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Research Paper Holocaust Overview

Malachi Knoll

ENG COMP 102-106 Larry Neuburger 2 April 2012

Knoll 1 One can agree a dictatorship is not an ideal form of Government. However, during World War II a dictatorship was established quickly, efficiently, and enforced harshly. One may wonder how such a brute force of government, that condemns every single person that goes against it, came to power so fluently. The government being referred to is commonly known as the Nazi Party or Third Reich. This paper is going to go over the rise and control of the Nazi regime, and going to show what just one government was able to accomplish in just a few years, and some of the aftermath that followed. Nazi rise to power According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), The party's rise to power was rapid. (Hitler Comes to Power). It goes on to say, the worldwide economic depression, millions of people unemployed, Germanys humiliating defeat in World War I, and a lacking confidence in the German
Hitler looks out over his troops.

government, provided the chance for Adolf Hitler and the

Nazi party to become the new leader of Germany. Furthermore, it states the Nazis were for the most part unknown and only had three percent of the vote in 1924. In 1932, they had a 33 percent vote and in 1933, Hitler was appointed to chancellor after months of negotiations by Germanys current President, Paul von Hindenburg, in a mostly conservative government. (Hitler Comes to Power) Another article on the USHMM website states, Hitler also relied on terror to achieve his goals. (The Nazi Terror Begins). It says that the goals he wanted to achieve were declaring a state of emergency, removing freedom of press, speech and assembly. Furthermore, it says in order to terrorize the citizens into submission, Hitler attracted tens of thousands of men with good wages, a feeling of brotherhood, and spectacular uniforms to join the Nazi Storm

Knoll 1 Troopers, or SA. The SA went to the streets to beat and sometimes kill people that opposed the Nazi regime. The fear of this brutal police force, put people who did not support the Nazis into silence (The Nazi Terror Begins). Nuremberg laws In 1935, shortly after Hitlers appointment to
A visual graph of the Nuremberg laws defining a Jew.

chancellor, the Nazi party announced new laws, establishing the Nazi ideology. An article on the USHMM website says that the laws became known as Nuremberg Laws and The laws excluded German Jews from Reich citizenship and prohibited them from marrying or having sexual relations with persons of German or related blood. (The Nuremberg Race Laws). Furthermore, it goes on to say that the laws defined a Jew as . . . anyone who had three or four Jewish grandparents was defined as a Jew, regardless of whether that individual identified himself or herself as a Jew or belonged to the Jewish religious community. (The Nuremberg Race Laws) The article goes on to read that during the 1936 Olympic Games, in order to prevent international critical criticism on his newly established government, and to keep the games held in Berlin, Hitler and the Nazi regime moderated its anti-Semitic attacks and even removed signs saying Jews Unwelcome from public buildings (The Nuremberg Race Laws). Kristallnacht Kristallnacht, or the Night of Broken Glass, was a pogrom instigated by Nazi officials and members of the SA, as well as Hitler Youth according to the USHMM website. It also states, In its aftermath, German officials announced

A business after Kristallnacht.

Knoll 1 that Kristallnacht had erupted as a spontaneous outburst of public sentiment in response to the assassination of Ernst vom Rath . . . (Kristallnacht: A Nationwide Pogrom). The article says that Polish Jew, Herschel Grynszpan shot Ernst vom Rath after he and his family, among many others, were expelled from Germany and denied entry to their native country of Poland. The shooting occurred on November 7, 1938 and Ernst died two days later on November 9, 1938. Furthermore, it reads propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels, on that night pronounced the Fhrer has decided that demonstrations should not be prepared or organized by the Party, but insofar as they erupt spontaneously, they are not to be hampered. and throughout the night violence erupted with the burning and vandalism of Jewish homes, business, and synagogues (Kristallnacht: A Nationwide Pogrom). Resistance One may ask why the Jewish people did not fight against the Nazi party, but in fact, there were several cases and ways in which the Jews did try to take on the Nazis. Another article on the USHMM website says that Nazi opposition by the Jews occurred in a . . . variety of ways, both collectively and as individuals. (Jewish Resistance). The article goes on to say, Organized armed resistance was the most forceful form of Jewish opposition but Jewish civilians were not the only ones to oppose the

Jewish resistance fighters.

