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IntroductionThermal barrier coatings are highly advanced material systems usually applied to metallic surfaces, such as gas turbine or aero-engine parts, operating at elevated temperatures, as a form of exhaust heat management. These coatings serve to insulate components from large and prolonged heat loads by utilizing thermally insulating materials which can sustain an appreciable temperature difference between the load-bearing alloys and the coating surface. In doing so, these coatings can allow for higher operating temperatures while limiting the thermal exposure of structural components, extending part life by reducing oxidation and thermal fatigue. In conjunction with active film cooling, Thermal barrier coatings permit working fluid temperatures higher than the melting point of the metal airfoil in some turbine applications.

Fig. 1

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MAHAKAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT,UJJAIN 2011-12

2. General anatomyThermal barrier coatings typically consist of four layers1. Ceramic topcoat. 2. Thermally grown oxide. 3. Metallic bond coat. 4. Super alloy substrate the metal substrate, metallic bond coat, thermally grown oxide, and ceramic topcoat. The ceramic topcoat is typically composed of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) which is desirable for having very low conductivity while remaining stable at nominal operating temperatures typically seen in applications. Recent advancements in finding an alternative for yttriastabilized zirconia ceramic topcoat identified many novel ceramics (rare earth zirconates) having superior performance at temperatures above 1200 C, however with inferior fracture toughness compared to that of yttria-stabilized zirconia. This ceramic layer creates the largest thermal gradient of the TBC and keeps the lower layers at a lower temperature than the surface. Thermal barrier coatings fail through various degradation modes that include mechanical rumpling of bond coat during thermal cyclic exposure, especially, coatings in aircraft engines; accelerated oxidation, hot corrosion, molten deposit degradation. There are issues with oxidation (areas of the TBC getting stripped off) of the TBC also, which reduces the life of the metal drastically, which leads to thermal fatigue.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MAHAKAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT,UJJAIN 2011-12

3. Uses3.1 AutomotiveThermal barrier ceramic-coatings are becoming more common in automotive applications. They are specifically designed to reduce heat loss from engine exhaust system components including exhaust manifolds, turbocharger casings, exhaust headers, downpipes and tailpipes. This process is also known as "exhaust heat management". When used underbonnet, these have the positive effect of reducing engine bay temperatures, therefore lessening the intake temperature. Although most ceramic-coatings are applied to metallic parts directly related to the engine exhaust system, some new technology has been introduced that allows thermal barrier coatings to applied via plasma spray onto composite materials. This is now commonplace to find on high-performance automobiles and in various race series such as in Formula 1. As well as providing thermal protection, these coatings are also used to prevent physical degradation of the composite due to frictional processes. This is possible because the ceramic material bonds with the composite (instead of merely sticking on the surface with paint), therefore forming a tough coating that doesn't chip or flake easily. Although thermal barrier coatings have been applied to the inside of exhaust systems, this has encountered problems due to the inability to prepare the internal surface prior to coating. One of the most common use of thermal barrier coatings is in the combustion chamber of aircraft turbine engines. With the demand for fuel economy and increased power, combustion temperatures are approaching the design limits of the metal alloys from which turbine components are made. The use of thermal barrier coatings in this and other application enables the use of the alloys at higher temperatures, by reducing the temperature to which the parts are exposed. With the ability of thermal spray to apply an almost limitless number of materials, well-engineered thermal barrier coatings can be produced to solve even some of the most complex thermal barrier problems.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MAHAKAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT,UJJAIN 2011-12

When engineering a thermal barrier coatings system, Thermal Spray Technologies uses its strong expertise in materials engineering and its strength of understanding of the processes of thermal spray. The combination of this knowledge provides application specific solutions to thermal management problems.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MAHAKAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT,UJJAIN 2011-12

3.2 IndustrialIn industrial applications, where space is at a premium, thermal barrier coatings are commonly used to protect from heat loss or gain. In general the thermal barrier coatings not let the heat to come into the system or let it go out of the system as required by or applied for the particular applications and needs. Some of the machines and parts of industries or factories such as turbines, heat engines heat pumps, boilers etc. use thermal barrier coating technology. Also Thermal barrier coating can be used to insulate some of the delicate machine parts. It is also used for the prevention of the parts which are very heat sensible and tend to wear and tear on exposure to high temperature. Use of TBCs is proven to be very profitable to the industries as it gives long life to the machines as well as their individual parts giving more profits and even production. Also we have seen that in industries there is a very strong need for the management of heat or the energy being produced and being used. Heat losses greatly affect the production by its machines. And in case of industries it is at a very large scale, So use of thermal barrier coatings has also given a great contribution towards the heat or energy management.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MAHAKAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT,UJJAIN 2011-12

4. ProcessingIn industry, thermal barrier coatings are produced in a number of ways some the general methods are discussed below :

4.1 Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition (EBPVD)Electron Beam Physical Vapor Deposition or EBPVD is a form of physical vapor deposition in which a target anode is bombarded with an electron beam given off by a charged tungsten filament under high vacuum. The electron beam causes atoms from the target to transform into the gaseous phase. These atoms then precipitate into solid form, coating everything in the vacuum chamber (within line of sight) with a thin layer of the anode material.

