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WELL CONTROL

WELL PRESSURE CONTROL The control of formation fluid flow (kick) into the well bore

PHASE PRIMARY
(first line of defense)

THE THREE PHASES OF WELL CONTROL DEFINITION OBJECTIVE


Control of kicks with hydrostatic pressure (HSP) only Control a kick with HSP assisted by blowout presenter equipment An underground blowout Drill to total depth without a well control event. Safety kill the kick without the loss of circulation Avoid a surface blowout. Regain primary well control

SECONDARY
(second line of defense)

TERTIARY
(third line of defense)

The ultimate goal of well pressure control is to prevent a surface blowout PRIMARY

THE PRIMARY CONTROL TOOL HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE (HSP)


The pressure developed by the height and density of a non-moving fluid column.

PPG = LBS. PER GALLON FLUID DENSITY 0.052 = PPG TO PSI / FT CONVERSION FACTOR TVD = TRUE VERTICAL DEPTH (FT) HSP psi = MUD ppg X 0.052 X TVD ft = 10 X 0.052 X 10000 = 5200 psi HSP To prevent formation fluid flow into the well bore (kick), hydrostatic pressure must be at least equal to the highest pressured permeable zone of open hole.

FIGURE

SWAB / SURGE PRESSURES


PRESSURE DEFINITION
The piston affect of upward string movement causing a decrease in well bore pressure which can indicate a kick

NOTES
Maximum swab pressure occurs at the bit and is equally imposed to the bottom of the well bore. As string is started, additional surge pressure is imposed to break the gel strength of the mud and accelerate the mud column. The HSP over balance is more often dictated by hole stability (i.e., 800 1000 psi)

SWAB

TRIP MARGIN Marginal over balance pressure

SURGE

(i.e., 300 500 psi) to compensate for swab pressure The piston affect of down word string movement causing an increase in well bore pressure

PUMP SURGE

Maximum surge pressure occurs at the bit and is equally imposed to the bottom of the well bore. As string is started, additional surge pressure is imposed to break the gel strength of the mud and accelerate the mud column The pump pressure required to Pump surge pressure to break circulation can be (in break the gel strength of the mud some cases) greater than the normal circulating and accelerate the mud column. pressure.

650 0
C C E L L E R A T E C C E L L E R A T E

600 0

550 0

Static

Stead y

500 0 450 0 400 0

_ _ _ _ _ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _
Swab Trip margin

HSP = 5200 psi

D E C E L E R A T E

Stead y Surge

D E C E L E R A T E

S T A R T P U M P S Steady circulation

Static Static Ann. Friction pressure

EQUIVALENT CIRCULATING DENSITY (ECD)


The mud weight equivalent to the sum of hydrostatic and annulus friction pressures at a true vertical depth of interest.

Ann Fric. (psi) ECD (ppg) = ( -------------------------) + MW (ppg) TVD (ft) X 0.0519
****************************GRAPH******************************

ADVANTAGE
Built in safety factor during a kick killing operation. Safety factor if circulating near or slightly under balance to formation pressure.

DISADVANTAGE
Penetration rate decreases as ECD increases. Increases potential for lost circulation, differential sticking, well bore instability.

KICK TOLERANCE
The maximum under balance kick load (ppg), considering an estimated kick volume, the casing shoe can tolerate without fracturing.

EVENT
Casing shoe drill out True vertical depth increase Mud weight increase

EFFECT ON KICK TOLERANCE


Maximum kick tolerance for hole section Decreases kick tolerance Decreases kick tolerance

KICK TOLERANCE APPLICATION


Indicates the next casing depth to maintain well control safety Input to risk analysis if decision is made to drill adead

GUIDE LINES FOR MAINTAINING HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE (HSP)


MUD WEIGHT MAINTENANCE ACTION
Weight and record mud weight in and out every 30 minutes during any circulating operation. Monitor the well for signs of changing formation pressure Ensure mud weight is correct before drilling into known high or lowpressure zone. Ensure a meaning of disposing of contaminated fluid to avoid contaminating the mud system. Ensure proper mud weight is used to fill the hole on trips. Maintain pit valve seals to avoid accidental dilution. Maintain degasser capacity to handle full returns.

RESPONSIBILITY
Shaker man Derrick man Driller Mud logger Shaker man Company Rep. Mud logger Toolpusher Mud engineer Shaker man Derrick man Shaker man Derrick man

NOTIFY
Driller Mud engineer. Geologist Drilling engineer Company Rep. Geologist Drilling engineer Driller Toolpusher Company Rep. Driller Mud engineer

MUD COLUMN MAINTENANCE ACTION


Ensure proper hole fill during trips. Use a calibrated trip tank. Appoint a delicated trip tank man. Record hole fill volumes during round trip. If the correct fill up is not taken (swabbing indicated). Flow check the well. If not flowing return to bottom and circulate bottoms up. If the correct displacement volume does not return while tripping in (lost circulation indicated), stop tripping and observe the well, if lost circulation occurs, pump water (WBM) or based oil (OBM) down the annulus. If the well is flowing, shut in the well immediately Maintain mud box seals, ensure drain is plumbed to the trip tank or annulus if filling with pump strokes Maintain hole full during non- circulating operations

RESPONSIBILITY

NOTIFY

Driller Mud logger

Company Rep. Drilling engineer Toolpusher

A/D Floor men A/D Driller

Company Rep. Toolpusher Company Rep. Toolpusher

SECOND LINE OF DEFENSE


The loss of hydrostatic pressure control of formation fluid flow into the well bore

KICK SECONDARY WELL CONTROL


The control of formation fluid flow by the use of hydrostatic pressure ASSISTED by blow out preventer equipment.

