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By Emmanuel Anosisye Mwangomo Assistant Lecturer, Department of Mechanical of Engineering, Mbeya Institute of Science and Technology. P.O. BOX 131 Mbeya, Tanzania. Email: ABSTRACT The remoteness of Kilondo village and its topography makes it difficult to be connected from the national electric grid. A centralized stand alone hydropower plant can therefore make a sustainable solution for Kilondo village electrification. The methods used in this study included: assessing electricity demand; identifying potential hydropower sites; estimating stream flow regime; conducting preliminary design and environmental, social and economic appraisal of project. Energy demand survey for Kilondo village was done and 348 potential consumers and with a diversified market demand of 86.7 kW was identified. Kilondo River has a potential of producing electricity by using hydro turbo-generator. The proposed site has a gross head of 117m and designed flow of 19m3/s and can produce power of 15.6MW which is obtained in a 95% of the time. RETScreen module was used to validate the data calculated manually and power obtained from the module was 18 MW. Annual energy production estimated from the module was 130375MWh and the anticipated revenue to be collected is $ 6,511,445. The proposed Kilondo hydropower project has been analyzed, its benefits have been maximized and negative environmental, social and economic impacts have been minimized so it is sustainable. Based on the analytical work and experimental Investigation an appropriate small hydropower plant for producing electricity for rural settlement has been proposed which has negative impact on the environment and positive impact to social welfare of Kilondo people. The limitation of this project is that it is isolated and anticipated power to be produced exceeds demand of Kilondo village. It requires another cost of building infrastructure of transmitting electricity to the national grid; this transmission cost will increase the payback ratio. For the Kilondo hydropower scheme to be sustainable there is a need to recognize entitlements and share benefits with directly affected people. The goal should be to ensure that all individuals and communities affected by developments gain sustainable benefits. Keywords: small hydropower, sustainable energy, rural area. 1. INTRODUCTION

Electricity is the engine of development of any society. In Tanzania only two percent of rural population have access to electricity (MEM, 2003).The development of rural Tanzania is very important since 80% of population in Tanzania is living in rural areas (URT, 2002). Electricity is the engine of development of any society. In Tanzania only two percent of rural population have access to electricity (MEM, 2003).The development of rural Tanzania is very important since 80% of population in Tanzania is living in rural areas (URT, 2002). Figure 1: Status of Energy Consumption in Tanzania Source: (MEM, 2003) The generation of electricity in Tanzania is mainly from both hydro and thermal power plants (Table 1). The total installed capacity on the interconnected grid is about 1252 MW of which 562 MW (45%) is hydro

and the rest is thermal (URT, 2008). The Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited is responsible for the generation, transmission, distribution and the selling of electricity in mainland Tanzania and also sells bulk power to Zanzibar where it is distributed to consumers via a local state owned distribution company (ZESCO). Electrical energy presently comprises about fifteen percent of energy demand in the world ( Electricity consumption is strongly correlated with economic growth; economic growth opens more rooms of using electric appliances which in turn increases electricity demand (Murry and Nan, 1994). Sustainable development is the development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (WCED, 1987). Presently electricity is produced largely by large power plants using coal, natural gas, hydro or nuclear fission as a primary energy source (Ummels, 2009). These power plants have the following advantages: First they are affordable and reliable and second they have in use for a long time, so they are much known. However they have also disadvantages which are: Power generation is inherently unsustainable They have unequal distribution of fuel supplies between regions creating fuel dependencies between them and possibilities for exercising political influence... They emit greenhouse gases particularly CO2 when burning Coal, Oil, and Natural Gas for power generation. This Disadvantage does not apply to the nuclear fission, but has the disadvantage of nuclear waste and the development of new installations is difficulty in many countries. The potential of large hydro has already exploited for large part especially in the developed countries. Also the construction of new large installation have various challenges e.g. Environmental and Social Challenges which are needed to be well addressed(Lee, 2004)

which is sustainable. Contribution of renewable energy sources in power generation is only 2 percent of the total energy demand (IEA, 2007). Renewable Energy Sources (RET) have the following advantages: On the other hand RES have the following disadvantages: Most of renewable power generation technology are expensive than conventional technologies and therefore require (government) support in order to make them feasible. They are less controllable than conventional generation since the primary energy source cannot be controlled (geothermal, hydro and biomass are exceptions). This makes RES difficulty to be integrated into the power systems(grid electricity) BODY OF THE PAPER


