations of the trendlines on your graph: a) Find the initial velocities of the ball in the x and y directions. (10 pts)

vx0 vy0

b) Find the time t1 it takes for the ball to reach the highest point of its trajectory. (5 pts)

t1

13

The absolute value of the slope of the y velocity graph is the magnitude of the objects acceleration. Record this acceleration in Data Table 2 as gEXPT. This slope is negative because the positive direction has been defined as upward. 4. Calculate the percent error between the experimental and the known (theoretical) values of g and record it in Data Table 2. Show the calculation. (5 pts)

2

(5 pts)

2

gTHEORY

9.8 m/s

% Error:

5. Projectile Problem: A projectile is launched at an angle of 45 with initial velocity v = 20 m/s. (a) Find the projectiles initial horizontal velocity vx and initial vertical velocity vy. Show ALL steps of your work clearly with units included at all times for full credit. (10 pts)

vx0 vy0

(b) Find the time t1 when the projectile reaches the apex (or highest point) and time t2 when it hits the ground. Show all work for full credit. (10 pts)

t1 t2

(c) Find the range x that the projectile travels. Show all work for full credit. (5 pts)

14

Introduction

Physical quantities that only have a magnitude are called scalars, whereas quantities with both magnitude and direction are called vectors. The purpose of this laboratory is to practice vector addition by finding the resultant vector force due to simultaneously applied forces. We will do this using three different methods, each of which should yield the same results. The graphical addition of vectors can be done using the head-to-tail method, as shown in Fig. 1, or the parallelogram method, as shown in Fig. 2. In each case, the vectors are drawn to scale and the resultant should be a scaled representation of the force vector.

r r r FR = F1 + F2

r F2

r F2 r r r FR = F1 + F2

r F1

r F1

The trigonometric addition of vectors involves resolving the vectors into their x and y components. The components along each axis are then added to find the components of the resultant vector (FR). The x and y components of each vector are given by:

ur ur F 1x = F 1 cos 1 ;

ur ur F 2 y = F 2 sin 2

(Eqn. 1)

where F1 and F2 are the lengths of the vectors and 1 and 2 are their angles, measured from the x-axis. These components can then be added to find the resultant vector components as follows:

ur ur ur F Rx = F 1x + F 2 x

and

ur ur ur F Ry = F 1 y + F 2 y (Eqn. 2)

ur F Ry = arctan ur F Rx

Using the Pythagorean Theorem and trigonometry, the magnitude and angle of FR are given by:

ur ur 2 ur 2 F R = F Rx + F Ry

and

(Eqn. 3)

The experimental addition of vectors will use a force table to apply forces of various magnitude and direction to a ring in the center of the table. Each force is applied by hanging a mass over a pulley, where the pulleys can be adjusted to any position around a circular plate. The magnitude of the applied force (N) when a mass is hung equals the product of the mass (kg) and the acceleration due to gravity g (9.8 m/s2), i.e., F = mg. When two forces are acting on the central ring from different directions, the net force is the vector sum of the two applied forces. This resultant force FR is equivalent to hanging a single mass at some angle R on the force table. In the experimental part of this lab, FR and R will be determined by finding a third equilibrant force FEQ at some angle EQ that will exactly balance the resultant force. The equilibrant force will have the same magnitude but opposite direction to the resultant force.

15

Experimental Procedure

Equipment: Force table, pulleys, ring, string, three hanging masses (50, 100 and 200 g), mass holder, slotted masses, ruler, and protractor.

Check that the force table is level and adjust the screws on the base as needed. Record the mass of the hanger (mh). Place the circular ring over the center rod of the force table and three of the strings over pulleys. Rest the fourth string and pulley on the table; it will not be used in this part. Set up the pulleys and masses as follows:

m1 = 100 g , 1 = 0 and m2 = 200 g , 2 = 115

You will now determine the direction and angle of the equilibrant force. Pull on the third string to first determine the angle and then add the third pulley and adjust the magnitude of the suspended mass by adding slotted masses (mslot) to the mass hanger (mh) until the ring is centered and the system is in equilibrium. Equilibrium is achieved when the ring is balanced around the center rod on the table. To check, flick the ring to momentarily move the system and check if it returns to the same position. Record the suspended mass (ms) and the direction () in Data Table 1. Remember to add the mass of the hanger to the slotted mass to determine the suspended mass (ms), i.e. ms = mh + mslot From the results above and the relationship between the equilibrant and resultant forces, determine and record the magnitude and direction of the resultant force in Data Table 1. Next, graphically determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force on the attached graph paper (see introduction and use either method). To do this, choose a scale to represent the force vectors, e.g., 1 block = 1 N. The origin of the graph corresponds to the center ring of the force table. Label all vectors and corresponding angles on the graph. Record the magnitude and direction of the resultant force in Data Table 2. You will now determine the resultant force using the trigonometric method. Find the x and y components of the force vectors and record these values in Data Table 3. Next, calculate the resultant force components FRx and FRy (see Eqn. 2) and the total magnitude and angle FR and R (see Eqn. 3). Record your calculations and values in Data Table 3. Calculate the percentage difference between the experimental and calculated resultant forces and the experimental and graphical resultant forces.

Next, set up the pulleys and three masses as follows:

m1 = 100 g , 1 = 30; m2 = 200 g , 2 = 260; m3 = 50 g , 2 = 105

Use the same method as in Part 1 to determine the resultant experimentally and trigonometrically. You will not add these forces graphically. Enter all values into Data Tables 4 and 5. Before turning in the Data Analysis Sheet, check that you have completed all parts of the experiments.

16

Name:

Partner:

Date:

Lab 4: Vector Addition of Forces Data Analysis Sheet 5 Data Tables [65 pts] + 1 Diagrams [15 pts] + 2 Questions [20 pts] Part 1: Resultant Determination for TWO Forces Data Table 1 Experimental Determination

mh = Mass 1 Mass 2 Equilibrant Resultant kg Angle () 0.0 115.0 ms (kg) 0.100 0.200

(10 pts)

Force (N)

Graphical Determination of Resultant:

(5 pts)

Record the measured Graphical Determination of the Resultant force from the graph.

Show the calculations for the Trigonometric Determination.

Calculations F1x (N) F1y (N) F2x (N) F2y (N) FRx (N) FRy (N) FR (N)

R:

1. Show the % difference calculations and record them below. (10 pts) FR (N) Experimental Trigonometric Graphical Calculations: % Difference R % Difference

17

Part 2: Resultant Determination for THREE Forces Data Table 4 Experimental Determination

mh = Mass 1 Mass 2 Mass 3 Equilibrant Resultant kg Angle () 10.0 225.0 120.0 ms (kg) 0.100 0.200 0.050

(10 pts)

Force (N)

Show the calculations for the Trigonometric Determination.