UNDER BALANCE KICK


Kick caused by an increase in formation pressure above wellbore hydrostatic pressure.

CAUSE:
Permeable zone is drilled with mud weight insufficient to control formation pressure. Prognosed abnormal formation pressure Offset well data. Geologist / mud logger abnormal pressure trend changes. Torque / drag increase. Drilling break. Well flow / pit gain. Sound kick alarm. Position drill string for shut in. Stop the pumps / shut-in the well. Adjust mud weight prior to drilling known abnormal pressured zone Observe pressure-warning signs.

WARNING: INDICATIONS:

FIRST ACTION:

PREVENTIVE ACTION:

INDUCED KICK
A kick caused by a decreased in hydrostatic pressure below formation pressure of a permeable zone.

CAUSE:
Hydrostatic pressure is reduced below the formation pressure of a permeable zone (swabbing. Lost circulation. Light mud) Prognosed loss circulation potential. High mud weight is increase potential for swabbing. Loss of circulation during any operation. Hole not taking correct fill up during trip. Water gas cut mud during circulating. Well flowing. Pit gain Sound kick alarm. Position drill string for shut in. Stop circulation. Shut in the well. If off bottom, maintain string movement when possible. Maintain proper mud weight. Keep hole full. Proper hole fill up on trips. Minimize lost circulation potential.

WARNING: INDICATIONS:

FIRST ACTION:

PREVENTIVE ACTION:

Cutting return & well flow Geologica l depth & formation pressure prediction Hole fills up & well flow

Kick warning signs

Record & monitor geological data

BOP operation / status

Mud condition
Confirm geological plan & advise for plan change Operation plans

Personnel/ equip. status

Platform / weather

Shutin well
Wellbore condition

Evacuation readiness

Engineering support

Operation plan & mechanical requirements.

Personnel/ equip. plan

Wellbore status

Mechanical limits & rig/vessel condition

Standby vessel

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CAUSES OF KICKS WHILE DRILLING UNDER BALANCE KICK


Drilling into a permeable zone with a mud weight insufficient to control formation pressure.

INDUCED KICK
Lost circulation. Light mud weight pumped down hole. Swabbing while working the string / making connection. Core volume gas cut mud.

INDICATIONS OF UNDER BALANCE KICKS


INDICATIONS LOGGER TRENDS INDICATE FP INCREASE DRILLING BREAK NOTES D exponent decrease, shale density decrease, splintery shale cuttings, connection /background gas increase. Indicates a new formation exposed to the well. Under balance kicks are usually preceded by an abrupt ROP change, increase or decrease. Kick fluids displace mud from the well bore, increasing the return flow or causing well flow with the pumps off. As kick fluids flow into the wellbore, the volume addition is detected by the pit volume totalizer (PVT.) Lower density kick fluid decreases annulus hydrostatic pressure allowing the drill string mud to u-tube the annulus. RESPONSIBILITY Mud logger NOTIFY Driller Company Rep. Mud logger Geologist Company Rep. Geologist Toolpusher Drl. Crew Toolpusher Company Rep Mud engineer Drl. Crew Toolpusher Company Rep Mud engineer Toolpusher Mud engineer Derrick man

Driller Mud logger . Driller Mud logger Shaker man Derrick man . Driller Mud logger Shaker man Derrick man Driller Mud logger

WELL FLOW

PIT VOLUME GAIN

PUMP PRESSURE DECREASE / SPM INCREASE

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INDICATIONS OF UNDER BALANCE KICKS LOSS OF MUD WEIGHT (LIGHT MUD PUMPED, SWABBED GAS, CORE GAS)
INDICATIONS PUMP PRESSURE DECREASE / SPM INCREASE WELL FLOW NOTES Lower density kick fluid decreases annulus hydrostatic pressure allowing the drill string mud to u-tube the annulus. Kick fluids displace mud from the well bore, increasing the return flow or causing well flow with the pumps off. As kick fluids flow into the wellbore, the volume addition is detected by the pit volume totalizer (PVT.) RESPONSIBILITY Driller Mud logger NOTIFY Toolpusher Mud engineer Derrick man Drl. Crew Toolpusher Company Rep Mud engineer Drl. Crew Toolpusher Company Rep Mud engineer

. Driller Mud logger Shaker man Derrick man . Driller Mud logger Shaker man Derrick man

PIT VOLUME GAIN

LOSS OF COLUMN HEIGHT LOSS OF MUD WEIGHT (TOTAL LOSS OF CIRCULATION, NOT KEEPING HOLE FULL)
INDICATIONS NOTES RESPONSIBILITY . Driller Mud logger Shaker man Derrick man NOTIFY Drl. Crew Toolpusher Company Rep Mud engineer

MUD COLUMN Loss of hydrostatic pressure may induce a LEVEL kick.. DECREASE

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FLOE CHECK GUIDELINES WHILE DRILLING SURFACE STACK


Drill 3 5 feet into the break, observe the flow. If flow is detected, initiate shut-in procedure. Raise the kelly / top drive to the shut-in position. Stop circulation and observe for flow 5 to 10 minutes. Maintain slow rotation to prevent sticking potential. If flow is detected, initiate shut-in procedure.

SUB SEA STACK


Drill 3 5 feet into the break, observe the flow. If flow is detected, initiate shut-in procedure. Raise the kelly / top drive to the shut-in position. Stop circulation, line up the trip tank and observe for flow 5 to 10 minutes. Maintain slow rotation to prevent sticking. If flow is detected, initiate shut-in procedure.

