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Z Amber Richter, ID: 13585181 Final Essay MODULE: 1VIS7A9.1 - Creative Digital Technology Course Leader, Alison Craighead January 19, 2012 The Cultural Amalgamation Which Produced Mare Trallas Protected The first GPS satellite was launched by the US government in 1978, completed in 1995, and by the year 2000 there was a large civilian demand for the use of GPS technology1. CCTV was first used in Germany in 1942 to observe a V-2 rocket launch, then again in the UK at Trafalgar square during 1960 with the visit of the Thai royal family, and to surveille Guy Fawkes activities later that year 2. In a similar vein of military orientated workings rather than peaceful creative inspiration, U.S. president Dwight Eisenhowers desperation to stay technologically on par with the Soviet Sputnik I satellite in 1957 spawned the establishment of the Advanced Research Projects Agency Network and governmental research commissions therein, leading to the merging of private commercial entities with those research projects during the 1960s. During the 1980s the National Science Foundations funding of a backbone network lead to the standardization of Internet Protocol Suite (TCP/IP) in 1982, which in turn led to further commercial expansion spawning Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and other worldwide networking technologies. Ultimately the web was commercialized by the1990s3, allowing Lefebvre's leisure machines4 part of traditional media, to rise up and join with new media5 technology metamorphosing into a cultural deluge of state, utilitarian, social and artistic applications of new media. To contextualize, by various estimates it took radio somewhere between thirty five and thirty eight years

Randy James, A Brief History of GPS, Time Magazine (online edition), 2009: <http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1901500,00.html>. 2 Wikipedia.org, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closed-circuit_television>. 3 Bill Stewart, et al. contributors, LivingInternet.com (date unlisted): <http://www.livinginternet.com/i/ii.htm, Internet History>, Wikipedia.org: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet and http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Internet>. 4 Henri Lefebvre, Critique of Everyday Life, Volume One, translated by John Moore (London & New York: Verso, 1991), p. 33. 5 See new media as defined by Martin Lister, Jon Dovey, Seth Giddings, Iain Grant and Kieran Kelly, New Media, A Critical Introduction, Second Edition (Oxon, New York: Routledge 2009), p. 9-99.

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to capture an audience of fifty million, thirteen years for TV to reach an audience of the same amount, but only four to five years to reach fifty million users via the internet6. It is against the backdrop of this technological boom of the 1990s when we find Estonian artist, Mare Tralla, whose roots lie in establishing a feminist art scene in Estonia with several of her contemporaries. Tralla, born in 1967 in Tallinn, was working to establish herself as an artist as Estonia was gaining its independence, and at a time when it seemed to these artists that gender issues were culturally ignored by a society which had considered itself to be genderless in a communist 'comrade' context7. If the field of cultural studies affirms that cultural myths8 abound and reflect popular ideology, then the cultural myths of Estonia were no exception, and some were particularly problematic for women. In Private Views, Barbi Pilvre writes of the problematic of myth in Estonian culture as far as women were concerned: At times when their whole life is upturned, people hang on to the grand narratives of their culture. The myth of the powerful Estonian woman constitutes such a narrative in contemporary Estonia... To shake the foundation myths of a culture is an unappreciated and rank exercise.9 Pilvre goes on to specifically address the myth of this so-called genderless society: During the Soviet period, as is well-known, class provided the exclusive focus of state and academic discourse. Consequently, gender never rose to be a significant category for the analysis of social relations. There were neither women nor men; just comrades, the working class and its historical opponents. Gender was practically eliminated in theory while it also fell outside the parameters of political discourse... Gender was mainly understood as a personal trait akin to other personality attributes and was not therefore considered constitutive of ones identity.10 But the absence of gender identity threatens to foster a certain level of social denial leading to the neglect in the unique needs of women, and Pilvre goes on to suggest as much, broaching the social problems of poor reproductive healthcare and workplace biases against those women who might elude or defy the established working mother archetype.

United Nations, Global Teaching and Learning Project, UN Cyberschoolbus (date unlisted):<www.un.org/cyberschoolbus>, also Ondi Timoners We Live in Public, (2009). 7 Angela Dimitrakaki, Pam Skelton, Mare Tralla, Private Views: Spaces and Gender in Contemporary Art from Britain and Estonia, (London: Women's Art Library, 2000), p. 60-61. 8 Roland Barthes, Mythologies, Translated by Annette Lavers (New York: Noonday; Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1972). 9 Dimitrakaki, Skelton,Tralla, Private Views, p. 60. 10 Dimitrakaki, Skelton,Tralla, Private Views, p. 61, 62-63.