2.1 Small hydropower plant Small hydro power plant (SHP) is a scheme with installed capacity of up to 10 MW (ESHA, 2004). Not only small hydro is a non-polluting energy source, but also it is much more efficient than the burning of fossil fuels for electricity generation. In respect to coal burning, the most common energy source, small hydro power is greatly more efficient. To assess the suitability of a potential site, the hydrology of the site needs to be known and a site survey carried out, to determine actual flow and head data. In Tanzania small hydropower potential is estimated at 300 MW with total installed capacity of 4.0 MW (Karekezi,, 2005). Figure 2 shows small hydro power potential sites of Tanzania. Smallscale hydropower is one of the most cost-effective and reliable energy sources to be considered for providing clean electricity generation.

There are limits to the extent that conventional generation technologies can be part of a future sustainable power supply (Ummels, 2009). Renewable energy technologies such as: Biomass, Geothermal, Wind Power, Solar Photovoltaic, Tidal and Wave power make use of the natural energy

Legend: General location of the small hydro potential sites in Tanzania. N.B. Size of the

Sphere represents relative number of sites in the region. River Figure 2: Tanzania map showing small hydropower sites concentrations. Source: NBCBN (2005) According to Klunne (2007) key barriers hindering the development of SHP in Africa can be summarized as follows: Lack of infrastructure for the design and manufacture of turbines, installation and operation; Difficulty of access to appropriate technologies pico, micro, mini and small hydropower; Absence of local capacity (local skills and know how) in developing SHP projects ; Lack of information about potential sites (hydrological data); Lack of SHP awareness, incentives and motivation; Lack of private sector participation in SHP development; and Lack of joint venture (public and private sector partnership). Africa has one of the lowest hydropower utilization rates. Currently less than 7 % of the potential has been harnessed (Klunne, 2007). Small hydropower can adequately contribute to the electricity needs of African countries. Currently the installed capacity of SHP in Africa is 228MW which is only 0.5% of the total world installed (US DOE, 2004). 2.2 Suitable Condition for Small Hydro Power Plants The best geographical areas for exploiting small-scale hydro power plants are those where there are steep rivers flowing all year round, for example, the hill areas of countries with high year-round rainfall, or the great mountain ranges and their foothills (Kabaka and Gwangombe, 2007). 2.3 General description of the study area Kilondo Village is located in Ludewa District, Iringa region in the Southern western part of United Republic of Tanzania (Figure 3). Its about 100 km from Ludewa town with a rough road through mountainous areas and Lake Nyasa. The population of the village is 1130 people with 330 households scattered with one primary school, one dispensary and five small shops at the trading center and two grain mills. People living at Kilondo Village are Kisi by tribe and they rely largely on fishing and cultivation of cassava (Fig.6) Their major source of income is fishing on the Lake Nyasa. Lake Nyasa has variety of different types of fishes. At Kilondo fishing is done by men only. It is not possible for women to be involved in fishing activities; they believe that if a woman fishes the lake will not yield more fish catches. Women of Kilondo are involved in

alternative business such as making pots. Women make pots for their own domestic use and for sale for cash or bartered for food. Cassava is the main staple food of Kilondo people; it is processed into flour so that it can be used for making stiff porridge ugali which is the staple food in the area.