DIVERTER GUIDELINES WHILE DRILLING SURFACE STACK


Sound the kick alarm. Raise the kelly / top drive to the shut-in position. Maintain full circulation. Open down-wind diverter line and close the diverter. Open pump suctions to the heavy mud reserves and pump at a maximum rate. Building additional heavy mud volume. Prepare to abandon the rig.

SUB SEA STACK


Sound the kick alarm. Raise the kelly / top drive to the shut-in position. Maintain full circulation. Prepare to abandon the location. Monitor the sea surface for gas. Move the rig upwind of surfacing gas. Fill pits with seawater. Continue pumping the heaviest fluid available at maximum rate.

Gas zone depletion may take several hours or days

SHUT-IN GUIDELINES WHILE DRILLING SURFACE STACK


Sound the kick alarm. Raise the kelly / top drive to the shut-in position. Stop circulation. Open the choke line valve. Close the upper pipe rams or annular preventer. Record SIDPP and SICP every two minutes. If necessary adjust annular preventer operating pressure relative to stabilize SICP.

SUB SEA STACK


Sound the kick alarm. Raise the kelly / top drive to the shut-in position. Stop circulation. Open the choke line valve Close the upper annular preventer Record SIDPP and SICP every two minutes. If necessary adjust annular preventer operating pressure relative to stabilize SICP.

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CONDITIONS REQUIRED PER KICK TYPE


The kick type must be identified to determine the proper kill procedure. Using the incorrect kill procedure increases the potential for loss of circulation.

KICK TYPE
UNDER BALANCE KICK

REQUIRED CONDITIONS
Occurs only while drilling. Abnormal formation produces an under balance kick. SIDPP is some value above standpipe hydrostatic pressure. Can occur during any open hole operation. All formation pressure classification can produce an induced kick SIDPP is equal to standpipe hydrostatic pressure.

INDUCED KICK

BEST KILL PROCEDURE FOR KICK TYPE


UNDER BALANCE KICK WAIT & WEIGHT METHOD WITH BALANCE KILL MUD WEIGHT
A constant bottom hole pressure method to prevent additional kicks. Minimize kill pressures imposed to well bore and equipment. Kills the kick in one complete circulation.

INDUCED KICK CIRCULATION METHOD (DRILLERS) WITH PRESENT MUD WEIGHT


A constant bottom hole pressure method to prevent additional kicks. Minimize kill pressures imposed to well bore and equipment. Kills the kick in one bottoms up cycle.

MOMENT OF MAXIMUM SHOW PRESSURE


UNDER BALANCE KICK WAIT & WEIGHT METHOD WITH BALANCE KILL MUD WEIGHT AT SHUT-IN
If shut-in pressures are contained without fracture, the probability of a successful kill is greater than 90 %.

INDUCED KICK CIRCULATION METHOD (DRILLERS) WITH PRESENT MUD WEIGHT AS GAS REACHES SHOE
The depth of the influx at shut-in is seldom known. Actual bit-to-shoe strokes can not be determined. Follow circulation method kills procedure.

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Assist Mud Eng.

Assist As needed

Kill mud preparation & maintain oversee mud room operation

OPERATE KILL PUMP

Personnel equip. status

BOP operation/ status

Operation plans Monitor and record kill data Operation plans, mechanical requiremen t OVER-SEE OPERATIO N Mechanical limits, Rig/ Vessel condition

Wellbore condition

Personnel equip. plan Platform / weather Evacuation readiness

Engineerin g support

Wellbore status OPERATE CHOKE

STANDBY VESSEL

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WAIT AND WEIGHT METHOD FOR UNDER BALANCE KICKS


Monitor shut-in pressures for gas migration while making preparations for the kill operation If observed, bleed mud from the annulus to maintain SIDPP at stabilized shut in value plus 50 100 psi safety factor. Calculate kill mud weight. Over balance in the kmw or additional choke pressures not recommended nor required for a safe kill operation. Construct a drill pipe pressure schedule When preparations are complete, start the kill operation: Surface stack - hold-casing pressure at shut-in value while increasing pump kill rate. Sub sea stack - hold kill line pressure at shut-in value, while increasing pump to kill rate. Hold pump speed at kill pump rate (KPR) and adjust the choke for proper drill pipe pressure versus strokes. When KMW reaches the bit, continue holding pump at kpr and adjust the choke for final drill pipe pressure until KMW returns. Sub sea stack remove any gas trapped in the bop and displace the riser with KMW. Open the BOP and check the well for flow. Condition mud system, increase to trip margin density.

CIRCULATION ( DRILLERS ) METHOD FOR INDUCED KICKS


Monitor shut-in pressures for gas migration while making preparations for the kill operation If observed, bleed mud from the annulus to maintain SIDPP at stabilized shut in value plus 50 100 psi safety factor. An increase in the present mud weight or additional choke pressure is not recommended for a safe kill operation. When preparations are complete, start the kill operation: Surface stack - hold-casing pressure at shut-in value while increasing pump kill rate. Sub sea stack - hold kill line pressure at shut-in value, while increasing pump to kill rate With the pump at kill pump rate, record the observed circulating drill pipe pressure. Hold pump speed at kill pump rate (KPR) and adjust the choke for proper drill pipe pressure value until bottoms up strokes are pumped. Sub sea stack removes any gas trapped in the BOP stack. Check the well for flow, condition the mud system.