Calculations F1x (N): F1y (N): F2x (N): F2y (N): F3x (N): F3y (N): FRx (N): FRy (N): FR (N):

R:

2. Show the % difference calculations and record them below. (10 pts) FR (N) Experimental Trigonometric Calculations: % Difference R % Difference

18

Graph paper for Graphical determination of resultant force for TWO forces (Part 1)

19

Introduction

An object is in uniform circular motion if it travels around a circle at a constant speed. Although the speed of the object does not vary, its velocity vector is changing direction and the object is therefore accelerating. (Acceleration is defined as any change in velocity). In this case, the magnitude of the velocity is constant, but its direction is changing.) This acceleration is called centripetal acceleration and is related to the velocity of the object and the radius of its circle by:

v2 . aR = r

The centripetal acceleration is directed radially inwards, that is, towards the center of the circle. Because the object is accelerating, it must be experiencing a force of magnitude maR that is causing it to move in a circle, or the centripetal force. An object traveling with speed v goes once around the circumference of a circle (= 2r), in a time:

T=

2r , v

where T is called the period of the motion. The frequency of the motion (or how often the object traverses the circle in one second) is related to the period by:

f =

1 . T

In this lab we will measure the frequency of the motion and the radius of the circle in which an object is traveling. From these we can find the centripetal acceleration of the object using the above equations. Knowing the mass of the object, we can therefore determine the force that must be exerted on it from Newtons law: F = maR. We will compare the force determined in this way to a direct measurement. The equipment used in this laboratory is designed to measure the centripetal force of an object in uniform circular motion. The Cenco Centripetal Force Apparatus (Fig. 1) is designed to allow a force of any kind to stretch a spring to a specified length. The Cenco Digital Motor-Driven Rotator spins the apparatus and provides a digital readout of its angular velocity (revolutions per minute, or rpm).

Center of Rotation Line Bob Center of Mass Line

Pointer

Spring Adjuster

Target Screw

Fig. 1. The Cenco Centripetal Force Apparatus. A bob attached to a spring allows one to stretch the spring until the bob hits the small metal lever at the right end. This in turn causes the pointer to raise up and point to the head of the target screw at the bottom.

20

Equipment: Cenco Centripetal Force Apparatus, Cenco Digital Motor-Driven Rotator, chuck key, string, goggles, and 4 sets of the following: ring stand with table clamp and arm with screw clamps; mass holder; slotted masses [ 1 kg (2), 500 g, 100 g (4), 50 g, 20 g (2), 10 g]; and a ruler.

Experimental Procedure

If the centripetal force apparatus is clamped in the motor-driven rotator head, turn the chuck counterclockwise to remove the apparatus. At one of the hanging stations in the room, hang the apparatus up on a hook using the loop of string on one end so that the bob is on the lower end. Hang a mass holder on the loop of string at the other end. Experimentally determine the mass needed to stretch the string far enough to just affect the position of the pointer. Include the mass of the bob (engraved somewhere on the bob), as well as the mass of the mass holder in the total. Record this total mass in Data Table 1 as the Hanging Mass. Measure the total length that the spring extends by measuring the distance from the center of rotation line in the middle of the apparatus to the mark around the center of the bob. Record this distance in Data Table 1 as the Radius. Remove all masses and the mass holders, and take down the apparatus. Record the mass of the bob alone in Data Table 1 as the Rotating Mass. Check that the digital motor-driven rotator is plugged in and turned off. Insert the small pole extending from the bottom of the apparatus into the head of the rotator, then turn the chuck clockwise to clamp the apparatus. Check that it is tightly clamped. Before turning on the rotator, turn the Motor Speed knob down to zero. PUT ON YOUR SAFETY GLASSES!! Now, turn on the power. Check that the Freeze Display switch is turned off. Press the RPM/Revolutions button until the light next to RPM is lit (the RPM data is what you want to measure). Press the Reset Button. Slowly increase the speed of revolution by turning the Motor Speed knob. Do this until the pointer first moves to point toward the target screw (you must be eye-level with the screw and pointer to observe the change). Adjust the motor speed gradually up and down until the pointer points directly at the head of the screw. Record the RPM value from the display into Data Table 1 as RPM1. Turn the Motor Speed knob back down to 0, then repeat this step two more times to obtain two additional readings for revolutions per minute. Record these values in Data Table 1 as RPM2 and RPM3. NOTE: RPM is a measure of the frequency of the motion, but measured in rev/min instead of rev/s. The correct frequency f in Data Table 1 requires a conversion of the average RPM into RPS. Complete the Data Analysis Sheet for the lab.

21

Name:

Partner:

Date:

Lab 5: Centripetal Force of Circular Motion Data Analysis Sheet 2 Data Tables [35 pts] + 8 Questions [65 pts] Data Table 1: Gravitational and Centripetal Force

RPM1 (rev/m): RPM2 (rev/m): RPM3 (rev/m): RPMAVG (rev/m): Hanging Mass (kg): Radius (m): Rotating Mass (kg): f (rev/s):

(25 pts)

1. Calculate the average RPM and record it in Data Table 1. Show the calculation. (5 pts)

2. From this average value, calculate the frequency f in revolutions per second (RPS) and record it in Data Table 1. Show the calculation. (5 pts)

3. The equation used to find the magnitude of the force exerted by the spring on the mass is F = 4 2mrf 2. Derive this equation using the equations given in the introduction and Newtons force equation. Do not use your data in this question. (15 pts)

4. Calculate the magnitude of the force exerted by the spring on the mass using the relationship you just derived and record it in Data Table 2 as FCENT. Show the calculation. (5 pts)

22

5. Calculate the magnitude of the gravitational force acting on the spring when the hanging mass was placed on it using FGRAV = mg and record it in Data Table 2. Show the calculation. (5 pts)

6. Calculate the percent difference between the experimental gravitational force and the experimental centripetal force and record it in Data Table 2. Show the calculation. (5 pts)

(10 pts)

7. If the weight of the rotating mass is doubled while everything except the frequency remains the same, by what factor does the frequency change? Do not use your data in this question. Hint: Write the force equation from Question 3 for each setup (F1, F2), where only masses (m1, m2) and frequencies (f1, f2) are different. Because these two forces are equal (spring stretched same amount), equate the two expressions and solve for f2 in terms of f1. (15 pts)

8. The speedometer of your car shows that you are traveling at a constant speed of 75 miles per hour. Is it possible that your car is accelerating? Explain. Hint: This lab is about centripetal forces what are we trying to learn here? (10 pts)

23

Introduction

The two most common forms of energy are kinetic energy (of motion) and gravitational potential energy (of height). For an object of mass m moving at speed v, the kinetic energy is: K = 1 mv 2 . 2 For an object of mass m positioned a vertical height h from an arbitrary point, the gravitational potential energy is: U = mgh . The total energy E of a system is the sum of its kinetic energy K and potential energy U of the objects within it: E = K +U . When no external forces act on a system, the total energy remains constant, but the relative values of the kinetic and potential energies can change. This principle of conservation is given by: E = K1 + U1 = K 2 + U 2 = K 3 + U 3 = ... . The purpose of this lab is to experimentally verify the law of conservation of energy. You will analyze a movie of a swinging pendulum using VideoPoint to find the kinetic and potential energies of the pendulum as a function of time.

