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ENV 311/EEB 320 midterm review questions

1. If water is 50% saturated, will the atmosphere act as a source or sink with respect to oxygen?

2. What is Henry's Law? Fick's Law?

3. Define Alkalinity.

4. How do photosynthesis and respiration affect pH.

5. Is marl production associated with high rates of respiration or high rates of photosynthesis? Why is marl frequently deposited near ground water seeps?

6. What are the three primary forms of inorganic carbon used by aquatic autotrophs?

7. What does the term nitrogen fixation refer to? What major group of organisms is important in fixing nitrogen in aquatic environments.

8. What is a biliprotein?

9. What is meant by phylogenetic chromatic adaptation? Ontogenetic chromatic adaptation?

10. What is the most easily utilized form of phosphorus that occurs in aqueous solutions?

11. What is conductivity a measure of? What useful information does it provide?

12. What is gilvin?

14. How is allochthonous carbon different from autochthonous carbon?

15. Under what conditions would you expect large diel fluctuations in oxygen concentration of an aquatic ecosystem?

16. When is an ecosystem termed "autotrophic" ?

17. What does the accumulation of organic muck signify about carbon balance in an ecosystem.

18. What is the compensation plane in a lake?

19. Why does evaporation lead to cooling ?

20. Under anaerobic conditions which of the following forms of nitrogen is least likely to be found: NH4, NO2, NO3? Why?

21. Under aerobic conditions which of the following forms of phosphorus is likely to be insoluble: orthophosphate or inorganic metaphosphates.

22. Is 30 ppm a high or low alkalinity, what, if anything, does it tell you about rates of primary production?

23. What is the hydrologic continuity equation?

24. Under what conditions do outputs equal inputs in a hydrological system?

25. What is a Thiessen polygon?

26. What factors control the rate of groundwater flow?

27. How is does infiltration vary with time?

28. Define aquifer, aquitard and aquilude.

29. How will resting levels of wells in confined and unconfined aquifers differ? What does it signify if adjacent lined and unlined wells have the same resting level?

30. What are the various pathways by which precipitation can enter a stream channel.

31. Describe the "laws" of : Henry, Fick, Dalton, Darcy, Leibig, Monod. Give a brief (1-2 sentence) statement about the relevance of each to the study of aquatic ecosystems.

32. What is a groundwater recharge area? Is it influent or effluent with respect to the water table?

33. What does "hydraulic slope" refer to in the context of Darcy's Law?

34. If the ratio of inorganic nitrogen to orthphosphate is 8:1, which element (N or P) is likely to be an important limitung factor to the photosynthetic rate of algae? why?

35. If a lake has no channel inlets or outlets, and water levels remain stable over several years, is the lake influent or effluent with respect to the water table. Write a water balance equation for this system.

36. What is the density anomoly of water, and why is it ecologically significant?

37. Write the Hydrologic continuity equation.

38. How do the diets of a shredder and a collector-gatherer differ? How are they similar?

39. Describe the difference between "Horton" and "saturated" runoff.

40. How is throughflow generated?