Nazi policies. Jewish council chairman Moshe Jaffe

resisted by refusing to comply when Germans ordered him to hand over Jews for Deportation. . .(Jewish Resistance) in Minsk. In some cases the Jews would escape from ghettos and join . . . Soviet partisan units or formed separate partisan units to harass the German occupiers. however

Knoll 1 in some cases the rebellion was quickly put out and ended with innocent people dying to discourage more resistance (Jewish Resistance).

Wansee Conference The Final Solution January 20, 1942 officials of the German government and Nazi party met at what is called the Wansee Conference to implement what one could call the worst, most detrimental scar of the human race in history. This became known as the Final Solution, which ended up as being the physical annihilation of Jews. Another article on the USHMM
The house and location of the Wansee conference

website says at some time in the year 1941, Hitler authorized a plan for the mass murder of Jews in all of Europe and the Wansee conference was not to argue about if the physical annihilation of Jews was necessary, but rather how to do it (Wansee Conference and the Final Solution). It goes on to say that the Nuremberg Laws would define who was a Jew and SS general Reinhard Heydrich estimated . . . approximately 11,000,000 Jews in Europe would fall under the provisions of the Final Solution. (Wansee Conference and the Final Solution). Extermination methods The Nazis used three methods of mass killing Jews according to an article on the Public Broadcasting Station (PBS) website. Death by firing squad, carbon monoxide, and Zyklon B were the methods of extermination. Death by firing squads was not a good method due to the fact that it traumatized the soldiers shooting the unarmed civilians at close range, as well as leaving physical evidence of bodies being buried.

One of the gas chambers inside Auschwitz

Knoll 1 One reason the Nazis switched to killing with carbon monoxide was Gas would be cheaper than bullets, and no Nazi would directly take a life (The Killing Evolution). It goes on to say the Nazis took cargo trucks with the exhaust system routed into the cargo area. They would then fill the back with Jews and drive the trucks to a destination where the dead bodies would be . . . buried or burned (The Killing Evolution). These vans became known as Hell Vans. The problem with extermination by carbon monoxide was that there was still physical evidence of murder because of the bodies and the Nazis had a hard time figuring out how far to drive because on some occasions, the hell vans would stop and there would still be people alive in the back. The third killing method the Nazis used was Zyklon B, which was a pesticide used to kill lice in the clothing of the prisoners. Nazis eventually made crematoria that housed gas chambers and ovens to kill then cremate Jews. The gas chambers would be filled with prisoners, and the Zyklon B crystals would be heated to turn into a poisonous gas killing the Jews, then the prisoners that were used for labor had to take all the dead bodies into the crematories so there would be no physical evidence of the murders. The Nazis used the Zyklon B since it was the most efficient killer they had (The Killing Evolution). Ghettos Ghettos were the city districts in which the . . . municipal and sometimes regional Jewish. . . (Ghettos) were forced to live in according to an article on the USHMM website. The conditions in the ghettos were terrible and filthy. Furthermore, the article reads ghettos were usually enclosed and isolated Jews from the rest of the public or non-Jewish population and other Jewish
A picture of the Warsaw ghetto looking in from the wall.

Knoll 1 communities. The ghettos were a holding point, if you will, for the Jews while Nazi leaders were discussing the final solution as talked about earlier. The article goes on to say beginning in the later months of 1941 the Germans began to destroy the ghettos and start deporting Jews, mostly by train, to concentration camps, labor camps, killing centers, or the Nazis would kill them in the ghettos. Ghettos were a source of Jewish resistance, fighting against Nazi oppression by smuggling food, medicine, weapons and sometimes intelligence through the ghetto walls, all of which were prohibited by the Nazis and without approval from the Jewish councils (Ghettos). Nazi camps According to a USHMM website article, during the years between 1933-1945 , about 20,000 camps were established for a variety of uses including forced-labor camps, transit camps and extermination camps, of which the latter were made mostly for mass murder, as well as concentration camps and . . . series of detention facilities to imprison and eliminate so-called "enemies of the state." (Nazi Camps). After the Final Solution was established, the Nazis opened killing centers in Poland, which were designed for efficiency with mass murder. The article goes on to read Chelmno, the first killing center, opened in December 1941. Furthermore,the article says in 1942, Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka killings centers were opened to murder the Jews of the Generalgouvernment. Three million Jews or more are estimated to have been killed in the killing centers alone, not to mention the Jews that died while being transported to the camps (Nazi Camps). According to a different article on the USHMM website, the first concentration camps were established shortly Hitler was appointed to chancellor of Germany in January of 1933. The article reads. After the SS gained its independence
An aerial picture of the Nazi concentration camp Auschwitz (Main Camp)