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REMOVING GAS TRAPPED BELOW THE BOP


Close the lower pipe ram to isolate the well bore from the stack gas clearing operation. Open the kill failsafe valves. U-tubing pressure from choke line will be observed if choke line fluid density is greater. Displace the kill line with kill mud weight(KMW) pumping down the choke line and returning through the kill line Hold kill line pressure constant and increase pump to kill rate. Hold pump speed constant & adjust choke to hold circulating pressure constant until KMW returns. Displace only the choke line with water. Allow pump pressure to increase as water is pumped. Close the kill failsafe valves. Open the choke line completely to allow the trapped gas to expand into the choke line Line up the trip tank to maintain the riser full. When expanding flow from the choke line stops, open the annular preventer completely to allow the riser to u-tube into the choke line. When u-tubing flow stops, close the choke line failsafe valves. Close the diverter and open the down-wind overboard line( or flow line degasser). Open the kill line failsafe valves and displace the riser with KMW. Displace choke line with KMW. Open the lower ram and check the well for flow.

CAUSES OF KICKS WHILE TRIPPING Only induced kicks are possible during the tripping operation Swabbing (# 1 cause of kick) Improper hole fills procedure. Lost circulation. Filling the hole with light mud weight. Weighting material sag.

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INDICATIONS OF INDUCED KICKS


INDICATIONS HOLE NOT TAKING CORRECT FILL-UP NOTES The barrels of mud required to fill the hole are less than the steel volume pulled. Over pull generally associated with swabbing. Kick fluids displace mud from wellbore causing well flow with pumps off. Primary well control is lost when the well begins to flow. As kick fluids flow into the wellbore, the volume addition is detected by the pit volume totalizer (PVT). RESPONSIBILITY Driller Trip Tank Man Mud Logger NOTIFY Mud eng. Co. rep. Toolpusher

WELL FLOW

Driller Trip Tank Man Mud Logger Driller Trip Tank Man Mud Logger

Drilling Crew Mud eng. Co. rep. Toolpusher Drilling Crew Mud eng. Co. rep. Toolpusher

PIT VOLUME GAIN

FLOW CHECK GUIDELINES WHILE TRIPPING


SURFACE STACK
Set the top tool joint on the slips.

SUB SEA STACK


Set the top tool joint on the slips.

Install and close full open safety valve. Observe the well for flow 5 10 minutes Maintain slow rotation to prevent sticking. If flow is detected, initiate shut-in procedures

Install and close full open safety valve. Line-up the trip tank and observe well for flow 5 10 minutes. Maintain slow rotation to prevent sticking. If flow is detected, initiate shut-in procedures.

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DIVERTER GUIDELINES WHILE TRIPPING


SURFACE STACK
Sound the kick alarm. Set the top tool joint on the slips. Install and close full open safety valve. Open down wind diverter line and close the diverter. Make-up kelly/top drive and open safety valve. Open pump suctions to the heavy mud reverses and pump at maximum rate. Build additional heavy mud volume. Prepare to abandon the rig.

SUB SEA STACK


Sound the kick alarm. Set the top tool joint on the slips. Install and close full open safety valve. Make-up top drive-kelly and pump the heaviest available fluid at maximum rate. Prepare to abandon the location. Monitor the sea surface for gas. Move the rig up wind of surfacing gas. Fill pits/tanks with seawater.

Continue pumping the heaviest available fluid at maximum rate. Gas zone depletion may take several hours Or days.

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SHUT-IN GUIDELINES WHILE TRIPPING


SURFACE STACK
Sound the kick alarm. Set the top tool joint on the slips. Install and close full open safety valve. Open the chock line valves Close the annular preventer with 1500 psi closing pressure Record SICP every 2 minutes. Adjust annular preventer closing pressure relative to stabilized SICP. Maintain string movement to prevent sticking.

SUB SEA STACK


Sound the kick alarm.

Set the top tool joint on the slips. Install and close full open safety valve. Open the upper choke line fail-safe valves. Close the annular preventer with 1500 psi closing pressure Record SICP every 2 minutes. Adjust annular preventer closing pressure relative to stabilized SICP. Maintain string movement to prevent sticking.

EVALUATE THE OFF BOTTOM KICK CONDITION


KICK CONDITION
HEAVY PIPE LIGHT PIPE NO PIPE IN HOLE

DESCRIPTION
The weight of the drill string is greater than the hydraulic force of shut-in pressure acting to push the string out of the hole. The hydraulic force acting to push the string out of the hole is greater than string weight (string is supported or pushed out of the hole). The drill string is pulled out of the hole before the kick is detected.

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RECOMMENDED ACTION PER KICK CONDITION HEAVY PIPE STRIP & BLEED OPER. LIGHT PIPE SNUBBING OPER. PIPE OUT OF HOLE SNUBBING OPER.

Strip the string to bottom and kill Snub drill string into the wellbore until Snub drill string into the wellbore the kick using the circulation string weight is sufficient for stripping until string weight is sufficient for method with present mud weight. operation. stripping operation.

IF STRIPPING OR SNUBBING IS NOT POSSIBLE ( i.e., STUCK PIPE ) VOLUMETRIC METHOD VOLUMETRIC METHOD VOLUMETRIC METHOD
Allow the gas to migrate to the surface. Kill the kick using a dynamic lubricates and bleed procedure. Allow the gas to migrate above the Allow the gas to migrate above the bit. bit. Kill the kick using the Kill the kick using the circulation circulation method with present mud method with present mud weight. weight.

IF THE INFLUX DOES NOT MIGRATE HEAVY MUD CAP

IF THE GAS MIGRATES TO SURFACE LUBRICATE & BLEED

LAST RESORT OPTION BULLHEAD


Use only under special condition. Pump present mud weight to fracture pressure and inject influx into formation. If show fractures first, an under ground blowout will occur.

Circulate kill mud weight of Pump present mud weight across the sufficient density to kill the casing well head, through the choke and back pressure. to a small calibrated pit. Open the BOP and run to bottom. Decrease casing pressure by PSI / BBL equivalent per barrel of mud loss in the Kill the kick using the circulation pit. method with present mud weight.

