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EUROCON 2003 Ljubljana, Slovenia

Professional Mobile system - TETRA over IP and IP over TETRA

Borut Dolanc, M a t j a i Judei Telekom Slovenije,d.d TC Network Monitoring, Management & Maintenance Department Cigaletova 15, 1000 Ljubljana Slovenia

email: ,

independent on the network, i.e. without mediation of base stations. Standard designation is ETS 300 396-x. Abstract- Terrestrial Trunked Radio is a system used for professional mobile radio or public access mobile radio. TETRA is designed for different institutions: Dam, Telekom, airports, security organisations, etc. The system is applied for wireless technologies like IP over Tetra, Tetra over IP, and WAP. We dcsrribe this kind of system (IP/TETRA,TETRAnP,WAP). The most important point of the system is encryption data for different kind of users. We describe a system which already exists in Slovenia.
I n d a Terms- standard TETRA Voice+Data, standard TETRA Packet Data Optimised, Tetra over IP, IPover Tetra, WAP.




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Fig. 1. TETRA V+D and PDO channel. 151

TETRA PDO (Packet Data Optimised): this is a specific version, optimised for packet data transmission via radio channels. As a difference to the V t D mode, PDO mode of operation does not contain the CMCE (Circuit Mode Connection Entity) protocol, so that it does not support line type services and short message services. Standard designation is ETS 300 393X.

I. TETRA [1,2,4,5,6]
ETRA i s a Terrestrial Trunked Radio system for responding to the needs of private and public mobile radio users (PMR- Professional Mobile Radio / PAMRPublic Access Mobile Radio), as defined by ETSI. An additional reason for choosing the TETRA system is also the Schengen Acquis which mentions the use of this system for public safety and State purposes. Similar to GSM, which had replaced NMT in the field of mobile radio phones, the present analog mobile radio systems (eg. MPT1327 - Ministry of Post and Telecommunications) will be replaced by a new digital system, based on EU standard, such as [4], [SI, [ 6 ] and [7]. From the technical point of view, ETSI has specified three modes of operation: TETRA V+D (Voice + Data): this mode is optimised for mixed (simultaneous) transfer of sound and data. The protocol enables four simultaneous line switched channels (sound or line switched data) and simultaneous packet data transmission via control channel. Standard designation is ETS 300 392-x. TETRA DMO (Direct Mode Operation): mobile stations communicate with each other by using radio interface for direct communication mode (mobile to - mobile). This mode of operation includes also repeater and gateway functions. In this mode, intercommunication of. mobile stations is

Fig. 2. DMO mode of operation. 16)

Data communications are divided into: short data services and status services, line type data and packed data, IP data (IP over TETRA). Short data services SDS enable TETRA users to send short data packets. SDS messages are sent via signalling or control channels with available free capacity, this means in parallel with the active voice call. The length of user messages can be

0-7803-7763-X/03/$17.0002003 IEEE


EUROCON 2003 Ljubljana, Slovenia either fixed or variable. This group comprises also status messages, which are either predefined messages or userdefined messages.


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layer addrcss (e.g. IPv6 address), Individual TETRA Subscriber Identity ITS1 and Network Service Access Point Identifier NSAPl in SwMI (Switching and Management Infrastructure), MS and GGSN (Gateway GPRS Support Node). Aftenvards, data transmission is controlled between MS and SwMI. The SNDCP protocol itself does not offer setvices with confirmation, hut it can choose a servicc with confirmation on another protocol level, via radio interface.

Fig. 3. Example of status messages application. 131

IP routing&mnediation

11. IP OVER TETRA [2,7,8]

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Standard TETRA introduced many innovations which enable that thz offered voice and data carrier services keep pace with the time and customers' demands. Possibility of data transmission by means of protocols, h o w from fixed networks, is of special interest. Similar to all up-to-date networks TETRA, too, enables using the TCPllP protocols. By using these protocols, universal suitability o f customeroriented applications is assured.