Knoll 1 from the SA in July 1934. . . Hitler authorized the Reich SS leader, Heinrich Himmler, to centralize the administration of the concentration camps and formalize them into a system (Concentration Camps) which allowed the SS to be the only agency authorized to establish and manage facilities that were formally called concentration camps (Concentration Camps). Liberation After D-Day . . .the single largest amphibious invasion force in world history. . .(Liberation), as the Allies and Soviet troops fought through Europe, they inevitably encountered several Nazi crimes including concentration camps and mass graves according to an article on the USHMM website. Although the liberation of Nazi camps was not a primary objective, Soviet and American forces liberated several camps and sub-camps including Auschwitz, Buchenwald, Dachau, and Ohrdruf, which was a sub-camp Buchenwald. On May 8, 1945, Germanys unconditional surrender became official, ending the terrible reign of the Nazi regime and liberating all the Jews from the concentration camps and forced-labor camps (Liberation). After liberation After liberation several Jews, according to an article on the USHMM website . . . feared to return to their former homes because of the anti-Semitism. . . (The Aftermath of the Holocaust). Because they did not have many places to emigrate to, thousands of survivors
A newspaper article on the birth of the State of Israel Liberation of the Nazi concentration camp Mauthausen

Knoll 1 headed west to other European territories liberated by the Allies, while others went to displaced persons camps (or DP camps) like Bergen Belsen, located in Germany. Many groups dedicated to helping the survivors pressured countries for better emigration chances, but unfortunately the United States had restrictions on the quota for legal immigration and the British tightened restrictions on immigration to Palestine. Luckily, in late 1945, a directive was issued by President Harry Truman that . . . loosened quota restrictions on immigration to the U.S. of persons displaced by the Nazi regime. and in mid-1948 the State of Israel was made and therefore Jewish people displaced, could immigrate to Israel (The Aftermath of the Holocaust).

In conclusion, the Nazi regime was proven to be a terrible and unethical rise of a brutal dictatorship. The rise of the regime was quick and the forcefulness of the power. Millions of Jews and other innocent people were killed, for Nazi beliefs, that were all untrue. In the end, one can agree, the fall of the Nazi regime could be considered one of the best things that happened to this world.

Knoll 1 Works Cited "THE AFTERMATH OF THE HOLOCAUST." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 19 Apr. 2012. "CONCENTRATION CAMPS, 1933-1939." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 19 Apr. 2012. "Ghettos." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 19 Apr. 2012. "Hitler Comes to Power." Unites States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Unites States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. "Jewish Resistance." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 16 Mar. 2012. "The Killing Evolution." PBS: Public Broadcasting Station. Public Broadcasting Station. Web. 28 Mar. 2012. "KRISTALLNACHT: A NATIONWIDE POGROM, NOVEMBER 9-10, 1938." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 18 Apr. 2012. "Liberation." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 19 Apr. 2012. "Nazi Camps." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 19 Apr. 2012. "The Nazi Terror Begins." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 20 Apr. 2012.

Knoll 1 "The Nuremberg Race Laws." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 18 Apr. 2012. "WANNSEE CONFERENCE AND THE "FINAL SOLUTION"" United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web. 19 Apr. 2012.

Well done Malachi! You are probably very glad to have this over and done with, well almost done. I enjoyed reading your paper. Fix the areas I have called attention to. The one section on the death camps probably doesnt need any revision, but I hope you understand the difference between a concentration an death camp.

Knoll 1
Score Points Available

40 20 40 35 25 15 25

Content paper demonstrates understanding and confidence about topic Sources uses only primary and secondary sources In-Text Citations integrates sources within text with effective use of signal words and phrases Formatting properly uses MLA formatting Works Cited works cited page has the required number of sources and is properly formatted Pictures uses pictures to enhance the text with effective captions and source information Writing Mechanics Paper is free from errors in spelling, punctuation, etc.

32 20 32 32 25 15 20
Total Score

Total = 200