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Gun Safety and Handling of Firearms

Gun safety rules and mindset


Gun safety training seeks to instill a certain mindset and appropriate habits by following specific rules. The mindset is that firearms are inherently dangerous and must always be handled with care. Handlers are taught to treat firearms with respect for their destructive capabilities, and strongly discouraged from playing or toying with firearms, a common cause of accidents. Guns are dangerous tools. They can save lives and they can destroy them. When you take on the responsibility to handle a firearm, you must take it seriously and you must educate yourself, on all that it takes to be a safe and responsible gun owner.

The Four Golden Rules of Firearms Safety


1. 2. 3. 4. All guns are always loaded. Never let the muzzle cover anything you are not willing to destroy. Keep your finger off the trigger until your sights are on the target. Be sure of your target and what is beyond it.

1. All guns are always loaded.(Treat firearms as if they are loaded) This rule is a matter of keeping a certain mindset. The purpose is to create safe handling habits, and to discourage reasoning along the lines of, "I know my gun is unloaded so certain unsafe practices are OK." The proposition "the gun is always loaded" is used as a shorthand, even though it may be assumedor even positively knownthat this is not true of a particular firearm. Many firearm accidents result from the handler mistakenly believing a firearm is emptied, safetied, or otherwise disabled when in fact it is ready to be discharged. Such misunderstandings can arise from a number of sources.

Faulty handling of the firearm. A handler may execute the steps of procedures such as loading, firing and emptying in the wrong order or omit steps of the procedures. Misunderstandings about a firearm's status. For instance, a handler may think the safety is on when it is not. A round of ammunition may be in the chamber or in the magazine while the handler thinks it is empty. A handler may receive a firearm and assume it is in a certain state without checking whether that assumption is true. For example, as handlers interact and pass the firearm between them, each avoids over-relying on the "show clear" of the other. Person 1 may misjudge the status; person 2 cannot assume that "it's OK because person 1 already checked it." Mechanical failures. Wear, faulty assembly, damage or faulty design of the firearm can cause it not to function as intended. For instance, a safety may have been worn down to a point where it is no longer functioning. Broken or worn parts in the trigger, sear or hammer/striker may have given the firearm a "hair trigger" (a very sensitive trigger). A

dented or bent body of the firearm may cause jams or premature discharge of ammunition. Sensitivity to impact may cause a firearm to discharge if dropped or struck against another object. If a handler always treats firearms as capable of being discharged at any time, the handler is more likely to take precautions to prevent an unintentional discharge and to avoid damage or injury if one does occur.

2. Never let the muzzle cover anything you are not willing to destroy.(Point the muzzle
away from non-targets)

This rule is intended to minimize the damage caused by an unintended discharge. The first rule teaches that a firearm must be assumed to be ready to fire. This rule goes beyond that and says, "Since the firearm might fire, assume that it will and make sure no harm occurs when it does." A consequence of this rule is that any kind of playing or "toying" with firearms is prohibited. Playfully pointing firearms at people or other non-targets violates this rule and is possibly an extreme endangerment to life and/or property. To discourage this kind of behavior, the rule is sometimes alternately stated, "Never point a firearm at anything unless you intend to destroy it.". 3. Keep your finger off the trigger until your sights are on the target.(Keep fingers off
the trigger)

This rule is intended to prevent an undesired discharge. Normally a firearm is discharged by pressing its trigger. A handler's finger may involuntarily move for any of several reasons: the handler is startled, a lack of full attention on body movements, physiological reasons beyond conscious control such as a spasm, stumbling or falling, or the finger being pushed by something (as when trying to holster a handgun with one's finger on the trigger). Handlers are therefore taught to minimize the harmful effects of such a motion by keeping their finger off the trigger until the muzzle is pointing at the target and the handler wishes to discharge the firearm. 4. Be sure of your target and what is beyond it. This rule is intended to eliminate or minimize damage to non-targets when a firearm is intentionally discharged. Unintended damage may occur if a non-target is misidentified as a target, if the target is missed, or if the bullet hits something or someone other than the intended target. Handlers are taught that they must positively identify and verify their target. Additionally, they learn that even when firing at a valid target, unintended targets may still be hit, for three reasons:

The bullet may miss the intended target and hit a non-target around or beyond the target. A non-target may pass in front of the target and be hit with a bullet aimed at the target. The bullet may pass through the intended target and hit a non-target beyond it, so called "overpenetration".

Therefore, this rule requires a handler to be sure of both the target itself and anything along the avenue of travel to and beyond the target.

