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Job satisfaction From Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, searc h Psychology History Subfields Basic science

Abnormal Biological Cognitive Comparative Cultural Differential Developmental Evolutionary Experimental Mathematical Personality Positive Social Applied science Applied behavior analysis Clinical Community Consumer Educational Health Industrial and organizational Legal Military Occupational health Political Religion School Sport Lists Disciplines Organizations Outline Psychologists Psychotherapies Publications Research methods Theories Timeline Topics Portal v t e Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his or her job. The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Lo gic would dictate that the most satisfied (happy) workers should be the best perfo rmers and vice versa. This is called the "happy worker" hypothesis.[1] However, this hypothesis is not well supported, as job satisfaction is not the same as mo tivation or aptitude, although they may be clearly linked. A primary influence o n job satisfaction is the application of Job design,which aims to enhance job sa tisfaction and performance using methods such as job rotation, job enlargement, job enrichment and job re-engineering. Other influences on satisfaction include management styles and culture, employee involvement, empowerment, and autonomous work position. Job satisfaction is a very important attribute and is frequently measured by organizations. The most common technique for measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their thoughts and reactions to their j obs. Questions can relate to rates of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tas ks, promotional opportunities, the work itself, and co-workers. Some examination s present yes-or-no questions while others ask to rate satisfaction using a 1-to -5 scale, where 1 represents "not at all satisfied" and 5 represents "extremely satisfied." Contents [hide] 1 Definition 2 History 3 Models of Job Satisfaction 3.1 Affect Theory 3.2 Dispositional Theory 3.3 Opponent Process Theory 3.4 Equity Theory 3.5 Discrepancy Theory 3.6 Two-Factor Theory (Motivator-Hygiene Theory) 3.7 Job Characteristics Model 4 Factors that Influence Job Satisfaction 4.1 Environmental Factors 4.1.1 Communication Overload and Communication Underload 4.1.2 Superior-Subordinate Communication 4.2 Individual Factors 4.2.1 Emotion

4.2.2 Genetics 4.2.3 Personality 5 Measuring Job Satisfaction 6 Relationships and Practical Implications 7 See Also 8 References [edit] DefinitionJob satisfaction can simply be defined as the feelings people h ave about their jobs.[1] It has been specifically defined as a pleasurable (or u npleasurable) emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job,[2] an aff ective reaction to ones job,[3] and an attitude towards ones job.[4] These definit ions suggest that job satisfaction takes into account feelings, beliefs, and beh aviors. [edit] HistoryOne of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was t he Hawthorne studies. These studies (19241933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers productivity. These studies ultimately sh owed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (ca lled the Hawthorne Effect). It was later found that this increase resulted, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding provided strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which pav ed the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction. Scientific management (aka Taylorism) also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylors 1911 book, Principles of Scientif ic Management, argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. This book contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies, causing a shift from skilled labor and piecework towards the more modern of asse mbly lines and hourly wages. The initial use of scientific management by industr ies greatly increased productivity because workers were forced to work at a fast er pace. However, workers became exhausted and dissatisfied, thus leaving resear chers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction. It should also be noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munsterberg set the tone for Taylors work. Some argue that Maslows hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life physiological needs, safety needs, social n eeds, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This model served as a good bas is from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories. Job satisfaction can also be seen within the broader context of the range of iss ues which affect an individual s experience of work, or their quality of working life. Job satisfaction can be understood in terms of its relationships with oth er key factors, such as general well-being, stress at work, control at work, hom e-work interface, and working conditions. [edit] Models of Job Satisfaction[edit] Affect Theory