Experimental Procedure

Refer to the Appendix for general VideopointTM procedures. Open up the Energy Conservation video, located in L:\PHY\Public\_LAB-VIDEOS. After collecting relevant data, copy the data into an Excel spreadsheet. Open Excel and enter the following headings into the spreadsheet:

1 2 A t (s) B x (m) C y (m) D Adj y(m) E Vx (m/s) F Vy (m/s) G V (m/s) H K (J) I U (J) J E (J)

Click on cell A2 and then select Paste from the Edit menu, or type Ctrl-v to paste your data. Enter formulas into columns D3 through J3 of the spreadsheet and record these formulas in Data Table 1 on the Data Analysis sheet. Cells E2 to J2 should be left blank. The following information will help you complete the formulas: Find the adjusted y-height (Adj y) by subtracting the lowest y-value from each y-value. This sets the lowest y-value equal to zero. Find the average x-velocity (Vx) by entering a velocity formula into cell E3 that uses data in columns A and B. (Hint: Velocity uses data from the current and previous points.) Find the average y-velocity (Vy) by entering a velocity formula into cell F3 that uses data in columns A and C. Find the total average velocity V by entering a vector addition formula into cell G3 that uses the velocities in E3 and F3. (Hint: Use the Pythagorean Theorem.) Find the kinetic energy K by entering a formula into cell H3 that uses the mass of the bob and the velocity in G3. Assume the bob has a mass of 1 kg. Find the potential energy U by entering a formula into cell I3 that uses the mass of the bob and the adjusted y-height in D3. Find the total energy E by entering a formula into J3 that uses the data in H3 and I3.

24

Copy these formulas into the remaining cells of each column that have corresponding data points. Create a graph of energy vs. time that includes the kinetic, potential, and total energy by highlighting the data and headings in columns A, H, I, and J (use Ctrl-key). The graph should have two nonlinear plots corresponding to the kinetic and potential energies, and one roughly constant plot corresponding to the total energy. Find the best linear fit to the total energy data set using the linear trendline feature (see Appendix). Find the best polynomial fit to the kinetic and potential energies by using a trendline of degree 2. Position the graph directly beneath the data and change its background color to white. Highlight the entire data set and add a border, then write your name, partners name, and the date beneath the graph. Print the Excel spreadsheet and turn it in with your lab report. Complete the Data Analysis Sheet for the lab.

25

Name:

Partner:

Date:

Lab 6: Conservation of Energy Data Analysis Sheet 1 Spreadsheet Printout [35 pts] + 1 Data Table [20 pts] + 5 Questions [45 pts] Data Table 1: Formulas Used in Excel Spreadsheet Cell D2 E3 F3 G3 H3 I3 J3 Variable Adj. y(m) Vx (m/s) Vy (m/s) V (m/s) K (J) U (J) E (J) Formula (20 pts)

1. Should the total energy of the pendulum be conserved in this experiment? Based on the trendline that you added to the graph, was the total energy actually conserved? (5 pts)

2. Explain why it is possible to test conservation of energy without knowing the mass of the bob. (5 pts)

3. Can kinetic energy ever be negative and why or why not? (5 pts)

26

4. Kinetic and Gravitational Potential Energy Problem: A block (m = 2 kg) is released from a height h = 50 cm above the ground. Find its velocity v just before hitting the ground. FIRST, solve for the velocity v algebraically, and THEN substitute numerical values. Show ALL work and units. (15 pts)

v=

(algebraic expression)

v=

(numerical value)

5. Kinetic and Spring Potential Energy Problem: A block (m = 5 kg) is pushed against a spring that is compressed a distance x = 10 cm. The block is then released and travels up a frictionless, inclined surface. Find the maximum height h of the block if the spring constant k = 100 N/m. FIRST, solve for the height h algebraically, and THEN substitute numerical values. Show ALL work and units. (15 pts)

h=

h 10 cm

(algebraic expression)

h=

(numerical value)

27

Lab 7: Springs

Introduction

The purpose of this lab is to study the relationship between force, position, and time of a mass oscillating on a spring. In this laboratory, you will use a motion sensor and a force sensor to investigate Hookes Law: F = kx , where F is the restoring force of the spring, x is the displacement of the spring from its equilibrium position, and k is the spring constant. You will also investigate how the spring constant changes when two springs of identical spring constant k are added in series and in parallel. For two identical springs in series, the spring constant is halved, and for two identical springs in parallel, the spring constant is doubled. This laboratory uses Data Studio with a motion sensor and a force sensor to generate graphs of position and force of an object in simple harmonic motion.

Experimental Procedure

Equipment: Rulers, stand, two identical springs, two spring separators with paper clips, mass holder, slotted masses (10 g, 20 g, 50 g), motion sensor (WIDE setting), force sensor (~30 cm above table), and computer equipped with Data Studio.

Refer to the Appendix for the guidelines regarding setting up the Data Studio program. Add the motion sensor (in Digital Sensors) to channel 1 and set the Trigger Rate to 20 Hz. Hook up the force sensor (in Analog Sensors) to channel A, and set the sampling rate to 20 Hz. Create the graphing window for the motion sensor. Click on the Time axis and set the maximum time to 10 s and the minimum time to 0 s. Also, un-check the Adjust Axes to Fit Data box. Click on the Position axis and set the max to 1 and the min to 0. Create the graphing window for the force sensor by clicking on force, Ch A under Data and dragging it to the graphing window. Click on the Force (N) axis, and set the max to 3 and the min to 3. MAXIMIZE the Graph Display window. Change the title of the Graph to Simple Harmonic Motion (include your name). Physically connect the motion sensor and force sensor as shown. The equipment should be set up with the force sensor suspended from the top of a rod and the motion sensor lying facing upward at the bottom of the rod, aligned directly below the force sensor. Zero the force sensor by pressing the Tare button on the right side of the sensor. To find the theoretical spring constant kTHEO of the spring, measure the rest length L of the spring and record in Data Table 1. Hook the spring onto the force sensor and suspend the mass hanger (25 g) on the other end of the spring. Measure the extended length L + x of the spring using the ruler, and record in Data Table 1. Now add a 20 g mass to the mass hanger. You will be recording the oscillating motion of this massspring setup when the mass is pulled down and released. IMPORTANT NOTE: There must be a minimum of 20 cm between the motion sensor and the bottom of the oscillating mass when it reaches its lowest point. Otherwise, the motion sensor will give a false signal. Before recording data, you should first practice by monitoring the data (type Alt-m). The x vs. t and F vs. t graphs must resemble sinusoidal curves. If the sinusoidal curves become noisy when the mass reaches the bottom of its oscillation, move the force sensor higher. Once you are ready, Record a data run and stop after ~10 s. Resize the graphs and Print them. 28

Now, create a force vs. position graph to determine the spring constant k. Delete the graph of position vs. time by clicking on the graph area, and press Delete on the keyboard. On the x-axis, change the input from time to position by double-clicking on the time axis label (Time (s)) and selecting Position, Ch 1&2 from the menu that appears. The F vs. x graph should be relatively linear. Add a linear fit line to the graph. The slope of the graph gives the experimental spring constant of the spring. Record this value in Data Table 2 and then print the graphs. Complete the Data Analysis Sheet for Part 1 before continuing to Part 2.