Rules to Follow while Handling a Firearm


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Be sure that your gun is safe to operate. Seek professional training with your gun. Use only the correct ammunition. Never take a gun away from someone by pulling on the barrel. Never use drugs or alcohol before or during shooting. Never shoot into water and avoid ricochets Never rely solely on the safety devices of your gun. Remember that your gun is a piece of equipment.

8. Keep Firearms Unloaded when Not in Use 9. Know Your Target Before You Shoot 10. Don't Shoot at a Hard Surface

Marksmanship
The skillful art of shooting and hitting a target at a given range or known distance. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. STANCE GRIP BREATHE CONTROL SIGHT ALIGNMENT TRIGGER CONTROL

STANCE 1. CONTROL 2. ARMS 3. POSTURE 4. ALIGNMENT 5. NATURAL POINT OF AIM 6. STANCE WIDTH

GRIP Consistency and neutrality are the goals. You should have a totally neutral feeling in each hand. Achieving neutrality allows the Grip and Stance technique to perform its most important function: ALLOWING THE GUN TO RECOIL IN THE SAME DIRECTION, TO THE SAME LEVEL, AND ON THE SAME PATH. BREATHE CONTROL The breathing process provides the body with oxygen and eliminates waste elements from the blood. Correct breathing while shooting is essential to proper body functions. A complete respiratory cycle last for 45 seconds (inhaling and exhaling) and between each cycle, there is a pause of 23 seconds. This pause can be extended up to 10 seconds without any special labor or unpleasant sensation. IT IS DURING THIS PAUSE BETWEEN BREATHS THAT THE SHOOTER SHOULD FIRE THE SHOT. During the pause, the breathing muscles are relaxed thus the shooter avoids strain from the diaphragm. SIGHT ALIGNMENT - Sight Alignment is the relationship between the rear sight and the front sight with respect to the eye. - Sight Picture is the relationship between the rear sight and the front sight to the target with respect to the eye. TRIGGER CONTROL Is the method used to apply pressure on the trigger so that the shot can be fired with the least amount of disturbance to sight alignment. It is the independent action of the trigger with uniform increasing pressure straight to the rear after the slack has been taken. *ERRORS IN TRIGGER CONTROL FLINCHING - muscular tension or reaction in anticipation of the recoil. It is caused by moving the head, closing the eyes, moving the shoulder to the rear or combination. JERKING - an attempt to make the pistol fire at a certain instant by rapidly applying pressure on the trigger.

Firearms Safety
1. Hammer Down/Safety Off

2. Slide locked Safety/thumb Safety

3. Grip Safety

Firearms Nomenclature and Parts

Definition of Terms PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1866 As amended by Republic Act 8294 FIREARM includes rifles, muskets, carbines, shotguns, Revolvers, pistols and all other deadly weapons from which bullet, ball, shot, shell or other missile maybe discharged by means of gunpowder or other explosives. The term also include air rifles and pistols, not classified as toys under the provisions of Executive Order No. 712 dated 28 July 1981. The BARREL of any firearm shall be considered a complete firearm. a. AMMUNITION refers to loaded shells for firearms from which a bullet, ball, shot, shell or other missile maybe fired by means of gunpowder or explosives. b. LICENSE TO POSSESS FIREARM AND AMMUNITION is a written document authorizing a person to possess in his residence a licensed firearm and an authorized quantity of ammunition. c. RESIDENCE refers to that place where the firearm and ammunition is being permanently kept. It includes the office or house where it is kept and the premises of the house enclosed by walls and gates separating said premises from adjacent properties. The VEHICLE IS NOT AN EXTENSION of the firearm residence.

Presidential Decree No. 1866


CODIFYING THE LAWS ON ILLEGAL/UNLAWFUL POSSESSION, MANUFACTURE, DEALING IN, ACQUISITION OR DISPOSITION, OF FIREARMS, AMMUNITION OR EXPLOSIVES OR INSTRUMENTS USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF FIREARMS, AMMUNITION OR EXPLOSIVES, AND IMPOSING STIFFER PENALTIES FOR CERTAIN VIOLATIONS THEREOF AND FOR RELEVANT PURPOSES"

REPUBLIC ACT NO. 8294


AN ACT AMENDING THE PROVISIONS OF PRESIDENTIAL DECREE NO. 1866, AS AMENDED, ENTITLED "CODIFYING THE LAWS ON ILLEGAL/UNLAWFUL POSSESSION, MANUFACTURE, DEALING IN, ACQUISITION OR DISPOSITION OF FIREARMS, AMMUNITION OR EXPLOSIVES OR INSTRUMENTS USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF FIREARMS, AMMUNITION OR EXPLOSIVES, AND IMPOSING STIFFER PENALTIES FOR CERTAIN VIOLATIONS THEREOF, AND FOR RELEVANT PURPOSES."