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STRIP AND BLEED GUIDELINES


Circulate the maximum allowable surface pressure (MASP) to avoid formation fracture MASP = (Frac (ppg) Mud (ppg) X 0.052 X TVD shoe. Circulate the maximum casing pressure limit (MCPL) to determine when to stop stripping and circulate a portion of the influx out of the wellbore. MCPL = MASP X 0.8 Circulate displacement volume per stand or pipe stripped into the hole. Bbls / std = Pipe disp + Stand Length. Route the returns from the choke manifold to the trip tank. Sub sea stack, if necessary displace the choke line with the present mud weight. Adjust the annular preventer closing pressure for stripping. Route the lubricating mud volume to the trip tank. Apply 100 200 psi safety factor. Hold the choke closed and strip 1 2 stands until safety factor is reached (SICP + SF). If necessary bleed SICP to safety factor value. Strip in a stand and alternately bleed out the bbl/std volume. SICP will return to the safety factor if the bit is above the influx. SICP will increase as the BHA enters the influx and decrease as the BHA moves below the influx. Continue stripping to bottom. Use the circulation method with present mud weight to kill the kick.

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VOLUMETRIC GUIDELINES
Route returns from the choke manifold to trip tank. Calculate the maximum allowable surface pressure (MASP) to avoid formation fracture. MASP = (Frac (ppg) Mud (ppg) X 0.052 X TVD shoe. Circulate the required bbls to bleed (B/BBLs) before allowing casing pressure to increase by 50 psi B/BBLs = Bbls/ Ft(open hole) X 50 / Mud(ppg) / 0.052 Hold the choke closed and allow the migrating gas to increase casing pressure by 100 200 psi safety factor if accessible drill pipe pressure will show an equal increase When calculated casing pressure is reached (SICP + SF) bleed mud through the choke to maintain casing pressure. After bleeding the circulated barrles (B/BBLs), hold the choke closed and allow casing pressure to increase by 50psi. When calculated casing pressure is reached (SICP + 50psi) bleed mud through the choke to maintain the new casing pressure. If shut-in off bottom, continue repeating this procedure until pressures indicates the gas has migrated above the bit. Use circulation method with the present mud weight and 100 200 psi safety factor to circulate gas out of hole. If shut-in with no pipe in the hole , continue this procedure until gas migrates to surface. Use the lubricate and bleed guidelines to remove the gas.

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DYNAMIC LUBRICATE & BLEED GUIDELINES


Line up returns from the choke manifold to the gas buster and on to a small calibrated pit. The cementing unit is ideal for this operation. Line up the pump discharge to the kill line. Calculate the barrels of pit level decrease required before allowing the casing pressure to decrease by 50 psi (LUB BBLs). LUB BBLs = Bbls/Ft (casing) X 50 / Mud (ppg) / 0.052. Construct a schedule for barrels lubricated into the wellbore versus casing pressure decrease . A 50-psi safety factor is recommended. When preparations are complete zero the pit level indicator and start the kill operation: 1. Adjust the choke to hold casing pressure to its shut in value while increasing the pump speed. 2. Increase pump speed to 1 2 barrels per minute. Maintain SPM constant during the kill operation. Apply a 50 psi safety factor, adjust the choke to maintain casing pressure at its shut in value until the pit level decreases by the LUB BBLs. Continue holding the pump speed constant and allow the casing pressure to decrease. As the lubricated mud volume increases, hydrostatic pressure, casing pressure will decrease accordingly. When the total barrels are lubricated into the well and casing pressure has decreased to +/- 50 psi (safety factor), stop the pump and allow casing pressure to bleed to zero. Open the BOP and check the well for flow.

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THIRD LINE OF DEFENSE


UNDER GROUND BLOWOUT
An under ground diversion of high pressure kick fluids.

TERTIARY WELL CONTROL

Methods employed to contain an underground blowout and regain primary well control.

UP-FLOWING UNDER GROUND BLOWOUT ( UGB )


Kick fluids from a deep zone flows upward into a lower pressure shallow zone.

CAUSE:
Well bore pressure exceeds fracture strength resulting in loss of circulation Kick fluid flows upward to loss zone.

WARNING:
Prognosed loss circulation. Excessive mud weight. Shallow low-pressure zone. Low kick tolerance.

INDICATIONS:
Possible when shutting in for a kick or during kick killing operation. Large pit gain. SICP stops increasing and/or begins to decrease. Partial / total loss of returns.

FIRST ACTION:
Kill the kick zone before attempting to treat the loss zone.

PREVENTIVE ACTION:
Minimize mud weight. Maintain sufficient kick tolerance. Minimize wellbore pressure.

****************************FIGURE**********************

25

DOWN-FLOWING UNDER GROUND BLOWOUT ( UGB )


Kick fluids from a shallow zone flows downward into a lower pressure deep zone.

CAUSE:
Loss of circulation occurs in the lower section of the open hole. Reduced hydrostatic pressure induced a kick. Formation fluids flow down ward to the loss zone. Prognosed loss circulation. Excessive mud weight. Low or sub normal formation pressure. Potential kick zone above kick zone.

WARNING:

INDICATIONS:
Possible when shutting in for a kick or during kick killing operation. Large pit gain. Partial or total loss of returns. SICP begins to decrease after shut in. Treat the loss zone before attempting to kill the kick zone. Minimize mud weight .

FIRST ACTION: PREVENTIVE ACTION:


Minimize wellbore pressure surges. Case-off potential kick zones before drilling into the potential loss zone.