2.4 Rural areas The term rural area refers to a physical location outside of areas that are administratively managed by urban authorities. Rural areas are relatively far deprived in terms of modern energy infrastructure... Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. Such areas are distinct from the more intensively settled urban areas (Maleko, 2005). Kilondo is one of the rural area in Tanzania it is isolated; it can be accessed by using Lake Nyasa only. At Kilondo there is no modern energy infrastructure like electricity and water pump. People of Kilondo use firewood for cooking and kerosene lamp for lighting. 2.5 Effects of rural electrification Rural electrification is important for the sake of retaining people in rural areas. Electrification is needed to secure the living standard and create opportunities for jobs. There many environmental, economic, and social effects of rural electrification, some are positive and others are negative. Environmental effects of rural electrification include: Limit to the contribution to the green house effect, prevents deforestation, limits pollution, and uses less of the worlds limited resources. Economically rural electrification has the following effects: Stops the mitigation of poverty belts, allows commercial and industrial activities, causes an increased efficiency of agriculture. Socially there are both positive and negative effects which are: allows more education, allows entertainment, improves safety and political stability, Allows medical treatment and supply of clean water, creates more personal safety problems, encourages more Alcohol use, Allows longer working hours, Encourages prostitution, Causes bad influences of movies and allows an increase of living standard. These items are some examples of various effects that can be expected as a result of electrification. Naturally the effects depend on local conditions and not all of the effects can be expected everywhere (Ehnberg, 2007).



The methodology adapted in this study entailed the following activities: Data collection (Primary and secondary data); data analysis etc. 3.1 Data Collection Design of a hydropower scheme requires the collection of a substantial data base. Data required may be classified into the following categories: Hydrology, Sediments, Power market survey, Topographic survey, Geology, Constructional material and socioeconomic survey. 3.2 Preliminary Studies Collection and review of all available and pertinent documents. Air photo or GIS interpretation was employed to assess site features. Collection of secondary data on various aspects including geography and demographic characteristics, renewable energy technology was done through visiting Ministry of land and Human Settlement, Ministry of water and Irrigation , Tanzania metrological Agency , National website and local government (extension office). The secondary data were collected through a review of published and unpublished literature. The review was also done in books, journal, articles, research reports, thesis reports both for PhD and Masters, conference proceedings and electronic materials.

3.6 Preliminary Electricity Demand Assessment In estimating preliminary electrical energy demand end use method or field survey was used. A questionnaire which consists of a list of more or less sophisticated questions that are put to existing potential consumers was provided and filled. All various type of potential consumers at Kilondo Village was determined through physical counting and categorized as domestic consumers (small, medium and large), commercial consumers (shops, hotels, etc), light industries and others. Estimates for the number of domestic consumers in the study area are based on the number of permanent houses which satisfy the utility (TANESCO) standards for electrification. Further, the quality and size of the house was taken into account to enable grouping into small, medium and large categories. 3.7 Identify potential hydro power sites. Adequate head and flow are necessary requirements for hydro power generation. Consequently these parameters are important factors in site selection. The gross head may be estimated, either by field surveying or by using a GPS (Global Positioning System) or by orthophotographic techniques (ESHA, 2004). However Spatial Data were used for identifying the potential sites. The data under this category include; the Arcview GIS DEM of the Kilondo catchment. Also the land cover/land use and soil maps of the area were used to determine the area and hydrologic parameters suitable for hydropower installation.

3.3 Reconnaissance Survey The purpose of a site reconnaissance visit is to gain an understanding of site characteristics, potential problems as well as solutions, and input to the site selection of the main project structures. The site visit provides an opportunity to obtain an appreciation of site topography, flow regime, geology and access for roads and transmission lines. From these on-site observations it is often possible to identify practical locations for temporary facilities, head-works, desilting tank and power house and then to decide the side of the river best suited routes. 3.4 Detail Site Investigations Detail site investigation comprises the following activities: topographic survey, geotechnical investigation and constructional material search. 3.5 Primary data and secondary data Both primary and secondary data were gathered. Primary data were collected from the field these are hydrologic data, topographical data and geological data, while secondary data collected from existing information available in reports and documents to supplement field data.

