Sie sind auf Seite 1von 30

# ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics

1
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Common Base BJT Amplifier
Common Collector BJT Amplifier

Design Example

## Amplifier Input and Output Impedances

ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
2
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Basic Single BJT Amplifier Features
CE Amplifier CC Amplifier CB Amplifier
Voltage Gain (A
V
) moderate (-R
C
/R
E
) low (about 1) high
Current Gain (A
I
) moderate ( ) moderate ( ) low (about 1)
Input Resistance high high low
Output Resistance high low high
+1
CE BJT amplifier => CS MOS amplifier
CC BJT amplifier => CD MOS amplifier
CB BJT amplifier => CG MOS amplifier
VCVS CCCS
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
3
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Common Collector ( Emitter Follower) Amplifier
In the emitter follower, the output voltage is taken between emitter
and ground. The voltage gain of this amplifier is nearly one the
output follows the input - hence the name: emitter follower.
v
s
v
o
R
E
R
E
R
1
R
2
C
B
V
CC
v
o
v
s
r
o
Current Bias Design
Voltage Bias Design
r
o
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
4
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
R
1
=R
2
For an assumed = 100:
R
B
=R
1
R
2
=
R
1
2
=(+1)
R
E
10
10 R
E
R
1
=R
2
=20 R
E
V
B
=
V
CC
2
R
E
=
V
E
I
E
=
V
CC
/ 20.7
I
E

Then, choose/specified I
E
, and
the rest of the design follows:
Vb
i
B
i
C
i
E
vout

## As with CE bias design, stable op.

pt. => R
B
(+1) R
E
, i.e.
Emitter Follower Biasing
Split bias voltage drops about
equally across the transistor
V
CE
(or V
CB
) and V
Re
(or V
B
).
For simplicity,choose:
V
B
R
E
V
CC
R
1
R
2
C
B
R
S
v
s
v
o
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
5
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Typical Design
Choose: I
E
=1mA
V
CC
=12V
And the rest of the design
follows immediately:
R
E
=
V
E
I
E
=
12/ 20.7
10
3
=5.3k D
Use standard sizes:
R
1
=R
2
=100 k D
R
E
=5.1k D
5.1 k
100 k
100 k
12V
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
6
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Equivalent Circuits
<=>
vout
vout
V
CC
/2
Rb
R
B
=R
1
R
2
R
E
R
B
C
B
V
B
v
s
v
o
R
S
V
CC
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
7
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Multisim Bias Check
Identical results as expected!
<=>
Rb
+
-
VRb
V
Rb
=I
B
R
B
=
I
E
(+1)
R
B
=0.495V
i
B
Rb
vout
vout
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
8
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Small signal mid-band circuit - where C
B
has negligible reactance
(above f
min
). Thevenin circuit consisting of R
S
and R
B
shows
effect of R
B
negligible, since it is much larger than R
S
.
Emitter Follower Small Signal Circuit
Mid-band equivalent circuit:
v
s
'
=
R
B
R
B
+R
S
v
s
=
50
50.05
v
s
v
s
R
TH
=R
S
R
B
=
50
50.05
R
S
R
S
Rb
vout
v
s
R
S
R
B
R
E
v
o
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
9
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Follower Small Signal Analysis - Voltage Gain
Circuit analysis:
i
b
=
v
s
R
S
+r
n
+(+1) R
E
v
o
=
R
E
(+1) v
s
R
S
+r
n
+(+1) R
E
A
V
=
v
o
v
s
=
R
E
R
S
+r
n
(+1)
+R
E
1
v
s
=( R
S
+r
n
+(+1) R
E
) i
b
vout
i
b
i
e
Solving for i
b
v
s
R
S
R
E
v
o
v
o
=R
E
i
e
=R
E
(1+)i
b
for Current Bias Design
replace R
E
with r
o
||r
o
= r
o
/2 >> R
E
r
o
r
o
r
o
r
o
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
10
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Small Signal Analysis Voltage Gain - cont.
v
o
v
s
=
R
E
R
S
+r
n
(+1)
+R
E
Since, typically:
R
S
+r
n
( +1)
R
E
A
V
=
v
o
v
s