4.2 Air Plasma Spray (APS)In plasma spraying process, the material to be deposited (feedstock) typically as a powder, sometimes as a liquid, suspension or wire is introduced into the plasma jet, emanating from a plasma torch. In the jet, where the temperature is on the order of 10,000 K, the material is melted and propelled towards a substrate. There, the molten droplets flatten, rapidly solidify and form a deposit. Commonly, the deposits remain adherent to the substrate as coatings; free-standing parts can also be produced by removing the substrate. There are a large number of technological parameters that influence the interaction of the particles with the plasma jet and the substrate and therefore the deposit properties. These parameters include feedstock type, plasma gas composition and flow rate, energy input, torch offset distance, substrate cooling, etc

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MAHAKAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT,UJJAIN 2011-12

4.3 High Velocity Oxygen Fuel spraying (HVOF)This class of thermal spray processes called high velocity oxy-fuel spraying was developed in the 1980s. A mixture of gaseous or liquid fuel and oxygen is fed into a combustion chamber, where they are ignited and combusted continuously. The resultant hot gas at a pressure close to 1 MPa emanates through a convergingdiverging nozzle and travels through a straight section. The fuels can be gases (hydrogen, methane, propane, propylene, acetylene, natural gas, etc.) or liquids (kerosene, etc.). The jet velocity at the exit of the barrel (>1000 m/s) exceeds the speed of sound. A powder feed stock is injected into the gas stream, which accelerates the powder up to 800 m/s. The stream of hot gas and powder is directed towards the surface to be coated. The powder partially melts in the stream, and deposits upon the substrate. The resulting coating has low porosity and high bond strength.

4.4 Electrostatic Spray Assisted Vapor Deposition (ESAVD)Electrostatic spray assisted vapour deposition (ESAVD) is a technique to deposit both thin and thick layers of a coating onto various substrates. In simple terms chemical precursors are sprayed across an electrostatic field towards a heated substrate, the chemicals undergo a controlled chemical reaction and are deposited on the substrate as the required coating.

5. Property profiles7
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MAHAKAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT,UJJAIN 2011-12

TBC coating systems must possess a combination of properties to be effective. These include a low thermal conductivity, high resistance to spallation, good erosion resistance, Phase stability and pore morphological stability. For aircraft turbine applications the spallation resistance and the thermal conductivity of the coating system are the most critical to performance. The thermal conductivity is strongly dependent on the volume fraction and morphology of the porosity found in this layer. The spallation resistance, however, is dependent on the mechanical properties of all three layers. For example the TBC top layer must have a high in-plane compliance to minimize the coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) mismatch stress between the top TBC layer and the underlying superalloy substrate. Even when highly compliant TBC top layers are deposited, spallation failure can still occur. Such failures have been observed to initiate either within the TBC layer, at the TBC/TGO interface or at the TGO/bond coat interface. One contributing factor is the development of large stresses in the TGO layer. Clarke and Christensen have measured ambient temperature residual compressive stresses of 3 to 4 GPa in the TGO layer of TBC systems. This stress has been linked to the CTE mismatch between the TGO layer and the substrate/bond coat and to growth stresses in the TGO. Evans et al. have analyzed the thermomechanical stresses in these systems and shown that they can lead to the initiation of cracks at the TGO/bond coat interface. Out-of-plane tensile stresses resulting from undulations or morphological defects that form on an otherwise smooth surface, ratcheting effects caused by cyclic plasticity in the substrate, TGO/bond coat interface embrittlement (due to sulphur impurities) and sintering induced increases in the TBC in-plane compliance are all thought to play a role in the spallation failure of TBC systems. Recent work also suggests that the TGO undulations can result in the formation of cracks the TBC layer. Control of these thermally induced failure mechanisms is clearly a critical issue for the development of more durable TBC systems. Increasing the thermal resistance of the TBC layer is expected to reduce the growth rate of the TGO layer and slow the rate of ratcheting by reducing the temperature below it.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MAHAKAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT,UJJAIN 2011-12

Fig 3 Now, Fig.3 explains about the wear resistance of a machine part with thermal barrier coatings and without it. So it can be clearly observed that the parts with Thermal barrier coatings are more resistive to wearing.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MAHAKAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT,UJJAIN 2011-12

6. conclusionThe thermal barrier coating performs the function of insulating components. Due to the good corrosion resistance and wear resistance these will improve the mechanical behavior.TBCs exhibits resistance to thermal shock , thermal fatigue upto 1150C. Because of these properties the thermal barrier coatings are widely used in jet engines, turbine blades, aero engine parts, cans, gas turbines. Investigation of the current state-of-the-art in TBC technology has indicated that opportunities exist to significantly improve upon modern TBC systems.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MAHAKAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT,UJJAIN 2011-12

7. References Wikipedia.

F.Yu and T.D.Bennett (2005). "A nondestructive technique for determining thermal properties of thermal barrier coatings". Research articles by University of Virginia, Material science and engineering department.

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DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING MAHAKAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY AND MANAGEMENT,UJJAIN 2011-12