3.8 Estimate stream flow of the River. Measured hydrological flow data or stream gauging information located on the Kilondo catchment should be utilised. A minimum of 1 year daily flow data is required to make a preliminary assessment. Since Kilondo site is ungauged its hydrological data does not exist, flow and rainfall information data for an adjacent (or similar) catchment maybe used, and adjusted for catchment area and average rainfall level. Given the similar nature of the topography, mean annual rainfall and catchment areas it would be expected that the flow duration curves for these catchments would be similar. This provides some uncertainty in the results, but will be sufficiently accurate for the purpose of a prefeasibility assessment. Time series data was used for estimating the stream flow of Kilondo River. The data under this category include monthly data of rainfall, flow. Rainfall data are used to control the water balance for hydrological modeling. This study use data recorded between years 1976 through 1985 from Labial gauging station. The

Data was collected from the Ministry of Water and irrigation and Tanzania Metrological Agency. These include, year, month, rainfall and mean annual rainfall. Besides, the author measured manually the stream flow by using a floating body method, and the discharge obtained were compared to the data obtained from the ministry in May 2010. 3.9 Hydrological Modeling Confirmation of accurate hydrology and detailed modeling was made to confirm the flow duration curve by using RETScreen software. A long-term record of flow data and rainfall, together with an estimation of the compensation/environmental flow (if required) was assessed. Assessment of seasonal variation and peak and off-peak demands need to be considered. A firm capacity of the scheme was determined, based upon the 90th percentile flow from flow duration curve. 3.10 Environmental impact assessment Checklist method was used to annotate the environmental features of factors that need to be addressed when identifying the impacts of small hydropower plant. There are a number of environmental considerations that need to be investigated as part of the feasibility study. These includes reviews and assessments of likely environmental impacts, broadly considering factors such as: assessment of any planning legislation and policies for the area, requirements for clearing native vegetation, Impacts on stream flow and fish migration, Inundation or river barrier issues, operational impacts and construction impacts. 3.11 Social Impact Assessment Based on the stratified simple random sampling technique, some households were selected for collecting primary data on several household-level parameters through door to- door survey of households. Stratification of village on the basis of suburb will be carried out to collect data from each stratum through a semi-structured questionnaire. Various sets of information on socio-economic, demographic and housing characteristics were asked. Questionnaire developed on the basis of the potential for resettlement and relocation, inundation of arable land, public safety, inundation of sacred sites/areas of cultural or historical value, and stakeholder management All the primary data was coded, double entry was made for data cleaning and validation for further analysis through SPSS. 3.12 Preliminary Design of Small Hydro power Plant The design of the scheme should be completed at a level adequate for costing and a bill of quantities to be determined. Hence, the design should be adequate for tendering purposes, and would include general arrangement and layout drawings. Prominent aspects

of the works can be categorized into: Design flow rate and gross head; Preliminary sizing of Civil works (intake and weir, intake channel, penstock; powerhouse, tailrace channel, site access, construction details and hydraulic losses); Net head on turbine ; Turbine selection ; Installed capacity ;Key specifications of electromechanical equipment (turbine, generator, and control system); Network connection design to allow assessment of the local power distribution and the community demand requirements and ; and Gross annual or monthly generation, losses, and net sales to the grid. 3.13 Economic analysis The economic analysis focuses on social costs and benefits of the proposed project or investment for the larger social point of view. A financial analysis will allow the economic viability of the project to be assessed. The analysis must consider the following parameters as part of its economic modeling: Base cost estimate; Revenue assessment the value of energy based upon market analysis or demand capability. Include seasonal variation and peak/offpeak pricing; financing strategy; Cash flow analysis and implementation schedule; and Economic life. The economic viability was presented by means of the unit cost of energy (Tsh/kWh), net present value and the internal rate of return. Small hydro costs can be split into four segments: Machinery, Civil Works, Electrical Works, and External Costs (BILA, 2005). Machinery cost includes the turbine, gearbox or drive belts, generator and the water inlet control valve. Civil Works includes the intake, forebay tank and screen, the pipeline or channel to carry the water to the turbine, the turbine house and machinery foundations, and the tailrace channel to return the water to the river. The electrical system will involve the control panel and control system, the wiring within the turbine house, and a transformer if required, plus the cost of connection to the electricity. These costs are largely dependent on the maximum power output of the installation. The connection cost is set by the local electricity distribution company. External Costs encompass the engineering services of a professional to design and manage the installation, plus the costs of obtaining the licenses, planning permission, etc. 4. RESULTS The following results were obtained during the research study. These are shown in the figures 3 to 8

Figure: 6 Load Duration Curve for Kilondo River Figure 3: Flows Duration Curve for Gauged Catchment, Lumbira

Flow 4: Flow Duration Curve for ungauged Kilondo catchment

Figure 7: Financial viability of Kilondo Hydropower plant.

