Sie sind auf Seite 1von 48

Human Implications of Organisations

Module C: Human Resource Management

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Advanced Bank Management: Human Implications of Organisations

CAIIB SUPER NOTES

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Contents
Coverage:
1. Human Behaviour and

Individual Differences
2. Employees Behaviour at Work 3. Diversity and Gender Issues 4. Theories of Motivation and their Practical Implications 5. Role Concept and Analysis
M S Ahluwalia CAIIB Super-Notes Sirf Business

1.

HUMAN BEHAVIOUR AND INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES


M S Ahluwalia CAIIB Super-Notes Sirf Business

Human Behaviour
Combination of originating and responding behaviour Result of biological, psychological and social processes Function of the person and the environment around him

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Factors Influencing Behaviour


Economic Social (Norms and Cultural Values) Political Age Sex Education Abilities Marital Status No of dependents

Environment al Factors

Personal Factors

Psychologica l Factors
Personality Perception Attitudes Values Learning

Organisation al Factors
Physical Facilities Organisational Structure and Design Leadership Compensation and Rewards System

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

2.

EMPLOYEES BEHAVIOUR AT WORK

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Assumptions about human behaviour at work


There are differences between individuals

Concept of a whole person

Behaviour of an individual is caused

An individual has dignity

Organisations are social systems

There is mutuality of interest among organisational members

Organisation behaviour is holistic


M S Ahluwalia CAIIB Super-Notes Sirf Business

Commonalities
People differ, yet, there are certain commonalities in the persons. Every person is, in certain respects:
Like all other persons Like some other persons Like no other person

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Personality
Salvotore Maddi A stable set of characteristics and tendencies that determine those commonalities and

differences in the psychological behaviour (thoughts, feelings and actions) of people that have continuity in time and that may not be easily understood as the sole result of the social and biological pressures of the moment. Individuals do not change drastically overnight

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Type A Type B Personality Theory


Type A Restless Impatient Multi-tasker Tries to schedule more and more in less and less time Does not complete one thing before starting another Displays nervous gestures Does not have time to relax and enjoy life Insensitive Go getter Stress Prone Type B Sociable Relaxed/Placid Balanced outlook in life Humane Team Person Long Term Success Systematic Methodical

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Eriksons Development Model

Stage 1: Trust vs. Mistrust

Stage 2: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

Stage 3: Initiative vs. Guilt

Stage 4: Industry vs. Inferiority

Stage 5: Identity vs. Role Diffusion

Stage 6: Intimacy vs. Isolation

Stage 7: Growth vs. Stagnation

Stage 8: Integrity vs. Despair

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Psycho Analytical Theory


In order to create a normal personality there must be a balance in the relationship among the three forces Id, Ego and Super Ego
Id: Foundation of the unconsciousness Ego: Conscious in nature and relates our conscious urges to the outside world Super Ego: Higher level restraining force the conscience of the person

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Trait Theory
Traits of the person which determine his personality and behaviour are basically inherent to a person Explains personality as a demonstration of certain traits of the individual

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Self Concept Theory


Personality and behaviour are to a great extent determined by the individual himself People have an image of their own and their actions are consistent with that image A result of peoples interaction with the environment

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Social Learning Theory


Personality development is more a variable of social variables than biological factors Human behaviour is either learnt or modified by learning Reinforcement and Punishment approach

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Personality and Brain (Left and Right Brain)


Left Hemisphere
Controls right side of body
Logical/Mathema tical

Right Hemisphere
Controls left side of body

Speech/Verbal

Linear/Detailed

Spatial/Musical

Holistic

Artistic/Symbolic

Sequential

Controlled

Intellectual

Simultaneous

Emotional

Intuitive/Creative

Dominant

Active

Analytic

Minor (Quiet)

Spiritual

Synthetic, gesalt oriented

Reading, Writing, Naming

Sequential Ordering

Perception of significant order comprehension

Facial Recognition

Simultaneous

Perception of Abstract

Complex Motor Sequences Patterns

Recognition of Complex figures

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Matching Personality with Jobs


John Hollands Typology of Personality and Congruent Professions Type Realistic Nature Prefers physical activities that require skill, strength and coordination Prefers activities that involve thinking, organising and understanding Prefers activities that involve helping and developing others Prefers rule regulated, orderly, and unambiguous activities Prefers verbal activities where there are opportunities to influence others and attain power Prefers ambiguous and unsystematic activities that allow creative expression Personality Characteristics Shy, genuine, persistent, stable, conforming, practical Analytical, original, curious, independent Sociable, friendly, cooperative, understanding Conforming, efficient, practical, unimaginative, flexible Self confident, ambitious, energetic, domineering Congruent Occupations Mechanic, drill press operator, assembly-line worker, farmer Biologist, Economist, Mathematician, News Reporter Social worker, teacher, counselor, clinical psychologist Accountant, Corporate Manager, Bank Teller, File Clerk Lawyer, Real Estate Agent, Public Relations Specialist, Small Business manager Painter, musician, writer, interior-decorator

Investigative

Social Conventional

Enterprising

Artistic

Imaginative, disorderly, idealistic, emotional, impractical


CAIIB Super-Notes

M S Ahluwalia

Sirf Business

3.