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Tralla, in writing about the motives of fellow artist, Eha Komissarov, with respect to Estonias first feminist art exhibition, Est.Fem, which took place at three different Tallinn galleries: Vaal, City Gallery, and Mustpeade Maja in 1995, underscores their urgency to establish a feminist art scene during a given sociopolitical climate void of representation for women, let alone LGBT people: [Eha Komissarov] became convinced of the need for feminist art in Estonia regardless of what others thought. She wrote about that time in the exhibition catalogue: My first experiences with feminism became soon a conviction, that the questions of gender and identity are completely alienated in Estonia and dealing with feminism would mean to voluntary banish oneself from society.11

Mare Tralla, A Toy (1995), video installation still and Toomas Volkmann, David and Warren (1994) photography print, Est.Fem source: www.arthistoryarchive.com/arthistory/european/Estonian-Artists.html

A socio-political climate poised to ignore the spectre of an unacknowledged phantom under the cloak of accepted ideology is difficult for invested parties to defeat. Potential opponents to popular ideology would be pressed to find novel ways to transform their resistance and gain support. The new frontier of cyberspace essentially transformed the ways in which politically active artists might express their agendas and communicate with a far broader artistic community through this novel medium.

11

Mare Tralla,Disgusting Girl, Moscow Art Magazine, No 22, 1998: <http://www.guelman.ru/xz/english/XX22/X2221.HTM>.

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It is a foregone conclusion that the internet provided social anonymity where desired, but subsequently, considering Listers foundational definition of the virtual12 as a characteristic of new media, and Balsamos description of the transformative properties of the (female) cyborg body13, the sheer virtue of the properties of the cyberspace medium then enabled Tralla and other emerging artists, particularly hegemonically targeted artists, to embrace the ability to transcend their physical bodies and concrete environments. Following Est.Fem, Tralla established herself as a performance, video, and cyberfeminist14 artist breaking out with such works as Love-Line. Advisor. and my very first webpage- it does not have a name (all circa late 1990s) and the her.space CD-ROM (1998), which she produced while earning her MA in Hypermedia Studies at University of Westminster in London during 1997.

Screenshot from Mare Trallas Love-Line. Advisor. (circa late 1990s) all ss. sources: http://artun.ee/~trimadu/www.html

12 13

Lister, et al., New Media, p 13, 35-37. Anne Balsamo, Technologies of the Gendered Body, Reading Cyborg Women, (Duke University, 1996), p. 11. 14 Susan Hawthorne and Renate Klein, Cyberfeminism, Connectivity, Critique + Creativity, (North Melbourne: Spinifex,1999).

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Screenshot from Mare Trallas Love-Line. Father. (circa late 1990s)

Screenshots from Mare Trallas my very first webpage- it does not have a name (circa late 1990s) (clicking male or pervert leads to the second screen; clicking female, transsexual, or secret leads to the third)

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While the internet hardly represented a gender-friendly utopia, as Cutting Edge, The Womens Research Group underscores when they trace the emerging cyberflneuse15 during the early 2000s; navigating virtual boulevards which were male dominated, and held possibilities of verbal abuse and harassment towards women, yet cyberspace enabled unprecedented opportunities for raw creative and political expression, breaking through barriers of the physical body, cultural boundaries and taboos, and censorship. Simultaneously, the late twentieth century also marked the rise of routine public surveillance. Though mainstream western culture generally and increasingly acclimatized itself to the presence of CCTV, some construed this shift with critical and suspicious consciousness, conceptualizing routine surveillance as a threat to personal freedom at best, and mass hegemonic control at worst; not unlike Foucaults examination of Benthams Panopticon16, that man-made structure designed to watch every action of prisoners, students or any group under institutional governance: The panoptic mechanism arranges spatial unities that make it possible to see constantly and to recognize immediately. In short, it reverses the principle of the dungeon; or rather of its three functions - to enclose, to deprive of light and to hide - it preserves only the first and eliminates the other two. Full lighting and the eye of a supervisor capture better than darkness, which ultimately protected. Visibility is a trap.17 Mismatched though it may seem to compare any late twentieth century apparatus to one of the eighteenth century, similarities were construed. As live and captured video, and location and navigational tracking, became increasingly commonplace, discourses and in particular, artistic responses, to public and private surveillance became plentiful and varied paradigms emerged. Some artist embraced personal surveillance; self surveillance, by some estimations actualizing a form of voyeurism for art's sake and life as performance art, like the long-term lifecasts web projects from

15

Cutting Edge, The Womens Research Group (Editors), Digital Desires, Language, Identity, and New Technology, (London, New York: I.B. Tauris, 2000), p. 90-102 for a description of this digital age female flneur. 16 Jeremy Bentham, The Panopticon Writings, Ed. Miran Bozovic (London: Verso, 1995), p. 29-95. 17 Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish, the Birth of the Prison, Translated by Alan Sheridan, Second Edition, (New York: Vintage Books/Random House, 1979), p. 200.