Section 1. Sec. 1 Presidential Decree No. 1866, as amended, is hereby further amended to read as follows: "Sec. 1. Unlawful manufacture, sale, acquisition, disposition or possession of firearms or ammunition or instruments used or intended to be used in the manufacture of firearms or ammunition. The penalty of prision correccional in its maximum period and a fine of not less than Fifteen thousand pesos (P15,000) shall be imposed upon any person who shall unlawfully manufacture, deal in, acquire, dispose, or possess any low powered firearm, such as rimfire handgun, .380 or .32 and other firearm of similar firepower, part of firearm, ammunition, or machinery, tool or instrument used or intended to be used in the manufacture of any firearm or ammunition: Provided, That no other crime was committed. "The penalty of prision mayor in its minimum period and a fine of Thirty thousand pesos (P30,000) shall be imposed if the firearm is classified as high powered firearm which includes those with bores bigger in diameter than .38 caliber and 9 millimeter such as caliber .40, .41, .44, .45 and also lesser calibered firearms but considered powerful such as caliber .357 and caliber .22 center-fire magnum and other firearms with firing capability of full automatic and by burst of two or three: Provided, however, That no other crime was committed by the person arrested. "If homicide or murder is committed with the use of an unlicensed firearm,

such use of an unlicensed firearm shall be considered as an aggravating circumstance. "If the violation of this Sec. is in furtherance of or incident to, or in connection with the crime of rebellion or insurrection, sedition, or attempted coup d'etat, such violation shall be absorbed as an element of the crime of rebellion, or insurrection, sedition, or attempted coup d'etat. "The same penalty shall be imposed upon the owner, president, manager, director or other responsible officer of any public or private firm, company, corporation or entity, who shall willfully or knowingly allow any of the firearms owned by such firm, company, corporation or entity to be used by any person or persons found guilty of violating the provisions of the preceding paragraphs or willfully or knowingly allow any of them to use unlicensed firearms or firearms without any legal authority to be carried outside of their residence in the course of their employment. "The penalty of arresto mayor shall be imposed upon any person who shall carry any licensed firearm outside his residence without legal authority therefor." Section 3 It is unlawful to tamper serial numbers of a firearm. The penalty of 4 years imprisonment shall be imposed upon any person who shall unlawfully tamper, change, deface or erase the serial number of any firearm. Section 5 The term UNLICENSED FIREARM includes: a. Firearm/s with expired license b. Use of licensed firearm in the commission of a crime. LEGAL SOURCES OF FIREARMS 1. Licensed firearm dealer through purchase. 2. Licensed firearm holder through sale or transfer. Note that the firearm may be delivered by the seller to the buyer only after the latter has secured the corresponding firearm license.

3. Importation or Purchase abroad of firearm and ammunition by individuals has been suspended by order of the President (SOP # 13 Sept. 19, 1991)

KINDS OF LICENSES TO POSSESS FIREARM

Firearm Licenses are VALID FOR TWO YEARS.

REGULAR LONG LICENSE (LRL) CERT. OF Private firms, REGISTRATION establishments, (LCR) corporations for Govt. agencies or use by their offices, govt. officials or owned or employees controlled corp. excluding security For use by their guards. Officials or employees excluding guards. SHORT REGULAR LICENSE (SRL) Private employee issued a firearm covered by LRL. SHORT CERTIFICATE OF REGISTRATION (SCR) Government official or employee issued a firearm covered by LCR.

REGULAR SPECIAL LICENSE PERMIT (RL) (SP) Privately owned by Privately owned by civilians, security government agencies and officials and corporation for employees. use of security guards

Revocation / Termination of License


1. A firearm license shall be revoked under any of a. Loss of firearm through negligence; the following causes:

b. Carrying of firearm outside residence without the appropriate permit; c. Carrying of firearm in prohibited places;