DIVERSITY AND GENDER ISSUES

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Diversity Issues
Homogeneous Reproduction: Tendency of selection and promotion systems to allow only those employees to pass through who fit the characteristics of the dominant coalition When workgroup diversity is managed effectively, groups develop processes that can enhance creativity, problem solving, workgroup cohesiveness and communication

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

HR Approaches for Managing Diversity


Diversity Enlargement To create diversity by changing an organisations demographic composition Assumed that increasing diversity and exposure to minority community will result in improved individual and organisational performance Diversity Sensitivity Acknowledges the existence of cultural difference and attempts to teach individual members about cultural differences To promote communication and understanding, and to build relationships among members of different backgrounds Cultural Audits Tries to determine what is blocking the progress of non-traditional employees

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Critical Mass
Organisations planning for diversity are unable to bring enough diverse workers. Critical mass of diverse workers required to make the employees feel welcome and accepted Entrance of few diverse workers into the organisation may fall flat because of sense of isolation and/or overexposure in their role as token

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Gender Bias
Many jobs have preference for a particular gender both from employers and workers points of view. The differentiation is basically on account of physical, social, psychological and emotional considerations
Men preferred for jobs requiring greater physical stength Women preferred for jobs requiring hospitality and emotional aspects

Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 has provided for payment of equal remuneration to men and women employees and for prevention of discrimination on the grounds of gender against women

Jobs for women requiring odd hours of work require permission under the Factories Act, 1948
M S Ahluwalia CAIIB Super-Notes Sirf Business

4.

THEORIES OF MOTIVATION AND THEIR PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS


M S Ahluwalia CAIIB Super-Notes Sirf Business

Motivation
Extent of willingness of an employee to respond to the organisational requirements Directed towards satisfaction of needs Has direct impact on the job performance

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Theories of Motivation
Scientific Management/Rational Economic View Human Relations Model Abraham Maslows Need Hierarchy Theory Frederick Herzbergs Two Factor Theory

Clayton Alderfers ERG Theory

Achievement Motivation Theory

Victor H Vrooms Expectancy Model

James Stacy Adams Equity Theory

Lyman W. Porter and Edward E. Lawler Performance Satisfaction Model

Reinforcement Theory

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Scientific Management/Rational Economic View


By F W Taylor Stated that:
1. Physical work could be scientifically studied to determine the optimal methods of performing a job 2. Workers could thereafter be made more efficient by giving prescriptions for how they were to do their jobs 3. Workers would be willing to adhere to these prescriptions if paid on a differential piece work basis

Rabble Hypothesis: Workers would be motivated more by the need for money Contrary to the rabble hypothesis workers seek satisfaction of a variety of needs in the workplace like need for security, social fulfillment and a challenging job, including pay
M S Ahluwalia CAIIB Super-Notes Sirf Business

Human Relations Model


Elton Mayo conducted Hawthorne studies at Western Electric Company in 1920s and early 1930s The real power centers were the human relations that developed within the working unit The leader was to facilitate co-operation for attainment of goals by the followers Managers could motivate employees by acknowledging their social needs and by making them feel useful and important Workers were expected to accept managements authority because supervisors treated them with consideration and were attentive to their needs

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Abraham Maslows Need Hierarchy Theory


Self Actualisation Needs Self esteem Needs

Social Needs

Safety/Security Needs

Physiological Needs

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Abraham Maslows Need Hierarchy Theory


Self Actualisation Needs Desire for excelling in ones job, advancing an important idea, successfully managing the unit Ego/Self esteem Needs Needs for self respect and recognition and for respect of others Social Needs Desire to belonging and affection in a social context Safety/Security Needs Job Security, Salary increases, safe working conditions, unionisation, and lobbying for protective legislation Physiological Needs Food, Drink, Shelter, Oxygen, Sleep, Sex, Weather etc

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Abraham Maslows Need Hierarchy Theory


Motivational Factors: Presence of these factors creates a highly motivating situation, absence does not cause dissatisfaction. Hygiene/Maintenance Factors: Presence does not lead to motivation, but absence causes serious dissatisfaction leading to lower productivity

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Frederick Herzbergs Two Factor Theory


Motivational Factors
Recognition Advancement Responsibility Achievement Possibility of growth Work itself

Hygiene/Maintenance Factors
Company policy and administration Technical supervision Interpersonal relations with subordinates Interpersonal relations with superiors Interpersonal relations with peers Salary Job security Status Personal life Working conditions