Figure 8: Flow duration and power curves. Figure 5: The profile of Kilondo River showing elevation against distance from the outlet (Nyasa Lake shoreline) 5. DISCUSSION

5.1 Flow Duration Curve Lumbira River and Kilondo River are in the same basin. Lumbira River is gauged while kilondo is ungauged. Figure 3 shows flow duration curve for Lumbira River. To obtain flow duration curve for Kilondo River data from lumbira rive where correlated with the rainfall data at Kilondo station

and the results shows that they are very much correlated with correlated coefficient of 0.92. Then flow duration curve for Kilondo was drawn (Figure 4) 5.2 Design Fow The minimum flow of water is 10.6976 m3/s (Figure 4 above) with the following discharges:-20 Percentage time Q20% =70 m3/s; 80 Percentage time Q80% = 34 m3/s; and 95 Percentage time Q95% = 19m3/s. Designed flow selected was 19m3/s . 5.3 River Profile From the graph above (Figure 5) the profile of the river, the distance and elevation of the two points indicated on the graph are for Red arrow (900m,530m) and Green arrow (1475 m, 650 m). Hence the difference in the elevation = 650 m 530 m = 120 m. The difference in elevation of the point is equal to gross head of 120 m 5.4 Power Potential Power potential is obtained from Equation below P = gQoH Where: = hydraulic efficiency of turbine; = density of water (kg/m3); g = acceleration due to gravity (m/s2); Qo = Design flow (m3/s); H = Head effective pressure of water flowing into the turbine (m) (net head); and P = Electrical power (w). Designed flow selected is Qo= 19m3/s m3/s which is 95% Percentage time flow of water obtained from Flow duration curve of ungauged catchment and using a measured head of 117m power potential of the Kilondo river is obtained from P (kW) = Q (m3/s) H (m) The best turbines can have hydraulic efficiencies in the range 80% to over 90% (higher than all other prime movers), although this will reduce with size. If we take 70 % (as a typical water-to-wire efficiency for the whole system (BILA, 2005) then the above equation simplifies to: P = 7 x 19 x 117 P = 15561 kW Power = 15.561 MW Energy output for 25 years Energy = 15561 x 8760 x 25 = 3407859000KWh = 3407859 MWh 5.4 Economic Viability RETScreen module was used to analyze economic viability of Kilondo hydropower project. From the

module we get a payback of this project to be 1.2 years. Initial cost of the project is $ 7,805,206 and estimated annual revenue is $ 6,511,445(Figure 7). 6. SUMMURY AND CONCLUSION

6.1 Conclusion The summary of main findings, based on the analysis undertaken in the preceding chapters, is presented in this section followed by sets of key recommendations. 6.2 Electricity Demand Electricity demand of Kilondo village was assessed to be 86.7 kW with a peak load of 108.375 kW. The demand of electricity in Kilondo is growing, it is estimated that load forecast for 25years will be 9819.765 kW. Energy demand for Kilondo village is 949.365MWh while the capacity of Kilondo power plant is to produce 136314.36 (MWh) annually. So there a surplus of 135364.995 MWh of electrical energy this can be brought to the national electricity grid and produce revenue. 6.3 Head and stream flow of the River. Adequate head and flow are necessary requirements for hydropower generation (ESHA, 2004). Kilondo River has a potential for producing electricity. The available head was measured and was 117m. Kilondo River is a perennial it have some flow at all times of a year. The designed flow for this plant is 19m3/s which is available at 95 percentage of time and gives a power of 15.61 MW. 6.4 Preliminary design of small hydro power plant. Preliminary design of Kilondo hydropower plant was carried out. The following civil work components were designed: Weir and intake, headrace, spillway, desilting tank, forebay tank, channel, and penstock. Francis turbine was selected since it meets both head and power which can be produced by the plant. 6.5 Environmental impact assessment The checklist for environmental impact assessment for Kilondo Hydropower plant was grouped into the following: Social and natural environment aspects. Both of them show that they have no negative impact to the environment. 6.6 Findings of Social Analysis The benefits of rural electrification are undeniable, especially for the enhancement of rural peoples live hood. The Project will bring about various positive social impacts. It will directly contribute to economic growth and will reduce poverty by lowering household energy costs and removing energy constraints to enterprises that offer employment opportunities to the poor. Direct benefits will extend

