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Chapter 12: Geology and Nonrenewable Minerals 12-1 What are the earths major geological processes and

hazards? Dynamic processes move matter within the earth and on its surface and can cause volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, tsunamis and erosions. Geology study of dynamic processes occurring on the earths surface and its interior. Three concentric zone: a. Core earths inner most, extremely hot and has a solid inner part. Surrounded by a liquid core of molten or semisolid material. b. Mantle thick zone surrounding the core, most of it is solid rock. c. Asthenosphere outermost part, zone of hot, partly melted rocks that flows and can be deformed like soft plastic. Crust outermost and thinnest zone of the earth. Consists of: a. Continental crust underlies the continents. b. Oceanic crust underlies the ocean basins and makes up 71% of the earths crust. c. Lithosphere combination of the crust and the rigid, outermost part of the mantle.

Convention cells or currents move large volumes of rock and heat in loops within the mantle like gigantic conveyer belts. Tectonic plates lithosphere that break up into a dozen or so huge rigid plates caused by convection cells * Much of the geologic activity at the earths surface takes place at the boundaries between tectonic plates as they separate, collide, or slide past one another. Thee forces produced at these plate boundaries can cause mountains to form, earthquakes to shake parts of the crust, and volcanoes to erupt. Oceanic ridges forms when molten rock or magma flows through the cracks between the oceanic plates. Trench forms when two oceanic plates collide. Subduction process where in an oceanic plate collides with a continental plate, the continental plate usually rides up over the denser oceanic plate and pushes it down to the mantle. Subduction zone area where in subduction takes place. Transform faults a fracture or fault in the lithosphere.

Active volcano occurs where magma reaches the earths surface through a central vent or long crack called FISSURE Lava magma that reaches the earths surface. * Volcanic activity can release large chunks of lava rock, glowing hot ash, liquid lava, and gases ( water vapour, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide) into the environment. Seismic waves vibrations that form when there is an abrupt movement on an existing fault. Earthquake abrupt movement on an existing fault which move in all directions through the surrounding rock. Magnitude measure of ground notion or shaking caused by the earthquake. Amplitude size of the seismic waves when they reach a recording instrument called SEISMOGRAPH. Ritcher scale scale on which each unit has amplitude 10 times grater than the net smaller unit. Insignificant earthquake less than 4.0 on the Ritcher scale Minor 4.0-4.9 Damaging 5.0-5.9 Destructive 6.0-6.9 Major 7.0-7.9 Great over 8.0 Tsunami series of large waves generated when part of the ocean floor suddenly rises or drops. Often called tidal waves, although they have nothing to do with tides. Can be detected through a network of ocean buoys or pressure recorders located on the ocean floor to provide some degree of early warning.

12-2 How are the earths rocks recycled? The three types of rock found in the earths crust are recycled very slowly by physical and chemical processes. Mineral an element or inorganic compound that occurs naturally in the earths crust as a solid with a regular internal crystalline structure. Some consist of single element like gold while others are formed by various combinations of elements like salt or sodium chloride.

Rock solid combination of one or more minerals found in the earths crust. Some contain only one mineral like limestone and quartzite while others consist of two or mineral like granite, a mixture of mice, feldspar and quartz crystals. Three broad classes: Sedimentary made of sediments dead plants (lignite, bituminous coal) and animal remains (dolomite, limestone) and tiny particles of weathered and eroded rocks Sandstone, shale. Igneous - forms below or on the earths surface when magma wells up from the earths upper mantle or deep crust and then cools and hardens. Grava (forms underground), lava rock (forms aboveground) Metamorphic forms when a pre-existing rock is subjected to high temperatures, high pressures, chemically active fluids, or a combination of these agents. Slate (formed when shale and mud-stone are heated) marble (formed when limestone is exposed to heat and pressure)

Rock cycle the interaction of physical and chemical processes that change rocks from one type to another. This important form of natural capital recycles the earths three types of rocks over millions of years and is slowest of the earths cyclic processes.

12-3 Minerals in the earths crust can be made into useful products, but extracting and using these resources can disturb the land, erode soils, produce large amounts of solid waste, and pollute the air, water and soil. Mineral Resource- concentration of naturally occurring material from earths crust that can be extracted and processed into useful products and raw materials at an affordable cost Ex. Fossil fuels (such as coal), Metallic minerals (such as aluminum and gold), and Nonmetallic minerals (such as sand and limestone) Ore- rock that contains large concentration of a mineral to make it profitable for mining and processing High-grade ore- large concentration of desired mineral Low-grade ore- smaller concentration

Aluminum- used for packaging and structural material for vehicles, aircrafts and buildings Steel- essential material used in buildings and vehicles, mixture of Iron and other elements Copper- good conductor of electricity Gold- used in electrical equipment, tooth fillings, jewelry, coins and some medical implants Most widely used nonmetallic minerals are: Sand- mostly silicon dioxide (siO2), used to make glass, bricks, and concrete Gravel- used for roadbeds and to make concrete Limestone- mostly calcium carbonate (CaCO3), used to make road rock, concrete and cement

Reserves- identified resources from which the mineral can be extracted profitably at current prices

Life cycle of metal- mining, processing, and using it- takes large amounts of energy and water which can can disturb the land, erode soils, and pollute the air, water and soil. Surface mining Metal ore Separation of Smelting ore from gaunge Melting Metal

Conversion to product

Discarding of product

Extracting, Processing, and Using Nonrenewable Mineral and Energy Resources STEPS Mining Exploration, extraction Processing Transportation, purification, manufacturing Use Transportation or transmission to individual user, eventual use, and discarding ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS Disturbed land; mining accidents; health hazards; mine waste dumping; oil spill and blowouts; noise; ugliness; heat Solid wastes; radioactive material; air, water and soil pollution; noise; safety and health; ugliness Noise; ugliness; thermal water pollution; pollution of air, water, and soil; radioactive wastes; safety and health hazards; heat