*********************FIGURE *************************

26

INDICATIONS OF UNDERGROUND BLOWOUTS ( UGB )


UP-FLOWING UGB
Shut-in pressure build up begins to decrease. Casing pressure fluctuations during shut-in stabilization period. Shut-in casing pressure continues to increase while shut-in drill pipe pressure remains constant. Partial or total loss of circulation. Shut-in pressures fall to zero.

DOWN-FLOWING UGB
Total loss of circulation. Electric wire line surveys can be used to determine if a down flowing UBG is occurring. Shut-in pressures are zero initially.

GUIDELINES FOR DOWN-FLOWING UGB The loss zone must be repaired before remedial action can be taken at the kick zone. Treating the loss zone. Consult your mud engineer for the most applicable (flash setting) lost circulation plugs(s). After pumping the LCM plug in place, start filling the annulus with present mud weight to control the kick zone. When the annulus fills up, stop the pump and check the well for flow. If possible keep the hole full. If flow is observed, shut-in and record pressures KILLING THE KICK Use circulation method (DRILLERS) with present mud weight to kill the kick zone.

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GUIDELINES FOR UP-FLOWING UGB Kick zone pressure must be controlled before remedial action can be taken at the loss zone. HEAVY PILL Determine the true vertical measurement between the kick zone and loss zone. Determine or estimate the formation pressure of the kick zone (FP kick) Determine or estimate the formation pressure of the loss zone (FP loss) Calculate the kill mud weight required to kill the kick zone (KMW ppg). Fp (kick) FP (loss) KMW (ppg) =

) + safety factor(ppg)

TVD(k.l) X 0.052 If KMW (ppg) equals the density capacity of the weighting material, refer to the heavy pill/gel pill guidelines. If KMW (ppg) is greater than the density capacity of the weighting material, refer to barite plug guidelines.. Build KMW (ppg) volume equals to 2 to 3 times the open hole volume. If possible, remove the bit jets. Pump seawater at maximum rate, 3 to 4 times the open hole volume. Pump the heavy pill at a maximum rate. HEAVY PILL/GEL PILL COMBINATION Pump the heavy pill down the drill string at maximum rate while pumping the gel pill down the annulus to increase injection pressure at the loss zone. Adjust the annulus pump speed to place the gel pill at the loss zone as the heavy pill reaches the bit. Continue to pump the heavy pill at maximum rate. BARITE PLUG A barite plug works best with gas blowouts. High flow rate salt water blowouts wash the barite into the loss zone. Bit plugging and/or stuck pipe may occur. Consult your Cementing and/or Mud Engineer for detailed recipes and application protection.

Gas that has dissolved into the base oil of oil base mud. SOLUTION GAS BUBBLE POINT PRESSURE The pressure and temperature condition that will allow the gas to break out of solution

UNDETECTABLE KICKS IN OIL BASE MUD


The sensitivity of the pit volume monitoring system can not detect volume changes under +/- 5 barrels. A small kick volume can enter the wellbore completely undetected. *******************FIGURE********************

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OPERATIONS THAT CAN MASK A KICK Seepage/partial loss of circulation. Mud weight adjustments and transfers while drilling. Solids control and degassing the mud system. Spills and leaks in the surface equipment. Loss of volumes on connections /trips. Pump start-up and shut-down volume change. Kicks of 5 barrels or less can occur completely undetected under normal operating conditions.

INFLUX GUIDELINES If an influx is suspected, stop the operation and circulate all or part of bottoms strokes through the choke manifold. Open the choke lines valves and open one choke completely. If the position of the gas in the annulus is not known, close the BOP and circulate bottoms up strokes through the choke manifold. If the position of the gas in the annulus is known, circulate 80 % of bottoms up strokes from gas depth , close the BOP and circulate the remaining strokes through the choke manifold.

DRILLING Drilling operations have the greatest potential of circulating solution gas to surface. Adjust the high/low level mud monitoring alarms as sensitive as possible. Stop drilling for mud weight adjustments, coordinate mud transfers with connections. Use recommended procedures to circulate bottoms up after flow checking a suspected drilling break for all unaccountable pit gains.

TRIPPING Tripping has the least potential of solution gas erupting at surface, as solution gas will not migrate. Use recommended procedures to circulate bottoms up after all short or round trips. SOLUTION GAS AT SURFACE
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If rapidly accelerating well flow occurs, the driller must respond immediately. Regardless of kelly / top drive position, stop the rotary and pumps, close the annular preventer (Sub sea, close the diverter). Strip the drill string to the proper shut-in position. Use standard well control procedure to kill the kick.

WELL CONTROL KILL SHEET

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A. WELL DATA
Original mud weight ( OMW ) ppg True vertical depth (TVD) ft. Kill pump pressure (KPP) psi. Kill pump rate (KPR) psi. Strokes to bit ( stks )

C. CALCULATIONS
KMW = (SIDPP/TVD/0.052)+Original Mud Weight ..ppg ICP = Kill Pump Pressure+SIDPP psi. FCP = Kill Pump Pressure x KMW / OMW psi

E. RECORD DRILL PIPE PRESSURE SCHEDULE STROKES (0) PRESSURE ICP

B. KILL DATA
Shut-In drill pipe pressure (SIDPP) psi. Shut-In casing pressure (SICP) psi. Pit Gain ( bbls ). 1. 2. 3. 4.

D. WAIT & WEIGHT PROCEDURES


Raise mud weight in pit to kill mud weight value. Monitor shut-in pressures for gas migration. If necessary, bleed mud to maintain SIDPP at initial shut-in value. When kill preparations are complete, refer to Pump Start Up procedure and bring the well on choke. Hold kill pump rate (KPR) constant and adjust the choke to maintain the Drillpipe Pressure Schedule until Kill Mud Weight returns. Stop the pump, close the choke and check shut-in pressures. Sub Sea Stack-Clear gas from BOP and kill riser. Open the BOP and check for flow.