Fig. 5. Transmission plane of mobile termination MT and switching management infrastructure SwMI. 171 The advantage of IP protocol in TETRA network is access to IP of networks and Intemet, because the users already know well the services of these networks. An essential drawback is relatively low data transmission speed. It will be possible to avoid this drawback, because ETSl has confirmed the specification of project TETRA Release 2, where also hizh speed data transmission will he specified (HSD). The first is TAPS (TETRA Advanced Packed Service) standard for high speed data transmission, based on adaptation of GPRS and EDGE systems. The second phase of TETRA HSD should he the concept of TEDS (TETRA Enhanced Data Service) standard. This standard will allow variable data transmission speed via channels with different bandwidths. In the second case, the IP protocol is located in mobilc terminal equipment TE. The protocol between TE and MT is called Peripheral Equipment Interface PE1 (Fig. 6 ) . The personal computer application sends, via a radio station, the request for data in the form of a datagraph IP, which travels through TETRA network and Packet Data Gateway PDGW, up to the external host- data server. For sending a datagraph IP in the IP network, the personal computer must have a valid IP address. After sending the datagraph with the request for data, the personal computer waits for the answer of the extemal data sewer. When the answer reaches the PDGW, it routes the answer to the radio station and the latter routes it back to the personal computer. TETRA uses for datagraph routing, at the radio interface level, the identification number of radio station ITS1 (Individual TETRA Subscriber Identity). To enable the answer to reach the appropriate radio station, the system must know which Individual TETRA Subscriber Identity corresponds to the IP address, from which arrived the request for data transmission.

Fig. 4. Example of architecture of I P over TETRA network. 13) IP protocol presence depends on the reference structure of mobile station. IP protocol may be located in thc mobile termination MT or in the mobile terminal equipment TE. When present in MT,it includes also the terminal equipment function. The most important protocol in this plane is the SuhNetwork Dependent Convergence Protocol SNDCP, located between MLE (Mohilehase Link Entity) and IP protocol. First, the registration andlor activation of compliance is carried out. PDP compliance is a uniform relation between upper protocol


EUROCON 2003 Ljubljana, Slovenia The system must also know in' which cell is located the radio station, for which the data are intended. Upon completed data exchange, the TETRA system releases the seized resources, which thus become available to other users. transmission. This happens when a mobile station passes from one switching & management infrastructure to another. Packet data network is connected to TETRA system via Gateway GPRS Support Node. GGSN is similar to the combination of protocol gateway, firewall and IP router. GCSN controls the interfaces to extemal IP networks, intemet service providers, routers and nodes. GCSN network element is connected to IP backbone network or to extemal IP packet network via Gi interface. Border gateways BG are required for connection o f internal backbone networks via inter-network backbone network BG, and the interface is called Gp. An Inter-System interface IS1 is foreseen for interconnection of two SwMI networks. IS1 is intended for mobility management among TETRA systems. IS1 mobility management is used for customer's data transmission, related to the IP.

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Fig. 6 . Transmission plane of mobile terminal equipment TE, mobile termination M T and switching and management infrastructure SwMI. 171 Interface PDGW (Packet Data Gateway) for data conversion must ensure safe 1P services over TETRA. The interface can ensure this by using TCP/UDP/IP standards with dynamic or static IP address allocation, and with transfer and tracking among the switches. It is mandatory to use an advanced connection. The most advanced connection is thc connectionoriented two-way connection between the terminal and the base station. Such a conncction provides confirmed service or unconfirmed service, windowing, segmenting, extended error protection and selection of different flows, The interface must also ensure head compression and segmentation of IP datagraphs, by compression of TCP/IP head, 1P head and data. The terminal interface should be simple to use and installed by means of the Plug-and-Play function. The next figure shows the reference model of TETRA IPI (1P Interworking) network. TETRA 1PI is the basis for interconnection of two TETRA networks for IP data Fig. 7. TETRA IP reference model. 171 The range of services is increased by using the IP over TETRA mode of operation; namely access to data bases, picture transmission (only one TETRA IP data window is already sufficient for transmission, and the technology. suitable for compression is JPEG2000), use of WAP and Web hnp services, horizontal applications such as e-mail and calendar, workgroup management, information about vehicles, monitoring and control, video clip broadcasting . ..


EUROCON 2003 Ljubljana, Slovenia



Fig. 8. Geographic vehicle location tracking, itinerary planning, defining the nearest vehiele for action. [3

IP enables convergence of fixed and mobile, voice and data communications. New trends are reflected in excellent service quality, systcm adaptability, harmonised standards, various integrated services, and a new service in the "push-to-talk" mode of communication. The customers notice the new service quality, based on communication and information technology convergence. The figure above shows trpical topology of TETRA over IP network, where all devices are interconnected by physical Ethernet access. Internal backbone is constituted by IP network.
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111. TETRA WAP [2,7,8,Y]

Adaptation of WAP protocol to TETRA system began in April 1999, and it was first installed and offered to the users in September 2000. Key advantage of WAP protocol is delivety and display of the largest number of information with minimum data quantity. WAP standard adapts the TCPilP protocol to the radio medium which, in a corresponding server, additionally adapts the application for using with a simple keyboard and with a small radio terminal screen.