R
E
R
E
=1
Note: A
V
is non-inverting
(or r
o
||r
o
= r
o
/2)
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
11
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
i
b
=
v
bg
r
n
+(+1) R
E
Use the base current expression:
To obtain the base to ground resistance of the transistor:
This transistor input resistance is in parallel with the 50 k
R
B
, forming the total amplifier input resistance:
R
in
=R
S
+R
B
r
bg
R
B
r
bg
=
515
(515+50)
50 k D=45.6 k DR
B
=50 k D
D
v
bg
=r
n
i
b
+R
E
i
E
=( r
n
+( +1)) i
b
vbg
+
-
R
in
r
bg
=
v
bg
i
b
=r
n
+(+1) R
E
(+1) R
E
=1015.1 k=515k D
Rb
R
B
=50k DR
S
R
S
=50D
Blocking Capacitor - C
B
- Selection
i
b
i
b
i
e
R
S
v
bg
R
E
R
B
R
in
v
s
C
B
v
o
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
12
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
C
B
Selection cont.
R
in
50 k D
Assume f
min
= 20 Hz
C
B

10
2n205010
3
1.59j F
Choose C
B
such that its reactance is 1/10 of R
in
at f
min
:
C
B

10
2n f
min
R
in
1
2n f C
B
=
R
in
10
Pick C
B
= 2 F (two 1 F caps in parallel), the nearest standard
value in the RCA Lab. We could be (unnecessarily) more precise
and include R
s
as part of the total resistance in the loop. It is very
small compared to R
in
.
j j
with
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
13
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Final Design
2.0 uF
v
s
v
o
C
B
R
E
R
1
R
2
R
S
V
CC
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
14
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Multisim Simulation Results
20 Hz Data
1 kHz Data
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
15
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Of What value is a Unity Gain Amplifier?
To answer this question,
we must examine the small-signal
output impedance of the amplifier
and its power gain.
i
b
i
e
v
s
v
o
R
E
R
S
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
16
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Emitter Follower Output Resistance
v
x
i
x
R
out
0
i
b
i
x
=i
b
i
b
=(1+) i
b
i
b
=
i
x
(1+)
v
x
=i
b
( R
S
+r
n
)=
R
S
+r
n
1+
i
x
R
out
=
v
x
i
x
=
R
S
+r
n
1+

r
n
1+
=r
e
Assume:
I
C
=1mAr
n
=
V
T
I
B
=
V
T
I
C
=2500D
=100 R
S
=50D
R
out

2550
100
=25.5D
R
B
=50k DR
S
R
out
is the Thevenin resistance looking
into the open-circuit output.
v
s
R
S
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
17
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Multisim Verification of R
out
Multisim short circuit check
( = 100, v
o
= v
s
):
R
out
=
v
oc
i
sc
=
A
V
v
s(rms)
i
sc(rms)
=
1
0.0396
=25.25D
Thevenin equivalent for the
short-circuited emitter follower.

R
out
Av*vsig
A
V
= 1
<=>
i
sc
=i
x
i
sc
=i
x
R
in
i
x
=(1+)i
b
v
sig
=R
S
i
b
+r
n
i
b
R
out
=
A
V
v
sig
i
x
=
R
S
+r
n
1+
R
in
=R
S
+r
n
+(+1) R
E
(+1) R
E
+
-
v
oc
=A
V
v
s
v
s
R
S
=100
v
s
If = 200, as for most good
NPN transistors, R
out
would
be lower - close to 12 .
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
18
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Equivalent Circuits with Load R
L
i
b
i
e
RL
+
-
+
-
R
out
=
v
s( rms)
i
sc (rms)
=
1
0.0396
=25.25D
<=>
Z
in
=
v
s
i
e
'
R
in
=R
S
+r
n
+(+1) R
E
R
L
(+1) R
L
R
out
R
L
R
E
v
s
v
o
R
S
R
E
R
L
v
s
A
v
v
s
v
o
R
in
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
19
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Emitter Follower Power Gain
Consider the case where a R
L
= 50 load is connected through an infinite
capacitor to the emitter of the follower we designed. Using its Thevenin
equivalent:
v
o
=
R
L
A
V
v
s
R
L
+R
out
=
50
75
v
s
=
2
3
v
s
i
o
=
A
V
v
s
R
out
+R
L
=
v
s
75
p
o
=v
o
i
o
=
2
225
v
s
2
i
s
=i
b
=
v
s
R
in