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webcam girls like Jennifer Ringley with jennicam.com18 and Ana Voog with anacam.com, in 1996 and 1997 respectively, thus introducing the micro-celebrity19 phenomenon.

Jennifer Ringley on jennicam.com (circa late 1990s) source: http://art110.wikispaces.com

Ana Voog of anacam.com source: http://ana.livejournal.com/

18 19

Defunct as of 2004; see BBC News Channel: <http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/magazine/3360063.stm>. See Terri Senfts Micro-Celebrity: Questions and Answers with Reporters, 2009: <http://tsenft.livejournal.com/405860.html>.

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Some blurred the lines of surveillance as art, experiment and some claim, exploitation20, like Josh Harris' infamous Quiet: We Live in Public (1999), whose goal seemed to float along the lines of a Warholesque exhibitionist hedonist party, and spawned Ondi Timoners popular documentary 21 a decade later. Others like Natalie Jeremijenko, Kate Rich, and Daniela Tiganis Bureau of Inverse Technology project (1991), Eva and Franco Mattes Vopos (2000), and the Track-the-Trackers project (circa 2001) utilized Foucauldian discourses on surveillance capabilities through counter-surveillance and sousveillance, merging tactical technical savvy with irony, or theatrical means. Surveillance Camera Players (founded 1996) actually performed for the CCTV cameras on the streets of New York .

Surveillance Camera Players promo (circa 1996), source: notbored.org and sousveillance camera necklace, source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sousveillance

These projects broached general questions concerning privacy, human rights, hegemonic control and some, like Hasan Elahi's trackingtransience.net (2004) sought to expose the profiling and subjective criminalization of people of colour through the use of surveillance technology.

20

See interrogation artist, Ashkan Sahihi and documentary cameraman, Max Hellers comments in scenes in Ondi Timoner, We Live in Public (2009). 21 Timoner, We Live in Public (2009).

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In the tradition of Track-the-Trackers, we can look to Mare Tralla's Protected series (2008) for an outright rejection of being surveilled through a basic form of counter surveillance: actually painting the tools of surveillance. Protected, embarked upon in Edinburgh, wasn't a cyber art project per se, but a byproduct of public surveillance technology.

Mare Tralla, Protected street installation, Edinburgh (2008) source: ARC Projects photos

Protected shifts the artist from surveillance, or 'self surveillance' subject, to surveilling the surveillancer and CCTV cameras become the subjects in a two prong process: the first part transpired as performance art 'happenings' where Tralla set up easels across locations around Edinburgh22 where CCTV cameras were located, tracked the subtle movements of these CCTV cameras and, as Art Research Communcation put, it in an almost 16th century tradition23, painted the images of these CCTV cameras. The second phase of the process represented the gallery presentation of these works, plus a floral embellished CCTV camera, and conspicuous soft sculpture; the bottom half of a female torso with a photo placed in a hole at the crotch (photography and video were added at later exhibitions). Protected showed in Mutatis Mutandis, at Edinburghs Embassy Annex, Tallinn Art Hall Gallery (solo), and at Hack.Fem.EAST, Berlin throughout 2008.
22 23

See <http://www.embassygallery.org/egarchive03-08/current.htm for her list of locations>. Art Research Communication (blog, author unlisted) (Aug. 24, 2008 entry): <http://www.art-researchcommunication.net/weblog/?m=200808>.

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Mare Trallas Protected, paintings on canvas and soft sculpture with photo insert, Mutatis Mutandis, Embassy Annex, Edinburgh (2008) source: ARC Projects photos

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Mare Trallas Protected soft sculpture floral embellished CCTV camera, Mutatis Mutandis (2008) source: ARC Projects photos

Protected in its entirety falls squarely within the discourse of how media technology has affected a traditional arts concept. This is post-surveillance era subject matter, again shifting the watched to the watcher, the observer, and the capturer of images of the tools of surveillance. This acts as an affront to the surveillers, particularly when one considers that in some locations, it frowned upon or potentially illegal to photograph CCTV cameras24. Futher, the particularity of a female artist embarking on this theme points toward a feminist version of the double consciousness25 theory explored by W.E.B. Du Bois and later by Gilroy26, which addresses the double identity, the problematic of existing as both a member of society and as a person of colour within a hegemonic society. In this tradition, Tralla represents not only one of the surveilled, she represents the female, the object of surveillance on a far more extensive level and in this instance she does not offer herself up to be an object of voyeurism or surveillance. Tralla, in the first part of her installation may want to be seen publically painting, but she moves beyond being observed and

24 25

See British Transport Police site: <http://www.btp.police.uk/passengers/advice_and_information/rail_enthusiasts.aspx>. See W.E.B. Du Bois, Brent Hayes Edwards The Souls of Black Folk (originally published 1903) (Oxford, New York: Oxford University, 2007). 26 Paul Gilroy, The Black Atlantic: Modernity and Double Consciousness (London, New York: Verso, 1993).