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Fig. 10. Typical topology of TETRA over IP network. 131 Next figure shows making a call via 1P network. Terminal station with ID number 20555 and IP address 1P1 wants to communicate with terminal station with ID number 20560, located in another base station area. When the first terminal station expresses a wish for conununicatian, it obtains the corresponding IP address which belongs to ID number 20560 from data base: based on this, a call is established. TETRA voice data are transmitted through network as IP packets.

Fig. 9. Example of network arhitecture. (31 With no need for an additional personal computer we avoid the costs for expensive additional equipment. The abovementioned protocol reduces the maintenance costs, by using standard general-purpose terminal equipment and software. The same software is used for fixed and mobile networks, and the applications are installed only on the server. Two transmission technologies are used, '"pull" and '"push". With the first one, data are received on customer's request, i.e. data retrieval from the central base. With the "push" technology, information is sent to the customer without his request. This group comprises work order issuing, group messages, mobilisation messages, advertising applications (e.g. promotion actions) ...

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Transmission a f l P Radio area has I P packets address 1P2

Fig. 11. Establishment o f individual call. 191 Communications between TETRA base station and SwMl are carried out via three transmission planes, namely, via the control C-Plane (TETRA Control Plane), user U-Plane (TETRA User Plane) and maintenance M-Plane (Maintenance Plane). The control plane enables to establish a call, sending short data messages SDS, sending status

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EUROCON 2003 Ljubljana, Slovenia messages ..., with recommended use of the TCP protocol. The control plane requires recognising of all messages, aperiodical sending of packets and it allows short and long messages. User plane requires periodical packet sending, allows sending of only short messages and does not require recognising of all arrived messages. Use of UDP protocol is recommended, and on a higher level, use of ACELP (Advanced Code Excited Linear Prediction) TETRA voice coded. Maintenance plane allows the owners of the network to access the TETRA system by means of standard 1P network monitoring tools. The best solution for the abovementioned plane is using standard services, such as: U-Plane M-Plane

[I] I. Dunlop, Digital Mobile Communications and the TETRA System, Uniwnity afStrathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland. 1999 121 Lntckom, Study of pubiie national radio system, Telckom Slavenije intemal library material, Ljubljana, 2002

[I] h n p : l l p o r t a l . e t r i . o ~ ~ E T R A i t e t r a _ p r e r e n [4] European Telecommunication Standard ETS 300 392.1, TETRA Voice Plus Data, Genemi Network Design, 1998 [SI European Telecommunication Standard ETS 300 393-1, TETRA Packet Dala Optimised. Genbral Network Design, 1998 [6] European Telecommunication Standard ETS 300 193-1, TETRA Direct Made, General Nework Design, 1998 [7] European Telecommunication Standard ETS TS 101 747, Terrestrial Trunked Radio (TETRA). Voice plus Dala (V+D). 1P Interworking
(iri). 2001


181 1P over TETRA & TETRA over IP. Led by Telrianic, Nokia & Matamla, Niea Acrapoli~,France. November 2002 91 hnp:iluww.tetramou.cod: l n t ~ ~ c t i o n t ~ TETRA Over Ip (TOPI), Ranko Pinier, Simaco Digital Systems

Fig. 12. Protocol set. 181

FTP (File Transfer Protocol-file transmission): On these servers, customers obtain a series of different data, including publicly owned software and trial programs, however only in pure text form. Telnet (pseudo-terminal): service which uses, as a standard, the 7-bit character set ASCII (8-bit characters are used only as command characters). It enables sending a complete line in packet (not only character-bycharacter). HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)-protocol for transmission of hypertext. Each web site contains a server process waiting for demands for connection. When the connection is established, the customer sends one demand (e.g. for page transmission) and the server sends one answer (e.g. a web page), after which the connection is interrupted. The protocol defines the demands and the answers. SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol): Detection of alarms and online information.
In TETRA system, the boundary between State and public use is not clearly defined but is overlapping, therefore two basic approaches are possible. The first one is to build a uniform network for all users. Owing to the fact that all public safety services have higher demands concerning reliability and availability of system operation than commercial users, there is a tendency that a physically completely separated network should be built for the public safety users group. This means building of two physical networks. There is, of course, the question of economical justification for such an approach.