DO NOT CHANGE the F vs. x graph setup on the computer. Next, change the spring setup. Connect the two springs end-to-end (in series) and hook them onto the force sensor. Suspend the mass hanger on the end of the springs and place a 10 g slotted mass on it. Pull the mass down gently and release it, allowing it to oscillate up and down. Record F vs. x data for 10 to 20 s. Resize the graph, re-title the graph, and print it. The linear least-squares fit data for this graph should already be displayed on the screen. The slope of the graph gives the experimental spring constant of the springs in series. Record this k value in Data Table 3. Now, connect the two springs side-by-side (in parallel) by using the two spring separators (with the paper clips for suspension), and hook them onto the force sensor. Place a 50 g slotted mass into the mass holder, and repeat the previous two steps to determine a k value for the parallel spring setup. Attach the graphs from both parts of the experiment to the back of the lab report to turn in. Complete the Data Analysis Sheet for Part 2.

29

Name:

Partner:

Date:

Lab 7: Springs Data Analysis Sheet 4 Graph Printouts [35 pts] + 3 Data Tables [20 pts] + 7 Questions [45 pts]

Part 1: One Spring Data Table 1: Hookes Law to Find kTHEO L (m): L + x (m): x (m): F (N): (5 pts)

Determine the displacement x of the spring with the mass hanger and record in Data Table 1. 1. Calculate the gravitational force F exerted by the mass hanger on the spring and record in Data Table 1. Assume that the mass of the mass hanger is 25 g. Show the calculation. (5 pts)

Data Table 2: Comparison of Spring Constants kEXP (N/m): kTHEO (N/m): % Error:

(5 pts)

2. Using Data Table 1, calculate the theoretical spring constant ktheo using Hookes Law and record in Data Table 2. Show the calculation. (5 pts)

3. Calculate the percent error between the experimental spring constant and the theoretical spring constant and record in Data Table 2. Show the calculation. (5 pts)

30

4. On the graphs of position and force vs. time, explain why the amplitudes decay over time. (5 pts)

Part 2: Two Springs Data Table 3: Springs in Series and Parallel kEXP (N/m) Series Parallel

5. Using the experimental value for the single spring constant obtained in part 1 and the information given in the introduction on identical springs in series and parallel, determine the predicted value of the spring constant for the springs in series and parallel and record in Data Table 3. Show both calculations. (10 pts)

kPRED (N/m)

6. Calculate the percent error between the experimental and predicted spring constants for springs in series and parallel and record in Data Table 3. Show both calculations. (5 pts)

7. If you were given three springs to combine in series or parallel, how would you make the softest spring and the stiffest spring possible? Draw the combinations below. (10 pts)

31

Introduction

Momentum is the vector p defined as the product of the mass m and the velocity v of an object, i.e. p = mv. When no external forces act on a system, the momentum of each object in the system can change, but the total momentum P of the system (vector sum of momenta of all the objects) does not change. This law of conservation of momentum can be expressed as: P = 0 or Pi = Pf where Pi is the initial total momentum and Pf is the final total momentum of the system. This experiment involves two objects, so the conservation of momentum is: p1i + p2i = p1f + p2f, where p1i and p2i are the initial momenta of objects 1 and 2, and p1f and p2f are the final momenta. There are two possible types of collisions: elastic and inelastic. In an elastic collision, the kinetic energy of each colliding body can change, but the total kinetic energy of the system is conserved. An inelastic collision is one in which the kinetic energy of the system is not conserved. The kinetic energy that is lost in an inelastic collision is transferred to some other form of energy, usually thermal energy. All real-life collisions are usually inelastic since thermal losses are typically unavoidable. A maximum amount of energy is lost in a perfectly inelastic collision, where the objects stick together after the collision and have the same final velocity. Regardless of the collision type, the linear momentum of the system is always conserved (provided no external forces act on the system). The purpose of this lab is to study collisions in one dimension. The program Data Studio is used with two motion sensors to generate graphs of the velocities of two carts undergoing collisions on an air track. Equipment: Two carts, air track, motion sensors, and computer equipped with Data Studio. NOTE LEVEL the track by adjusting the single-threaded leg.

Experimental Procedure

Refer to the Appendix for the guidelines regarding setting up the Data Studio program. Add the motion sensor for the cart on the right to channel 1 and set the Trigger Rate to 20 Hz. Repeat for the motion sensor on the left, hooking up the motion sensor to digital channel 3. Create the graphing window for motion sensor 1. Choose Position, Ch 1&2 to display. Click on the Time axis, and set the maximum time to 5 s and the minimum time to 0 s, and set the max position to 2 and the min position to 0. Also, un-check the Adjust Axes to Fit Data option, and under layout check Do Not Group. Create the graphing window for motion sensor 2 by clicking on Position, Ch 3&4 and dragging it to the graphing window. Click on the Position axis of the second graph, and set the max to 2 and the min to 0. MAXIMIZE the Graph Display window. Change the title of the graph to Collision #1 (include your name in parentheses). Physically connect the motion sensors into the Science Workshop Interface. Each cart has its mass printed on it. Record these masses as m1 and m2 in Data Tables 1 and 2 on the Data Analysis sheet. Turn on the air supply. Place a cart on the track to see if it is perfectly level. If the cart starts moving to one side, adjust the legs on the track to make it level. When it is level, place the other cart on the track. Check that both sides with Velcro are facing outward so that the two metallic sides touch when the carts collide.

32

Collision #1

For the first collision, you will slide the cart on the right (cart 1) toward the stationary cart on the left (cart 2) so that they collide. Position cart 2 at the center of the track and position cart 1 over the leg of the track on the right side. Begin recording data when ready. Type (Alt-r) to start and (Alt-.) to stop. The top and bottom graphs correspond to the positions of carts 1 and 2, respectively. You should be able to identify the time at which the collision occurred. Resize the graphs by clicking Scale to Fit. Determine the velocity of cart 1 BEFORE the collision by adding a linear fit line to the sloping part of the top graph, not the entire graph. The slope is the velocity of cart 1 before the collision. Record this value as v1i in Data Table 1. Do not click anywhere else on the graph at this point, or you will reset the Curve Fit and change your data! Determine the velocity of cart 2 AFTER the collision by adding a linear fit line to the sloping part of the top graph, not the entire graph, using the same procedure as before. This graph has a negative slope because the motion sensor is mounted on the opposite end of the track. Record the magnitude of this slope (ignore the minus sign) as v2f in Data Table 1. Check that the slopes on both graphs are still displayed and then print them (type Alt-p). Complete Part 1 on the Data Analysis Sheet before continuing to Part 2.

For the second collision, you will slide cart 1 toward cart 2 (stationary) so that they have a perfectly inelastic collision. To do this, turn both carts around so that the sides with Velcro touch when they collide. Position cart 2 at the center of the track and position cart 1 over the leg of the track on the right side. Begin recording data when ready. If your graphs did not work out, repeat the process to record another set of data. Once a good set of data is generated, turn off the air supply. Change the title of the graph to Collision #2 (include your name in parentheses). The linear leastsquares fit data should still be displayed from the previous collision. Resize the graphs using Scale to Fit. Determine the velocity of cart 1 BEFORE the collision. The top graph should contain two slopesa steeper slope before the carts collided and a less steep slope after the carts have collided. Highlight the steeper slope of this graph and record the slope as v1i in Data Table 2. Determine the velocity of cart 1 AFTER the collision. Highlight the less steep slope of the top graph and record the slope as v1f in Data Table 2. Determine the velocity of cart 2 AFTER the collision. Highlight the sloping part of the bottom graph and record the magnitude of this slope (ignore the minus sign) as v2f in Data Table 1. Since the carts are stuck together after the inelastic collision, the slope of the bottom graph should approximately equal the less steep slope of the top graph. Check that the slopes on both graphs are still displayed, and then print them. Attach the graphs for both collisions to the back of your lab report to turn in. Complete the Data Analysis Sheet.