Surface mining- shallow mining; materials lying over a deposit are removed to expose for processing Overburden- soil and rock overlying a useful mineral deposit is removed Spoils- piles of waste material *Type of surface mining depends on 2 factors: resource being sought and local topography Open-pit mining- machines dig very large holes and remove ores, sand, gravel and stones Strip mining- useful and economical for extracting minerals that lie in large horizontal bed near earths surface Area strip mining- terrain is fairly flat, gigantic earthmover strips away overburden and a power shovel to remove the mineral deposits Contour strip mining- used mostly to mine coal on hilly or mountainous terrain Highwall- highly erodible bank of soil and rock Draglines-huge machines used to remove the top of mountain and expose seams of coal, which are then removed Subsurface mining- deep deposits of mineral resources are removed through tunnels and shafts Hydraulic mining- water cannons wash entire hillsides into collection boxes for gold removal

Subsidence- collapse of land above some underground mines Two components of Ore extracted by mining: Ore mineral- containing the desired metal Gangue- waste material

Tailings- removing gaunge from ores produces waste piles Smelting- heating ores to release metals, cause water pollution and produce hazardous waste

12-4 Raising the price of scarce mineral resource can lead to increase in its supply, but there are environmental limits to this effect. *Top 5 nations abundant of nonrenewable minerals: US, Canada, Russia, South Africa, and Australia *Four strategic metal resources: manganese, cobalt, chromium, and platinum essential for countrys economic and military strength. Nanomaterials may substitute some of these metals. *Future supply of nonrenewable minerals depends on 2 factors: Actual or potential supply of mineral and the rate at which we use it Economically depleted- when a mineral costs more than its worth to find, extract, transport & process *Five choices: Recycle or reuse existing supplies, waste less, use less, find a substitute, or do without Geological process- determine the quantity and location of a mineral resource in the earths crust In-place (in situ)- process of using microorganisms to extract minerals Biomining- removes desired metals from ores through wells bored into the deposits

12 5 We can try to find substitutes for scarce resources, reduce resource waste, and recycle and reuse minerals WE CAN FIND SUBSTITUTES FOR SOME SCARCE MINERAL RESOURCES NANOTECHNOLOGY/TINY TECH = uses science and engineering to manipulate and create materials out of atoms and molecules at the ultra small scale of less than 100 nano meters (Science Focus, p.405) MATERIALS REVOLUTION = silicon and new materials, particularly ceramics and plastics, are being used as replacements for metals. o E.g. fiber optic glass cables replaces copper &aluminum wiresin telephone cables. o E.g. nano wires may replace optic glass cables o E.g. high strength plastics and composite materials strengthened by lightweight carbon and glass fiberstransform automobile and aerospace industries. Cost less than metals

Can be molded in any shape Increase fuel efficiency by greatly reducing he weights of motor vehicles

o o

Substitution is not a cure all. E.g. platinum = unrivalled as an industrial catalyst E.g. chromium = an essential ingredient of stainless steel

WE CAN RECYCLE AND REUSE VALUABLE METALS Recyclinghas a much lower environmental impact than that of mining and processing metals from ores o E.g. recycling aluminium beverage cans and scrap aluminium produces 95% less air pollution; 97% less water pollution; 95% less energy Cleaning up and reusing items instead of melting and processing them has an even lower environmental impact. WE CAN USE MINERAL RESOURCES MORE SUSTAINABLY SUSTAINABLE USE OF NONRENEWABLE MINERALS Do not waste mineral resources Recycle and reuse 60 80% of mineral resources Include the harmful environmental costs of mining and processing minerals in the price of items (full cost pricing) Reduce mining subsidies. Increase subsidies for recycling, reuse, and finding substitutes. Redesign manufacturing processes to use less mineral resources and to produce less pollution and waste (cleaner production). Use mineral resource wastes of one manufacturing process as raw materials for other processes. Slow population growth. CASE STUDY (p.411) INDUSTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS: COPYING NATURE An important goal for a sustainable society is to make its industrial manufacturing processes cleaner and more sustainable by redesigning them to mimic how nature deals with wastes. In nature, the wastes outputs of one organism becomes the nutrient inputs of another organism All of the Earths nutrients are endlessly cycled. WAYS FOR INDUSTRIES TO MIMIC NATURE: o Recycle and reuse most minerals instead of dumping them into the environment.

Interact through resource exchange webs in which the waste of one manufacturer becomes raw materials for another.

Kalundborg, Denmark o An electric power plant and nearby industries, farms, and homes are collaborating to save money and reduce their outputs of waste and pollution. o They exchange waste outputs and convert them to resources. BROWNFIELDS = are abandoned industrial sites.

Those working in the rapidly growing field of industrial ecology are focusing on developing a global network of industrial ecosystems over the next few decades. ECONOMIC BENEFITS OF BIOMIMICRY FOR BUSINESSES: o Reduce the cost of managing slid wastes o Controlling pollution o Complying with pollution regulations o Reduce a companys chances of being sued because of harms caused by their actions o Companys improve the health and safety of workers 3 BIG IDEAS: 1. Dynamic forces that move matter within the earth and on its surface recycle the earths rocks, form deposits of mineral resources, and cause volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. 2. The available supply of mineral resource depends on how much of it is in the earths crust, how fast we use it, mining technology, market prices, and the harmful environmental effects of removing of using it. 3. We can use mineral resources more sustainably by trying to find substitutes for scarce resources, reducing resource waste, and reusing or recycling non-renewable minerals.