d. Conviction by a competent court involving moral turpitude for any offense where the penalty carries an imprisonment of more than six (6) months and a fine of at least P1,000; e. Unauthorized loan of firearm to another person; f. Dismissal for cause from the service, in the case of government officials and/or employees; g. Commission of a crime where the firearm is involved. 2. Upon revocation of the license, the firearm and ammunition covered by such license shall be surrendered to PNP-FED, in case of Metro Manila residents. In the provinces, it shall be surrendered to the PNP Regional or Provincial Director concerned who shall forward the same to PNP-FED for proper disposition. 3. Upon the death or legal disability of the holder of a firearm, it shall be the duty of the nearest relative, legal representative or any person who shall knowingly come into possession of such firearm and ammunition to deliver the same after securing the necessary transport permit to the PNP-FED or the PNP Provincial or Regional Director. Such firearm and ammunition shall be retained pending issuance of a license in accordance with the law. 4. It is the responsibility of the department head and/or employer to report to the PNP-FED any case of loss of a firearm covered by a SP, LCR, SCR, LRL and/or SRL. CARRYING AND TRANSPORT OF FIREARMS 1. TRANSPORT PERMITS A one time pass issued to individuals for the purpose of transporting UNLOADED firearm/s and ammunition from one location to another and vice-versa if necessary. 2. TRANSPORT PERMITS FOR GUN CLUB MEMBERS A written authority issued to FED accredited gun club members for the purpose of transporting UNLOADED firearm/s and ammunition from residence to accredited firing ranges and vice-versa.

3. HUNTING PERMITS A written authority issued to individuals for purposes of transporting UNLOADED firearm/s and ammunition to hunt in legal hunting grounds. 4. PERMIT TO CARRY FIREARM OUTSIDE RESIDENCE (PTCFOR) A written authority issued to individuals who are under actual threat or whose lives are in imminent danger due to the nature of their position, occupation or calling. PTCFOR is issued by the Chief, Civil Security Group (CSG) per authority granted by the CPNP. PTCFOR is valid for One (1) year provided that the firearm license is valid. 5. DUTY DETAIL ORDER A written order issued by a superior officer to his subordinates assigning to the latter the performance of a specific task within or outside his official station that is a part of his regular duties. 6. MISSION ORDER A written directive issued by a competent authority to individuals who are under his supervision and control for a definite purpose or objective during a specified period and to such place or places therein mentioned. NO MISSION ORDER SHALL BE ISSUED TO ANY CIVILIAN AGENT authorizing the same to carry firearm outside residence unless the individual is: a. included in the regular plantilla of the government agency involved in law enforcement; b. is receiving regular compensation for the services he is rendering in the agency; c. the civilian agent must be included in a special law enforcement, police, intelligence project proposal or special project which specifically requires the use of firearm/s to insure its accomplishment.

Manner of Carrying Firearms


1. The sidearm carried by a person in uniform shall be placed in a holster securely attached to the belt. 2. Persons in uniform but without holster and those in civilian clothes who are authorized to carry their firearm outside residence shall ensure that their firearm is concealed unless in actual use for legitimate purpose. 3. The practice of flagrantly displaying a firearm or tucking it at the waist while in uniform or civilian clothes is prohibited. 4. Only firearms specifically described in the permit shall be carried.

Limitation and Restriction


1. Those authorized to carry firearms shall not bring said firearms inside public drinking places. Cabarets, public dance halls and public amusements places; or while attending civic, political or religious rallies and meetings. 2. Carrying of long firearms is prohibited in Metro Manila, chartered cities, provincial capitals and other thickly populated areas or fiestas or other large gatherings except when called for in the performance of duty or accomplishment of mission.

Legal Definition of Firearm Found in Section 877 of Revised Administrative Code and Section 290 of National Internal Revenue Code - firearm or arm includes rifles, muskets, carbines, shotgun, pistols, revolvers, and all other deadly weapons from which bullets, balls, shots, shells or other missiles maybe discharge by means of gunpowder or other explosives. This term also includes air rifles except such as being small caliber and of limited range used as toys. The barrel of a firearm shall be considered a complete firearm for all proposes hereof.

Technical Definition - It is an instrument used for the propulsion of projectiles by means of expansive force of gases from burning gunpowder. (FBI Manual) - It means any weapon, by whatever name known, which is designed to expel a projectile/s buy the action of explosive. (Federal Firearm Act)

Shotgun A smooth-bore and breech loading shoulder arm designed to fire number of pellets or shots in one charge. Revolver A hand arm equipped with rotating cylinder, serving as magazine, successively places a cartridge into position for firing. Pistol A short barrel hand arm designed to fire single projectile through a rifled-bore for every press of the trigger. This type of weapon is designed to combine optimum penetration with stopping power and improved accuracy. AMMUNITION Legal Definition - found in Chapter VII, Section 290 of National Internal Revenue Code as well as in Section 877 of Revised Administrative Code It refers to a loaded shell for rifles, muskets, carbines, shotguns, revolvers, and pistols from which a ball, bullet, shot, shell or other missiles may be fired by means of gunpowder or other explosives.

Technical Definition It refers to be a group of cartridges or to a single unit cartridge meaning a complete unfired unit consisting of a bullet, cartridge case, gunpowder and primer. The term may also refer to a single round. Cartridge is a complete round of ammunition for a firearm. The term cartridge and ammunition can be used interchangeably.