33

Name:

Partner:

Date:

Lab 8: Collisions in One Dimension Data Analysis Sheet 2 Graph Printouts [30 pts] + 2 Data Tables [20 pts] + 11 Questions [50 pts] Collision #1

On the graph printout, mark and label the point where the first cart began moving, and mark and label the point where the carts collided. Reading directly from the graph, approximate the velocity of cart 2 before the collision (v2i) and the velocity of cart 1 after the collision (v1f) and record in Data Table 1.

Data Table 1: Collision #1 m1 (kg): m2 (kg): pi (kgm/s): Ki (J): v1i (m/s): v2i (m/s): pf (kgm/s): Kf (J): v1f (m/s): v2f (m/s): p % Diff.: K % Diff.:

(10 pts)

1. Calculate the total momentum before (pi) and after (pf) the collision and record in Data Table 1. Show both calculations. (5 pts)

2. Calculate the total kinetic energy before (Ki) and after (Kf) the collision and record in Data Table 1. Show both calculations. (5 pts)

3. Calculate the percent difference between the initial and final total momenta and between the initial and final total kinetic energies and record in Data Table 1. Show both calculations. (5 pts)

4. Should momentum be conserved in this collision and does it appear to be? (2 pts)

5. Is kinetic energy conserved in this collision? What type of collision is it? (3 pts)

34

On the graph printout, mark and label the points where the first cart began moving, and where the carts collided. Approximate the velocity of cart 2 before the collision (v2i) and record in Data Table 2.

m1 (kg): m2 (kg): pi (kgm/s): Ki (J): v1i (m/s): v2i (m/s): pf (kgm/s): Kf (J):

(10 pts)

v1f (m/s): v2f (m/s): p % Diff.: K % Diff.:

6. Calculate the total momentum before (pi) and after (pf) the collision and record in Data Table 2. Show both calculations. (5 pts)

7. Calculate the total kinetic energy before (Ki) and after (Kf) the collision and record in Data Table 2. Show both calculations. (5 pts)

8. Calculate the percent difference between the initial and final total momenta and between the initial and final total kinetic energies and record in Data Table 2. Show both calculations. (5 pts)

9. Should momentum be conserved in this collision and does it appear to be? (2 pts)

10. Should kinetic energy be conserved in this collision and does it appear to be? (3 pts)

11. 1-D Collision Problem: A box slides on a frictionless surface with initial velocity v0. It then collides with an identical, stationary box and the boxes stick together in a perfectly inelastic collision. Using conservation of momentum, find the final velocity vf of the two stuck boxes. (10 pts)

35

Introduction

For collisions in two dimensions, the linear momenta in the x and y directions are conserved. These two directions can be treated independently when solving for the initial and final momenta of a system. In this laboratory, you will analyze a movie of a 2D collision using VideoPoint to verify that momentum is conserved in both the x and y directions.

Experimental Procedure

Refer to the Appendix for general VideopointTM procedures. Open up the 2D Momentum video in the folder L:\PHY\Public\_LAB-VIDEOS. Collect relevant data, and copy the data into an Excel spreadsheet. Open Excel and enter the following headings into the spreadsheet:

A 1 t (s) 2 B x1 (m) C y1 (m) D x2 (m) E y2 (m) F V1x (m/s) G V1y (m/s) H V2x (m/s) I V2y (m/s) J Px (gm/s) K Py (gm/s)

Click on cell A2 and then select Paste from the Edit menu or type Ctrl-V to paste your data in. On the Excel spreadsheet, find the average velocities of both pucks in the x and y directions by entering velocity formulas into cells F3 through I3 that use data from columns A through E. Copy these formulas into the remaining cells of each column that have corresponding data points. Record these formulas in Data Table 1 on the Data Analysis sheet. Cells F2 to K2 should be left blank. Find the total momentum of the system in the x and y directions by entering formulas into cells J3 and K3 that use the mass of each puck (assume m1 = m2 = 100 g ) and the data in columns F through I. Copy these formulas into the remaining cells of each column that have corresponding data points. Record these formulas in Data Table 1.

Add a border to the data, and write your name, partners name, and the date beneath the data. Print the Excel spreadsheet and turn it in with your lab report. Mark and label the row on the data table where the collision occurs. Complete the Data Analysis Sheet for the lab.

36

Name:

Partner:

Date:

Lab 9: Collisions in Two Dimensions Data Analysis Sheet 1 Spreadsheet Printout [35 pts] + 1 Data Table [20 pts] + 3 Questions [45 pts] Data Table 1: Formulas Used in Excel Spreadsheet Cell F3 G3 H3 I3 J3 K3 Variable V1x (m/s) V1y (m/s) V2x (m/s) V2y (m/s) Px (gm/s) Py (gm/s) Formula (20 pts)

1. Calculate the percent difference between the average x momentum before and the average x momentum after the collision. Show the calculation. Do these results indicate that momentum is conserved in the x direction? (5 pts)

% Diff:

2. Calculate the percent difference between the average y momentum before and the average y momentum after the collision. Show the calculation. Do these results indicate that momentum is conserved in the y direction? (5 pts)

% Diff:

37

3. 2-D Collision Problem: Puck #1 (m1 = 2 kg) moves with initial x-velocity v1xi = 2 m/s. It collides with a stationary Puck #2 (m2 = 2 kg) and the pucks continue with final velocities v1f and v2f as shown below. Assume that the pucks move on a frictionless surface.

v1i = 2 m/s m1 m1

v1f 30 m2 60 v2f

(a) Write the x- and y-components of the final puck velocities in terms v1f and v2f. Substitute numerical values for any cosine or sine functions. Positive velocities are to the right or upwards. (10 pts)

(b) Write the algebraic conservation of momentum equations for the collision in both the x- and ydirections (use m1, m2, v1i, v1f, v2f.). Then, substitute any known mass and velocity values and write the numerical equations. (15 pts)

(numerical equation)

(numerical equation)

(c) Find the final velocities v1f and v2f (in m/s) of pucks #1 and #2. (10 pts)

v1f = v2f =

38

Introduction

For rotational motion about a fixed axis, the net torque , the rotational inertia I, and the angular acceleration of an object are related by: = I (Equation 1) .

In this laboratory, a small hub will be rotated about its central axis due to the torque of a falling mass m on a string wrapped around the hub. The mass moves linearly downward at an acceleration a as the hub rotates about its fixed axis. The two forces acting on the mass are its weight mg and the tension T in the string. Applying Newtons second law to the mass gives: mg T = ma or T = m( g a ) . In Eqn. 1, the torque on the hub (due to tension T of string) and angular acceleration a are given by: = Tr = m ( g a ) r

a where r = radius of hub. r The remaining quantity in Eqn. 1, the rotational inertia I, depends on the mass of the rotating body and the way in which the mass is distributed relative to the axis of rotation. For the objects used with the hub in this lab:

2 Point Mass (mass M0, distance R0 from axis): I P.M . = M 0 R0 . 2 Hoop (mass M1, inner radius R1, outer radius R2): I HOOP = 1 M 1 ( R12 + R2 ) . 2

The purpose of this lab is to experimentally determine the rotational inertias of these objects and then to compare them with their theoretical values. Data Studio is used with a rotary motion sensor to generate graphs of the angular velocities of various rotating objects. The angular accelerations can then be found and used to determine the experimental rotational inertia of each object.