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

ERG Theory
Existence, Relatedness and Growth By Clayton Alderfer More than one need may be operative at the same time When a higher level need is frustrated, the individuals desire to increase a lower level need takes place

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Achievement Motivation Theory


By David C McClelland and Associates
Need for Achievement
Derive satisfaction from achievement of goals High achievers are not motivated by money, money is their indicator of achievement Prefer to work independently and dislike easy tasks Need for Power Derive satisfaction from the ability to control others and having control over resources Like to be in positions of influence and control Need for Affiliation Derive satisfaction from being social with interpersonal activities Strong need for interpersonal ties and to get close to people psychologically

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Vrooms Expectancy Model


By Victor H Vroom Also known as instrumentality theory, path-goal theory and valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory People are highly motivated if they believe that a certain type of behaviour will lead to a certain type of outcome and their extent of personal preference for that type of outcome

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Vrooms Expectancy Model


Expectancy Persons perception of the likelihood that a particular outcome will result from a particular behaviour or action Instrumentality Persons belief and expectation that his performance will lead to a particular desired reward Performance-Reward Relationship Valence Value a person assigns to his desired reward

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Adams Equity Theory


By James Stacy Adams Motivation to act develops after the person compares inputs/outcomes with the identical ratio in comparison to the other person Definitions:
Person: Individual for whom equity/inequity exists Comparison: Group/Individual used by a person as a reference regarding inputs and

outcomes
Inputs: Characteristics brought by an individual to the job Outcomes: Salary, promotion, perquisites etc Inequity: Perception that persons job inputs/outcomes ratio is not equal to the inputs/outcomes ratio in comparison to the other

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Porters Performance Satisfaction Model


Suggests that performance leads to satisfaction Motivation, satisfaction and performance are all separate variables related in different ways Efforts do not directly lead to performance. It is mediated by abilities/traits and role perceptions Rewards that follow and how these are perceived will determine satisfaction

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Reinforcement Theory
Consequences of an individuals behaviour in one situation influences the individuals behaviour in a similar situation Individual behaviour can be predicted from a persons past experience Operant Conditioning: Technique to change human behaviour OB Mod: Organisational Behaviour Modification When operant conditioning is used to control behaviour of employees
M S Ahluwalia CAIIB Super-Notes Sirf Business

Motivation and Behaviour


Motives:
Needs, wants, drives or impulses within the individual directed towards conscious or unconscious goals Arouse and maintain activity and determine a general direction of the behaviour of an individual

Goals:
Hoped for rewards towards which motives are directed

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Motivation and Behaviour


Commonly used incentives to increase motivation to work: Money Appreciation Job Enlargement

Job Enrichment

Job Rotation

Participation

Quality of Work Life

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Motivation and Behaviour


Adequate and Fair Compensation Integration of job, career, family life and leisure time

Safe and Healthy Environment

Protection and respect for Employee rights to privacy, dissent, equity etc.

Quality of Work Life

Jobs aiming development and utilisation of employees skills and abilities

Environment conducive to development of Employee sellfesteem and sense of identity

Growth and Security

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

5.

ROLE CONCEPT AND ANALYSIS

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Role
Set of expected behaviour patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit Includes rights and obligation Role Space:
The various roles a person is expected to play Self is at the center of the role space and the other roles are at varying distances

Position is a relational and power related concept whereas role is an


obligational concept Role Set: Pattern of interrelationships between one role(focal role) among many others

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Role
Role Stagnation:
A person may be unable to take charge of the new role effectively, and therefore experience role stagnation This in turn will cause role stress

Inter role Distance:


An individual occupying more than one role may face a situation of conflict amongst the various roles

Role Set: Important persons who have different expectations from the role that an individual occupies
M S Ahluwalia CAIIB Super-Notes Sirf Business

Role Set Conflicts


Lack of clarity on the role to be performed on the part of the individual and organisation Ability needed to work in ambiguous situations Ex: A new area where precedent is missing Conflicting expectations demands from a role or Role occupant may feel that there are too many expectations May also be felt in case of insufficient powers

Role Ambiguity

Role Expectation Conflict

Role Overload

Individuals feeling that some important areas which should be a part of his/her role are being performed by someone in another role May also occur due to narrowing down of the role as a part of restructuring etc

Resource Inadequacy Personal Inadequacy Role occupant lacks the knowledge, experience or skills

Handling a role from which the person was hitherto completely isolated

Role Erosion

Inadequacy

Role Isolation

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

Do you have any questions or queries or some feedback to give? Just mark an email to super.msahluwalia@yahoo.com

M S Ahluwalia

CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business

M S Ahluwalia, amongst other things, is a visual artist, blogger, blog designer and of course an MBA and Banker from New Delhi, India.
To know more about him you may visit his blog-site: Estudiante De La Vida

M S Ahluwalia

For more Super-Notes: Click Here CAIIB Super-Notes

Sirf Business