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objectified by her ability to be present and interact with passers-by as she acts in a direct response to surveillance. In revisiting Foucaults assessment of the Panopticon: ...the major effect of the Panopticon: to induce in the inmate a state of conscious and permanent visibility that assures the automatic functioning of power. So to arrange things that the surveillance is permanent in its effects, even if it is discontinuous in its action; that the perfection of power should tend to render its actual exercise unnecessary... The Panopticon is a machine for dissociating the see/being seen dyad: in the peripheric ring, one is totally seen, without ever seeing; in the central tower, one sees everything without ever being seen27 one construes the seductive nature of contemporary public surveillance facilitated by its omnipresence and simultaneous camouflaged presence. Trallas act of publically capturing the images of the tools of surveillance marks the potential of the artists presence to act as a catalyst for spontaneous discourses on how everyday citizens feel about being surveilled. The staging of such an event defies surveillance being accepted or ignored and literally draws attention to our social acclimatization, even apathy, towards surveillance, which has the potential to reignite ambivalence at least, and social rebellion at best. Overall there seems to be a deficit of critical analyses and discourses directly pertaining to Protected, but one doesnt wish to launch into a metadiscursive diatribe here. Rather, let it serve to construe the Tates Surveillance and Control Symposium28 as evidence that discourses on surveillance as a social problematic entered the mainstream quite some time ago and have been in our cultural consciousness for decades, perhaps to the degree that contemporary artists, critics, scholars, and many ordinary citizens inherently comprehend Protecteds thematic language having already witnessed the cultural amalgamation which shaped Mare Trallas Protected series.

27 28

Foucault, Discipline and Punish..., p. 201 202. See Tate Channels Surveillance and Control Symposium, 2002: <http://channel.tate.org.uk/media/38482994001#media:/media/38482994001/26086710001&context:/channel/mostpopular>.

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Mare Tralla: <http://artun.ee/homepages/mare/kmm.html>. Accessed 26/11/11. Mare Tralla, this is my first web page - it does not have a name (circa late 1990s): <http://old.artun.ee/~mare/kmm.html>. Accessed: 26/11/11. Mare Tralla, Love Line (circa late 1990s): <http://artun.ee/~trimadu/love.html>. Accessed: 26/11/11. Mare Tralla, How was now then (1999): <http://old.artun.ee/~mare/fairy/>. Accessed: 26/11/11. Mare Tralla, Disgusting Girl, Moscow Art Magazine, No 22, 1998, <http://www.guelman.ru/xz/english/XX22/X2221.HTM>. Accessed: 4/12/11. Mare Tralla, Katy Deepwell (Editor), T.Est.Art, n.paradoxa, (online issue) No 5, November, 1997: <http://www.ktpress.co.uk/pdf/nparadoxaissue5_Mare-Tralla_57-65.pdf>. Accessed: 07/01/12. Rich Trenholm, We Live in Public: Crave reviews the dotcom documentary, Crave, 2009: <http://crave.cnet.co.uk/gadgets/we-live-in-public-crave-reviews-the-dotcom-documentary49304301/>. Accessed: 27/11/11. United Nations, Global Teaching and Learning Project, UN Cyberschoolbus (date unlisted): <http://www.un.org/cyberschoolbus/briefing/technology/tech.pdf>. Accessed: 5/01/12. Ana Voog, anacam.com (2010): <http://anacam.com/>. Accessed: 3/12/11. Wikipedia page, Wikipedia.org: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Global_Positioning_System>. Accessed: 4/12/11. Wikipedia page, Wikipedia.org: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Closed-circuit_television>. Accessed: 4/12/11. Wikipedia page, Wikipedia.org: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jennifer_Ringley>. Accessed: 3/12/11. Wikipedia page, Wikipedia.org: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Estonia>. Accessed: 04/12/11. Wikipedia page, Wikipedia.org: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Internet>. Accessed: 26/12/11. Wikipedia page, Wikipedia.org: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Internet>. Accessed: 26/12/11. Wikipedia page, Wikipedia.org: <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sousveillance>. Accessed: 07/01/12. David Wood, Foucault and Panopticism Revisited, Surveillance and Society, Vol 1, Issue 3, 2003: <http://www.surveillance-and-society.org/journalv1i3.htm>. Accessed: 4/12/11.