Experimental Procedure

Equipment: Rotary motion sensor, pulley, thread, 20 g weight, rod, point masses, disk, hoop, and computer equipped with Data Studio. Refer to the Appendix for the guidelines regarding setting up the Data Studio program.

Under Sampling Options set the Stop condition to 5 s. Add the rotary motion sensor to channel 1 and set Divisions/Rotations to 1440, and set Linear Calibration to the Medium Pulley (Groove). Under Measurement, check the velocity, Ch 1&2 (rad/s) box. Create the graphing window for the rotary motion sensor. Choose Angular Velocity to display. Click on the Time axis, and set the maximum time to 5 s and the minimum time to 0 s. Also, un-check the Adjust Axes to Fit Data box. MAXIMIZE the Graph Display window. Change the title of the graph to Rotational Inertia for Rod Plus Two Point Masses (include your name). Physically connect the rotary motion sensor to the Science Workshop Interface.

39

For the first part, you will determine the angular acceleration of a rod with two point masses on it, as well as of the rod alone. Screw the rod onto the top of the hub, slide the two masses onto each end of the rod, and secure them in place with the masses flush against the ends of the rod. Wind up the thread around the middle groove on the hub. Release the mass holder and begin recording data (type Alt-r). Stop recording data (type Alt-. ) before the mass reaches the end of the thread. If your graph did not work out, repeat the process to record another data set. Determine the angular acceleration of the rod and point masses. Resize the graph by clicking the Scale to Fit button on the toolbar. Click the Fit button on the toolbar, and select Linear Fit. Because the graph shows angular velocity vs. time, the slope value is the angular acceleration. Record the absolute magnitude of this value as in Data Table 1 next to Rod Plus Point Masses. Check that the linear least-squares fit data is still displayed on the graph and then print the graph (type Alt-p). Remove the two masses and determine angular acceleration of the rod alone using the same procedure as before. Record this value as in Data Table 1 next to Rod Alone. Do not print graph.

For the second part, you will determine the angular acceleration of a disk with a hoop on it as well as of the disk alone. Remove the rod and screw the disk onto the top of the hub, placing the hoop on the disk so it fits in place. Wind up the thread around the middle groove on the hub, release the mass holder and begin recording data. Stop recording data before the mass reaches the end of the thread. Change the title of the graph to Rotational Inertia for Disk Plus Hoop (include your name). The linear fit data should still be displayed from the previous part. Resize the graphs using Scale to Fit. Determine the angular acceleration of the disk with the hoop on it and record this value as in Data Table 2 under Disk Plus Hoop. Check that the linear fit data is still displayed on the graph and then print the graph. Remove the hoop and determine the angular acceleration of the disk alone. Record this value as in Data Table 1 under Disk Alone. Do not print graph. Attach the graphs from both parts of the experiment to the back of your lab report to turn in. Complete the Data Analysis Sheet.

40

Name:

Partner:

Date:

Lab 10: Rotational Inertia Data Analysis Sheet 2 Graph Printouts [40 pts] + 1 Data Table [15 pts] + 5 Questions [45 pts] Data Table 1: Rotational Inertias OBJECT Rod Plus Point Masses Rod Alone Point Masses Alone Disk Plus Hoop Disk Alone Hoop Alone

1. The experimental rotational inertia of an object is given by I = mr(g-r)/, where m is the hanging mass, r is the radius of the hub, is the experimental angular acceleration, and g is the acceleration due to gravity. Derive this equation using the information given in the introduction. (10 pts)

2. Calculate the experimental rotational inertia for the rod with the point masses, the rod alone, the disk with the hoop, and the disk alone using the relationship above and record in Data Table 1. In each case, the hanging mass m = 20 g, the radius of the hub r = 1.5 cm, and g = 980 cm/s2. Show a sample calculation. (10 pts)

Find the experimental rotational inertia IEXP for the two point masses by subtracting the rotational inertia of the rod alone from that of the rod plus the two point masses. Find IEXP for the hoop by subtracting the rotational inertia of the disk alone from that of the disk plus the hoop. Record in Data Table 1.

41

3. Calculate the theoretical rotational inertia for each point mass (each M0 = 75.5 g, R0 = 18 cm) and for the hoop (M1 = 469 g, R1 = 2.65 cm, R2 = 3.80 cm) using the equations given in the introduction for these objects and record in Data Table 1. Show both calculations. (10 pts)

4. Calculate the percent error between the experimental and theoretical rotational inertia for the point masses and the hoop and record in Data Table 1. Show both calculations. (5 pts)

5. You are given the following two objects to rotate around their center axes: a flat disk of radius r and mass m = 5 kg, and a ring of radius r and mass m = 5 kg. Which object is more difficult (i.e. requires greater torque) in order to rotate and why? (10 pts)

42

Introduction

If a force F acts on an object at a distance r from an objects pivot point, then the object rotates about its pivot. The turning force is called torque and is defined as:

= r F = rF sin ,

where F is the magnitude of the force, r is the lever arm of the force, and is the angle between the force and the lever arm. In this lab, will always be 90, so the torque simplifies to:

= rF ,

because sin 90 = 1. Torques rotate a body in either a clockwise or counterclockwise direction. The usual sign convention for torques in this course will be that counterclockwise torques are positive and clockwise torques are negative. If an object is in equilibrium, then the following must be true: 1) The vector sum of all forces acting on the object must be zero (Translational Equilibrium).

F = F +F

1

+ F3 + K = m1a1 + m2 a2 + m3 a3 + K = 0 N

2) The net torque about any axis of the object must be zero (Rotational Equilibrium).

+ 2 + 3 + K = r1 F1 + r2 F2 + r3 F3 + K = 0 Nm

In this laboratory, forces will be applied to a meter stick balanced on a stand. Our definition of torque depends on the radial distance at which a force is applied from the axis of rotation; however, when the system is at rest (no net torque, or equilibrium), there is no unique axis of rotation and one can calculate the net torque from any point and always obtain zero. To calculate the torque for an object with uniform mass distribution and length L rotated about any pivot point, you will need to find the objects center of mass. The center of mass of an object is the point where all the mass could be placed to determine the translational motion of the object. In the case of our uniform meter stick, the center of mass would be the center of the meter stick. L

Lever arm r = L/2

CM WCM = mCM g

Fig. 1. An example of how the weight, concentrated at the center of mass of an object can produce a torque

For an object with a uniform mass distribution, the lever arm r will be the distance from the pivot point to the center of mass (CM). In the case above, the meter stick is rotated about a pivot at the end of the stick and the lever arm r equals L/2.

43

Experimental Procedure

Equipment: Meter stick, 2-prong support stand, laboratory balance, hooked masses (50, 100, 200 g), and 4 adjustable clamps (3 with hanger, 1 without).