Strks to Bit (10) INSTRUCTIONS


1. 2.

FCP

Record ICP,FCP AND Stks to Bit in spaces indicated. Calculate strokes increase per increment. Stks to Bit/10 = Stks Inc. Add Stks Inc to each increment until Stks to Bit is reached.

3.

Calculate Drillpipe pressure decrease per increment (ICP FCP)/10 = .PSI Dec. From ICP, subtract PSI Dec. from each increment until FCP is reached.

5. 6.

PRE-RECORDED ANNULUS DATA


LENGTHS (FT) DP X Casing DP X OH DC X OH CAPACITIES (BBLS/FT)

PRE-RECORDED DRILL STRING DATA


LENGTHS (FT) Drillpipe Heavyweight Drill Collars CAPACITIES (BBLS/FT) 1. 2. 3. 4.

PUMP START-UP PROCEDURES SURFACE STACKS


Open the choke slightly while observing casing pressure. Just as casing pressure begins to decrease, start the kill pump. Adjust the choke to maintain casing pressure at shut-in value as pump speed is slowly increased to kill pump rate. When the pump reaches KPR, adjust the choke for the proper drill pipe pressure schedule.

ANNULUS VOLUME (BBLS) Length (ft) X Cap. (bbl/ft) = Vol. (bbls)


Casing by Drill String. Open Hole by Drill String Choke Line Volume (Sub sea only) Add column for Total annulus Volume. =

DRILL STRING VOLUME (BBLS) Length (ft) X Cap. (bbl/ft) = Vol. (bbls)
Add column for Total Drill String Volume.

SUB SEA STACKS PUMP OUTPUT AND TOTAL STROKES TO KILL WELL PUMP OUTPUT (BBLS/STK) =
Strokes to Bit Stks to Bit / = Drill String Volume BBLS/STK Bit to Surface Strokes Annulus Stks / = Annulus Volume BBLS/STK Add Column for Total Circulation Stks. = 1. 2. 3. 4. Open the choke slightly while observing casing pressure. Just as casing pressure begins to decrease, start the kill pump. Adjust the choke to maintain casing pressure at shut-in value as pump speed is slowly increased to kill pump rate. When the pump reaches KPR, adjust the choke for the proper drill pipe pressure schedule.

SUMMARIZATION OF OCCURRENCES, WARNING SIGNS, AND THE ACTION TO TAKE WHEN A KICK IS ENCOUNTERED
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NORMAL PRESSURE FORMATIONS


OCCURRENCES WARNING SIGNS Increase in mud pit volume. Loss of circulation CAUSES Drilling fluid too light. Drilling fluid too heavy and/or improper drilling techniques: i.e., spudding of drill pipe with pump on, etc. Swabbing or drilled show. Mud too light or hole in drill pipe. ACTION TO TAKE Close blowout preventer and increase mud weight. Observe fluid level in annulus to insure that well is not kicking. If well kicks, close blowout preventer and add lost circulation material to mud. Increase mud weight only if necessary.

WHEN DRILLING Gas, oil, or salt-water cut mud. Increase in pump speed or decrease in pump pressure Increase in mud pit volume or well WHEN MAKING beginning to TRIP flow back. Hole fails to take mud when filling up. Loss of circulation. OCCURRENCES WARNING SIGNS

Condition mud and increase mud weight only if showing was of sufficient intensity to warrant doing so. Observe mud pit level if increase in level obtained. Close blowout preventer and raise the mud weight if no increase in mud pit level check for hole in drill pipe or foam in mud.

Failure to fill hole and/or swabbing.

Install safety valve and inside BOP. Attempt to run drill pipe as near back to bottom as safety and time will permit. Close blowout preventer. Circulate and condition mud, increase mud weight only if necessary. Do not pull any more drill pipe. Go back to bottom and condition mud. Lower gels and viscosity if high. Close blowout preventer and put on choke if necessary.

Swabbing

CAUSES

ACTION TO TAKE

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Unable to fill Running drill pipe If unable to fill after waiting several hours add hole in hole too fast, lost circulation materials to mud system. spudding drill pipe Pay particular attention to mud in annulus to insure that well is not kicking Drilling fluid too WHEN MAKING Loss of heavy and/or poor Attempt to keep annulus full using water, if TRIP (contd) circulation drilling necessary. techniques. Watch annulus and close blowout preventer if well kicks. Add lost circulation to mud system and regain returns. Increase mud weight only if necessary.

WHEN OUT OF HOLE

Well begins to flow back, increase in pit level

Failure to fill hole Attempt to run drill pipe as near back to bottom as and/or swabbing. safety and time will permit. Circulate and condition mud. Close blowout and put on choke, if necessary and increase mud weight only if necessary.

ABNORMAL PRESSURE FORMATIONS

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OCCURRENCES

WARNING SIGNS Increase in mud pit volume.