to all categories of electricity consumers served by the plant; poor and vulnerable, and indigenous groups. Benefits will include improvements to the existing quality of electricity supplied to households, better quality lighting at cheaper prices than required for kerosene and/or diesel, and improved air quality within homes. Infrastructure development is critical to generating economic activity, employment, accelerating growth, and providing better integration and social welfare. The Project will contribute to poverty reduction and will specifically benefit people living in remote areas through a new source of electricity, and improved frequency and voltage levels for various uses that will ultimately result in socioeconomic growth. Overall, the social impact of the Project was determined to be positive for the local population and the country as a whole. The need for employment of locals is relatively high; the development is segregated from residential areas and is located at sufficient distance from existing settlements to avoid serious impact on residents. 6.7 Economical Appraisals of Kilondo hydropower plant RETScreen module was used to analyze economic viability of Kilondo hydropower project. From the module we get a payback of this project to be 1.2 years. Initial cost of the project is $ 7,805,206 and estimated annual revenue is $ 6,511,445. 6.7 Modeling of RETScreen module RETScreen module was used to analyze the viability of the project. The output calculated from this module were: Firm flow (35m3/s), Turbine peak efficiency (93.1%), Flow at peak efficiency (15.2 m3/s), Maximum hydraulic losses (89.7), power capacity (18,027kW), Capacity factor (82.6%) and electricity exported to grid (130,375MWh) 6.8 Sustainability of Kilondo Hydropower plant Sustainable small hydropower needs integration of three components economic, social and environmental protection as interdependent mutually reinforcing pillars. For Proposed Kilondo hydropower plant all these aspects has been addressed. Its benefits have been maximized and negative environmental, social and economic impacts have been avoided. At Kilondo village there is demand electricity and people are eager to pay for electricity bills. The payback period for this project is 1.2 years as calculated from the RETScreen module. In economic aspect Kilondo hydropower plant will: provide low operating cost, provide long life span, meets loads flexibly, provide reliable sources, instigates and foster rural development, provides highest energy efficiency rate (payback ratio), generate revenue to sustain other water uses, creates employment opportunity, saves fuel consumption, provides energy dependence by exploiting rural

resources. Socially Kilondo hydropower plant will: leave water available for other uses; provides opportunities for construction and operation with a high percentage of local manpower; Sustain live hoods. Environmental impact assessment for Kilondo hydropower plant has been done and shows there is negative impact on it. However the proposed project will bring the following benefits: produces no atmospheric pollutants and other green house gases emissions; enhance air quality; avoids depleting non-renewable fuel resources; creating new freshwater ecosystems with increased productivity; and will helps to slow down climate change. Proposed small hydropower plant will be sustainable and can be implemented. 6.9 Recommendations. For the Kilondo hydropower scheme to be sustainable there is a need to recognize entitlements and share benefits with directly affected people. A legal framework needs to be developed for enabling either the community or utility or any other private entity to take over the management of Kilondo hydropower system. The frame work should determine who would be responsible for paying for power injected into the grid. However there should be establishment of spin-off activities made possible via use of the generated electricity such as agro processing factories, manufacturing industries, and promotion of use of electricity in all new investments and redesigning of existing structures for business and social services. Finally there should be established a mechanism for training local electrical technicians, engineers and management Personnel for system maintenance. 7. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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