Do NOT over tighten the screw, or it will damage the meter stick. Place the adjustable meter clamp on the meter stick and place it on the support. Adjust the position of the clamp until the meter stick is balanced. The position of the clamp is now the position of the center of mass of the meter stick. Record this position as xCM in Data Table 1.

Measure the mass of each calibrated mass and its clamp and the meter stick and its clamp to the nearest gram (0.001 kg). Let m1 = 0.2 kg + mclamp, m2 = 0.1 kg + mclamp, m3 = 0.05 kg + mclamp, and meter stick mass = mCM = mmeterstick + mclamp. Record these masses in Data Tables 1 and 2. Hang mass m1 at the x1 = 0.30 m mark and hang mass m2 at the x2 = 0.650 m mark.

Experimentally determine the position x3 (to the nearest 1 mm) at which mass m3 must be placed in order to balance the system. Record the value of x3 in Data Table 1. Calculate the sum of the torques. Since the system is in equilibrium and the sum of the torques equals zero, we can choose any point as the pivot point. We will calculate it using two different methods: 1. From the center of mass of the meter stick (Data Table 1): In this case, there will be three torques due to the three hanging masses. Since the pivot point is at the center of mass, the lever arm rCM for the center of mass equals zero and the torque due to the meter stick is zero. 2. From the end of the meter stick at 0 cm (Data Table 2): In this case, there will be three torques due to the three hanging masses AND a torque CM due to the center of mass of the meter stick AND a torque S due to the stand. Enter the relevant mass, force and position information from Data Table 1 into Data Table 2. Remember that the lever arm and torque values will be different about this different pivot point. Hint: For finding the normal force exerted upward by the stand on the meter stick, think about the FBD of the meter stick.

Remove all of the masses from the meter stick. Place the 200-g mass at the 10 cm position on the meter stick. Adjust the balance point until the system reaches equilibrium. Record the balance point position in Data Table 3. Now, using the fact that the net torque of the system must be zero in equilibrium, calculate the mass of the meter stick + clamp. Record your results in Data Table 3. Calculate the percent difference between the measured mass of the meter stick + clamp from Part 1 and the calculated mass. Record in Data Table 3.

44

Name:

Partner:

Date:

Lab 11: Torques and Rotational Equilibrium Data Analysis Sheet 3 Data Tables [50 pts] + 10 Questions [50 pts] Part 1: Equilibrium using Three Hanging Masses Data Table 1: Torques about the Center of Mass

meter stick mass (kg) = Mass (kg) (1 pt ea) m1 = m2 = m3 = Force (N) (1 pt ea) F1 = F2 = F3 = Position (m) (1 pt ea) x1 = x2 = x3 =

(20 pts)

xCM (m) = Lever Arm (m) (1 pt ea) r1 = r2 = r3 = Torque (Nm) (2 pts ea)

1 = 2 = 3 =

1. Calculate the lever arms for all of the masses about the center of mass and record them in Data Table 1. The lever arm is the positive distance from the position of each mass to the pivot point (xCM) of the meter stick. Show the calculation for r3. (5 pts)

2. Calculate the torques caused by the masses and record them in Data Table 1. Use the sign convention for torques and show the calculation for 3. (5 pts)

3. Calculate the total clockwise and counterclockwise torques and record them below. Use the sign convention and sum these torques to find the total torque. Show the calculations. (5 pts)

Total Torque

CW =

CCW =

45

4. Do the data confirm that the system is in rotational equilibrium? Explain. (5 pts)

Data Table 2: Torques about the End of the Meter Stick (20 pts)

meter stick mass (kg) = Mass (kg) m1 = m2 = m3 = meter stick stand mCM = Force (N) F1 = F2 = F3 = FCM = FS = Position (m) x1 = x2 = x3 = xCM = xS= xCM (m) = Lever Arm (m) r1 = r2 = r3 = rCM = rS = Torque (Nm)

1 = 2 = 3 = CM = S =

5. Calculate the lever arms for all of the forces about the end (0 cm) and record them in Data Table 2. Show the calculation for r3. (5 pts)

6. Calculate the torques caused by all of the forces and record them in Data Table 2. Use the sign convention for torques and show the calculation for 3. (5 pts)

7. Calculate the total clockwise and counterclockwise torques and record them below. Use the sign convention and sum these torques to find the total torque. Show the calculations. (5 pts)

Total Torque

CW =

CCW =

46

8. Do the data confirm that the system is in rotational equilibrium? Explain. (5 pts)

Part 2: Equilibrium using One Hanging Mass Data Table 3 (10 pts)

Balance point (m) = Mass (kg) m1 = meter stick Force (N) F1 = Position (m) x1 = xCM = Lever Arm (m) r1 = rCM = Torque (Nm)

1 = CM =

9. Calculate the mass of the meter stick and record it below. Show all work. (5 pts)

10. Calculate the percent difference between the calculated and measured masses of the meter stick. Show all work. (5 pts)

% difference =

47

Appendix

Data Studio Guidelines

Check that the interface box is ON. If the interface box is not on you will have to turn it on and reboot the computer. Open a new Data Studio experiment by clicking on the Data Studio icon. Click on Create Experiment. To Add a sensor, click on the Add Sensor or Instrument button within the Experiment Setup window. NOTE: Some sensors are located in the Science Workshop Analog Sensors drop-down list, while others (e.g., Motion Sensor) are located in the Science Workshop Digital Sensors dropdown list. To change any sensor options, click on the sensor icon that is hooked to the picture of the interface box. Navigate through the tabs until you see what must be adjusted. All relevant measurement options should be displayed in the window after the specific sensor is selected. Create the graphing window for the motion sensor by double clicking the Graph icon under Displays (bottom-left frame). Choose the graph you want to display. MAXIMIZE the Graph Display window. To add a second graph, under Data (upper-left frame), click and drag the desired variable over to the graph. There should now be two graphs. Repeat if three graphs are required. To change axis settings, double click on top of the axis, and navigate the tabs to set the desired range of values. Unselect automatic scaling by un-checking the Adjust Axes to Fit Data box. To change the title of the graph, click the current title (Graph 1) under Displays, and click once inside the box so that a cursor appears. This is the same process as changing a files name on your computer desktop. Remember to always include your name in the title!

Practice taking data by selecting Monitor from the Experiment menu (or typing Alt-m). The graphs should be displayed in real time. To stop monitoring data, select Stop from the Experiment menu (or type Alt-. )

When your are ready to begin recording, select Record from the Experiment menu (or type Alt-r).

Resize the graphs by highlighting one graph and clicking the Scale-to-Fit button on the toolbar. This will adjust the axis settings to fit your graph.

To analyze your slope, highlight the desired area of the graph by clicking, holding, and drawing a rectangle around that area only, not the entire graph The selected data will be highlighted in yellow. Then, click the Fit Menu button on the toolbar, and select Linear Fit.

Print the graphs by selecting Print from the File menu (or typing Ctrl-p). Attach the graphs to the back of your lab report to turn in.

