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Oriental Institute Science and Technology, Indore

A Project Report On


Submitted towards partial fulfillment of the degree of
Bachelor of Engineering awarded by Rajiv Gandhi Technical University, Bhopal.

Session 2011-2012
Submitted to:
Mr. Manish Pradhan (Project Incharge)

Submitted by:
Ajay Khousi(0853EC081003) Ashwin Marathe(0853EC081012) Ritesh sewaiwar(0853EC081042) Sachin Kewat(0853EC081045)

What is a quad rotor? A quad rotor is a type of helicopter that has four independently controlled motors each connected to separate airfoil blades. The quad rotor system is a very stable platform achieved by opposing motor direction that allows for easy hovering capabilities. This quality makes it an ideal candidate for testing autonomous flight algorithms. This paper will discuss to whom the project is intended and define the functional requirements that they demand. In addition, we will describe the performance criteria to meet those demands by identifying the system plant, actuators, sensors, and control resources. Also included is the project schedule and costs associated with the proposed system.


The various blocks shown here are having their own importance and do distinct operations. The overall assembly results in a practical Quadrotor Robot that is capable of hovering with controlled flight. The basic functions of our robot are hovering, yaw and tilt.

The working of the robot based on the block diagram is as follows: The SENSOR ASSEMBLY used here is to measure the exact position & inclination, inorder to give the proper control signal through the OPERATOR INPUTS to the robot for a proper controlled flight. The signals received by the reciever on the robot are decoded by the MICROCONTROLLER unit and the required PWM signals are generated and are given to the MOTOR DRIVER which is capable of switching the MOTORS connected to them.

The PWM is used in order to change the speed of the MOTORS so that they can be controlled easily. The working principle based on the counter rotating blades of the robot so that the proper hovering is obtained.

Pusher Propeller 10x8 Tractor Propeller 10x8 Electric Gear Drive Global Super Cobalt 400 27T Motor Carbon fiber tube .254" OD Dual-Axis Accelerometer Single Chip Rate Gyro Single Chip Rate Gyro Evaluation Board ATMEGA32 Microcontroller MOSFET Transistor 30A, 600V HyperFast Diode Drive Amplifier Darlington Transistor Array Central hub Circuit Board Mount Rapid Prototyping Motor Mount With the above requirements outlined, motors, batteries, ESCs, and propellers were researched and tested on equation: The motor and propeller compoents were chose ased on Equation:
Thrust (Kg) = P (in) * D (in)3 * RPM2 * 10-10 * 0.02835

General thrust equation for propellers, where P is the pitch length of the propeller, D is the diameter of the propeller, and RPM is the revolutions p er minute of the propeller [6]. The constants on the end of (4) simply convert the number into the desired units. After choosing a variety of motors, propellers with certain pitch length and diameters were chosen so that they provide the thrust in the range of the requirements.

Keil was founded in 1986 to market add-on products for the development tools provided by many of the silicon vendors. Keil implemented the first C compiler designed from the ground-up specifically for the 8051 microcontroller. Keil provides a broad range of development tools like ANSI C compiler, macro assemblers, debuggers and simulators, linkers, IDE, library managers, real-time operating systems and evaluation boards for 8051, 251, ARM, and XC16x/C16x/ST10 families. In October 2005, Keil (Keil Elektronik GmbH in Munich, Germany, and Keil Software, Inc. in Plano, Texas) was acquired by ARM The Keil Software 8051

development tools can be used by any level of programmer to get the 8051 microcontroller architecture. Software Development Cycle The Keil Vision project development cycle procedure is as follows Create a project, select the target chip. Create source files in C or assembly. Build your application with the project manager. Correct errors in source files. Test the linked application.


Helicopters have an advantage over aeroplanes as they can manoeuvre on small spaces and do vertical take off and landing. This project deals with a quadrotor helicopter, which differs from ordinary helicopters by having 4 horizontal rotors and no vertical rotors. Brushless DC motors primary disadvantage is their high cost compared to brushed DC motors, which is due to two issues. One of the biggest problems with a UAV is to keep track of its position and orientation. Another disadvantage is having a receiver on the quad-rotor increases its weight.


We have developed a larger quad-rotor platform than is typically used in current robotics research. The analysis of flyer attitude dynamics allowed us to tune the mechanical design for best control sensitivity and disturbance rejection. We designed a controller to stabilise the dominant decoupled pitch and roll modes, and use a model of disturbance inputs to estimate the performance of the plant. It was found that the compensator sucessfully regulates attitude at low rotor speeds.Since the quad rotor is not quite in a state where it can fly, there are several areas in the hardware, software, controller, and model that can be improved in order to get the quad rotor flying. Of all the changes that can and need to be made, it looks like the hardware issues are currently most limiting to achieving flight.