v
s
(+1) R
E
R
L

v
s
10150

v
s
5000
p
s
=v
s
i
s

1
5000
v
s
2
D
+
-
-
vth=Gvsig
R
out
25D
R
L
50D
+
50 load is in parallel with 5.1k
R
E
and dominates:
D D
C=
A
V
1
A
pwr
=
p
o
p
s
=
2(5000)
225
=44.41
i
s
v
s
v
o
A
v
v
s
i
o
R
in
R
E
R
L
=5.1k D50D50D
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
20
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
The Common Base Amplifier
Voltage Bias Design Current Bias Design
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
21
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Common Base Configuration
Both voltage and current biasing follow the same rules as
those applied to the common emitter amplifier.
As before, insert a blocking capacitor in the input signal path
to avoid disturbing the dc bias.
The common base amplifier uses a bypass capacitor or a
direct connection from base to ground to hold the base at
ground for the signal only!
The common emitter amplifier (except for intentional R
E
feedback) holds the emitter at signal ground, while the common
collector circuit does the same for the collector.
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
22
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
We keep the same bias that we established for the gain
of 10 common emitter amplifier.
All that we need to do is pick the capacitor values and
calculate the circuit gain.
Voltage Bias Common Base Design
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
23
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Common Base Small Signal Analysis - C
IN
Determine C
IN
:
Find a equivalent impedance for
the input circuit, R
S
,

C
in
, and R
E2
:
4.7 k Ohm
470 Ohm
ideally
for
f f
min
1
2n f
min
C
in
R
S
+R
E2
r
e

1
2n f
min
C
in
=
R
S
+r
e
10
C
in
=
10
2n f
min
( R
S
+r
e
)
v
Re2
=
R
E2
r
e
R
E2
r
e
+R
S
+
1
j2n f C
in
v
s
v
Re2
=
R
E2
r
e
R
E2
r
e
+R
S
v
s
(let ) C
B
=

i
b
i
c
i
e
r
e
=
r
n
1+
r
e
v
s
NOTE:
R
B
is shorted
by C
B
=
v
Re2
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
24
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Determine C
IN
cont.
2n f
min
C
in
( R
S
+r
e
)1C
in

10
2n f
min
( R
S
+r
e
)
=
10
2n2075
F
A suitable value for C
in

for a 20 Hz lower frequency:
C
in
=
10
125.675
1062j F !
Not too Practical!
Must choose smaller value of C
in
.
1. Choose:
2n f
min
C
in
( R
S
+r
e
)=1
or
2. Choose larger f
min
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
25
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Small-signal Analysis - C
B
i'
b
i'
c
i'
e
Note the ac reference current
reversals (due to v
s
polarity)!
v
s
=R
S
i
e
'
+
(
r
n
+
1
j oC
B
)
i
b
'
v
s
=R
S
i
e
'
+
(
r
n
+
1
j oC
B
)
i
e
'
+1
i
e
'
=
+1
( +1) R
S
+r
n
+
1
j oC
B
v
s
Z
in
=
v
s
i
e
'
i
c
i
e
i
b
Determine
Z
in
Determine C
B
: (let ) C
in
=
R
E2
>> R
S
ib'
v
s
ignore R
B
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
26
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Determine C
B
i'
b
i'
c
i'
e
i
e
'
=
+1
(+1) R
S
+r
n
+
1
j 2n f C
B
v
s
ideally
1
2n f C
B
(+1) R
S
+r
n
f f
min
R
E2
>> R
S
ib'
v
s
r
e
Z
in

(+1) R
S
+r
n
+1
=R
S
+
r
n
+1
or
f f
min
Choose (conservatively):
Z
in
=
v
s
i
e
'
C
B

10
2n f
min
(
(+1) R
S
+r
n
)
F
ignore R
B
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
27
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Determine - C
B
cont.
i'
b
i'
c
i'
e
Choosing (conservatively):
vout
C
B

10
2n20( (100)50+2500)
=10.6j F
i.e.
R
E2
>> R
S
ib'
v
s
Choose (less conservatively):
C
B

10
2n f
min
(
(+1) R
S
+r
n
)
F
for f
min
= 20 Hz
C
B

1
2n20( (100)50+2500)
=1.06jF
ignore R
B
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
28
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Small-signal Analysis Voltage Gain
i
e
'

1
R
S
+
r
n
+1
v
s
=
1
(
R
S
+r
e
)
v
s
v
out
=R
C
i
c
'
=oR
C
i
e
'
=

+1
R
C
R
S
+r
e
v
s
A
V
=
v
out
v
s
=

+1
R
C
R
S
+r
e
=
100
101
5100
50+25
67

Assume: C
B
=C
in
=
R
E2
>> R
S
ib'
v
s
ignore R
B
v
out
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
29
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Multisim Simulation
1060 uF
v
s
10.6 uF
ESE319 Introduction to Microelectronics
30
2009 Kenneth R. Laker, updated 06Oct09 KRL
Multisim Frequency Response
20 Hz response
1 kHz Response