48

VideoPoint Guidelines:

Open the movie for analysis. Movies are located in the L:\PHY\Public\_LAB-VIDEOS folder. Double-click on the movie file to start VideoPoint. When the Number of Points window appears, select 1 or 2 features or objects to be located. This depends on the number of points you will be tracking. MAXIMIZE the movie window (This step will ensure greater accuracy for location of features, and is highly recommended.) Set the scale of the movie so that your data is in SI units:

on the left hand side of the Open the Scale Movie window by clicking on the scale symbol VideoPoint window, directly below the blue-colored up/down buttons. Set the Known Length to 1.00 m and click Continue. NOTE: You will next identify the ends of a meter stick so that the program accurately measures lengths. If you do not click on the ends of the meter stick as carefully as possible, the program will not give correct position values. When the Movie Message appears, position the cursor on one end of the 1 meter line in the movie and click, then position the cursor on the other end of the ruler and click. Verify by making sure that the x- and y- data are in terms of meters and NOT pixels.

Collect data from the captured movie.

You can advance the movie by clicking on the right arrow near the bottom right corner of the movie until the ball first appears. (Some videos may not require this step.)

Position the cursor so it is directly on top of the object and click to mark its first location. This procedure stores the balls x-y position in a data table. The movie should now automatically advance by one frame. When tracking 2 objects the screen will not advance until both objects have been clicked on.

Move the cursor to the objects new position and click again to mark the objects second location. Repeat until the object is no longer on the screen or the video is over.

Note: The quality of your data will be determined by how accurately you select the center of the object.

Find the Data window with all of the data values for the points that you just clicked. Enlarge the window if necessary. You will need to copy the time, x-pos, and y-pos values from the Data window into an Excel spreadsheet. To copy all three data columns at one time, first highlight the time column and THEN hold down the Ctrl-key and highlight the x-pos, and y-pos columns. After highlighting all three data columns, choose Copy Data from the Edit menu (or type Ctrl-C) to make a copy of your data for transferring to Excel. Open Excel and enter the following headings into the spreadsheet (may vary depending on lab):

1 2 A t (s) B x (m) C y (m) D E

Click on cell A2 and then select Paste from the Edit menu (or type Ctrl-V) to paste in your data.

Print the Excel spreadsheet and turn it in with your lab report.

Excel Guidelines

Every cell in an Excel spreadsheet is identified by its column letter and row number. For example, in Fig. 1 at the right, A2 corresponds to the number 1 and B6 corresponds to the number 15. One way to analyze the data is to enter formulas into the spreadsheet. For example, in Fig. 1 the numbers in column A can be added to the numbers in column B to obtain a third set of numbers in column C. Formulas are entered in a column by clicking on the cell of the first row in which you want to use a formula, and then entering an equal sign Fig. 1. Example Spreadsheet followed by the formula. So in this example, you would click on box C1 and type =A1+B1. For the second row, where cells A2 and B2 are to be added, the formula does not have to be typed again. Instead, click on cell C1 with the formula and position the cursor over the small black square that appears in the lower right corner of the cell (indicated by the arrow in Fig. 1). Next, click and drag the cursor so that it fills up the cells in the C column that require the formula. When the mouse button is released, every value in column C will be the sum of the values in the A and B columns to the left of them. Another method to analyze the data is to plot it. For example, in Fig. 1 a graph of B vs. A might be needed in order to determine a relationship between them. To do this, one would highlight all the values in columns A and B, and use the Chart Wizard to create the plot. This feature of Excel graphs the data such that the first column is on the x-axis and the remaining column(s) are on the y-axis.

Creating a Graph After highlighting the data that is to be graphed, create a graph by clicking the Chart Wizard button (pictured at right) on the toolbar. Note: To highlight non-adjacent columns of data, highlight the first column, then press and hold the Ctrl-key. Highlight the remaining column(s), then release the Ctrl-key. Using the Chart Wizard, make the following selections: 1. Chart Type: Select XY (Scatter). Click on Next >. 2. Chart Source Data: Check that the Columns option is selected. Click on Next >. 3. Chart Options: Enter an appropriate title for the graph next to Chart Title and label the axes (include the units) next to Value (X) Axis and Value (Y) Axis. (See the Proper Format for Spreadsheet Printouts section on the following page for further information.) Click on Next >. 4. Chart Location: Check that As Object In is selected, then click on Finish. The graph should now appear on the same sheet as the data. Additional Operations To add a linear trendline to a graph, right-click on one of the data points, then select Add Trendline from the menu that pops up. In the next window, select Linear for the type of trendline, then click on the Options tab, check the box for Display equation on chart, and click OK. Drag the text to a new location if it is obstructed by the graph or anything else on the screen. The equation displayed on the graph will be of the form y = mx + b, where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept.

To position the graph, click in the white area surrounding the graph and drag to the desired location. To add a border to the data set, highlight the area that is to be given a border. Then select Cells from the Format menu, and click on the Border tab. Set the presets for Outline and Inside, and click OK. To change the graph background color to white, right-click on the gray background and select Format Plot Area. On the next window, select Automatic under the Area section, and click OK.

50

Do not forget to BEGIN every formula with an EQUAL sign, e.g., =average(A1:A6) To define a block of cells for a formula, e.g., the cells A1 to A6 in the formula =average(A1:A6), you can highlight the cells to enter their values into the formula. To copy the formula in a given cell to a block of nearby cells, click on the lower right-hand corner of the formula cell and drag the cursor over the block of nearby cells. To define an absolute cell in a formula, i.e., the location of a cell that never changes regardless of where the formula is typed, use a $ sign before the column letter and/or row number, e.g., $A$18. To find the abbreviations for the available functions in Excel, choose Insert from the menu and then Function. Common formulas used in this laboratory include: =average(A1:A10) =sum(A1..A10) =(B3-B2)/(A3-A2) The average velocity uses data from the current point and the previous point, e.g., = (B3-B2)/(A3A2) where (B3-B2) represents the change in x-position and (A3-A2) represents the change in time.

Excel spreadsheet printouts should follow the form of the sample printout on the following page. Your name, lab partners name, lab section number, and the date should appear on the spreadsheet printout. All spreadsheet data must have a border around the entire set of data points. Graph(s) should be positioned directly beneath the data points. To save printer toner, set the graph background color to white. All graphs must be labeled with a descriptive title to make clear what is being graphed. All graphs must have their axes labeled with units in parentheses.

Error Analysis

To compare an experimental value E to a calculated or known (theoretical) value T, calculate the percent error:

% Error =

E T 100% T

E1 E 2 E1 E 2 100% = 100% (E1 + E 2 ) 2 Avg.

To compare two experimental values E1 and E2, calculate the percent difference:

% Diff . =

51

SAMPLE EXCEL SPREADSHEET PRINTOUT t (s) 0 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.16 0.2 0.24 0.28 0.32 0.36 0.4 0.44 0.48 x (m) 0 0.012 0.039 0.082 0.139 0.213 0.302 0.404 0.524 0.658 0.809 0.977 1.164 v (m/s) 0 0.3 0.675 1.075 1.425 1.85 2.225 2.55 3 3.35 3.775 4.2 4.675

1.4 1.2 Position (m) 1 0.8 0.6 0.4 0.2 0 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 Time (s) 0.4 0.5 0.6 Series1

5 y = 9.7012x - 0.0898 4 Velocity (m/s) 3 2 1 0 -1 0 0.2 Time (s) 0.4 0.6 Series1 Linear (Series1)

52

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