CAUSES

ACTION TO TAKE

Drilling fluid too Close blowout preventer and increase mud light. weight. Swabbing or drilled show. Drilled into porous formations Lower gels and viscosity if high. Increase mud weight only if pressure was of sufficient intensity to warrant doing so. Observe mud pit level. Check for flow. If increase in level is obtained. Close blowout preventer and increase mud weight. Circulate returns up from bottom and if showing of gas, oil or salt water is of sufficient intensity, increase mud weight. Install safety valve and inside BOP. Attempt to run drill pipe as near back to bottom as time will permit. Circulate and condition mud. Close blowout preventer and put through choke, if necessary, increase mud weight only if necessary Install safety valve and inside BOP. Attempt to get drill pipe as near back to bottom as safety and time will permit. Close blowout preventer. Circulate and condition mud, increase mud weight only if necessary. Attempt to keep annulus full using water if necessary. Watch annulus and close blowout preventer if well kicks. Add lost circulation to mud system and regain returns. Increase mud weight only if necessary. Install safety valve and inside BOP. Attempt to run drill pipe as near back to bottom as safety and time will permit. Circulate and condition mud Close blowout preventer and circulate through the choke,. Increase mud weight only if necessary.

WHEN DRILLING

Gas, oil, or salt-water cut mud. Drilling break.

Hole fails to take mud when filling WHEN MAKING up. TRIP Well begins to flow back. Increase in mud pit level.

Swabbing

Swabbing and/or failure to fill hole

Loss of Running drill pipe circulation. in too fast, Unable to fill spudding drill pipe hole.

WHEN OUT OF HOLE

Well begins to flow back. Increase in mud pit level.

Swabbing and/or failure to fill hole

BLOWOUT CONTROL
A) KICK CONTROL

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1. one circulation (Wait and weight Method) Prerecorded information: Original mud weight (OMW), lb./gal -----------------------------------------------------True vertical depth (TVD), ft ----------------------------------------------------------------Measured depth (MD), ft ---------------------------------------------------------------------Pump output, bbl/stroke -----------------------------------------------------------------------Surface to-bits, bbls -------------------------------and strokes----------------------------Bit- to-surface, bbls ---------------------------------and strokes---------------------------Total strokes----------------------------Kill rate speed, strokes/min -------------------------------------------------------------------Kill rate pressure (KRP), psi ------------------------------------------------------------------Choke line pressure loss, psi ------------------------------------------------------------------(if a sub sea BOP stack is being used.) Procedure: 1) Shut-in the well immediately using the preferred shut-in sequence. 2) Allow pressure to stabilize, then read and record the SIDPP, SICP, and pit volume gain. 3) Check for trapped pump pressure. 4) Compute the exact kill mud weight and weight up the surface mud system to this weight. Fill out the kill sheet while mud is weighting up. 5) To initiate circulation of kill mud, open choke and allow casing pressure to drop before pump is started. 6) Once pump is started, bring pump up to kill rate speed (constant pump rate) slowly. Hold casing pressure constant at the at the original SICP value by manipulating the choke until the kill rate speed is obtained. However, in a sub sea kill procedure a reduced casing pressure value (original SICP- choke line pressure loss) may be required. This reduced casing pressure value is then held constant by manipulating the choke until the kill rate is obtained. 7) Once the kill rate speed has been obtained, begin monitoring the drill pipe gauge. Be certain that the drill pipe pressure is equal to the computed initial circulating pressure. 8) Follow the drill pipe pressure schedule while the original mud in the drill string is being displaced with kill mud. 9) Once the drill string has been displaced with kill mud, check the drill pipe gauge reading. Be certain that the drill pipe pressure is equal to the computed initial circulating pressure. 10) Continue to maintain the final circulating the final circulating pressure on the drill pipe gauge by manipulating the choke until the kill mud reaches the surfaces, 11) When kill mud reaches the surface, shut down the pump and close the choke. All shut-in pressures should read zero. If drill pipe and casing pressures are zero, then open the choke and check for flow. If there is zero pressure and no flow, then open the preventer stack ( a sub sea preventer stack must not be opened until the original mud in the annulus of the riser has been displaced with kill mud). 12) Once the preventer stack is open, close choke and check for flow at the flow line. If there is still no flow, then circulate and condition mud. Kill Calculations:

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Kill mud weight (KMW), lb./gal = SIDPP / (0.052 X TVD) + OMW Initial Circulation Pressure, psi = SIDPP + KRP Final Circulating Pressure, psi = (KMW / OMW) X KRP. ***************************FIGURE********************************* 2. TWO CIRCULATIONS (DRILLERS METHOD) Recorded Data: -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Depth (TVD), ft ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Mud Wt (OMW), lb./gal ------------------------------------------------------------------------Drill pipe capacity, bbl --------------------------------------------------------------------------Pump Rate, strokes/min -------------------------------------------------------------------------SIDPP, psi -------------------------------; SICP, psi---------------------------------------------(Shut-in drill pipe pressure) (Shut-in casing pressure) Calculations: SIDPP X 20 Kill mud weight = Depth Remark: No safety factors are offered for this procedure. Procedure: 1. Open choke. 2. Set pump rate at to of normal speed. 3. Close the choke until the choke pressure equals to original mud shut-in casing pressure. 4. Read and record the pump pressure (Note that this pressure is the SIDPP plus the pressure required to circulate the fluid through the system). 5. Hold the pump pressure constant at the value recorded in step 4 until the bore hole is free of liquids and gases. Record casing pressure. 6. Start pumping kill mud, and hold the casing pressure constant as recorded in step 5. 7. When the drill pipe is displaced with kill mud, record the drill pipe pressure. 8. Hold the drill pipe pressure constant at the value recorded in step 7 until the kill mud reaches the surface. 9. Shut the pumps of and check for flow. + OMW

PRESSURE CONTROL GAS CUT EQUATION

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EQUATION ENGLISH SYSTEM Pg = (14.7) (n) Ln [H / 14.7] METRIC SYSTEM Pg = (1.03) (n) Ln [H / 1.03] Where: Pg = Hydrostatic pressure reduction from gas in mud, psi or ksc. H = Hydrostatic pressure of uncut mud, psi or ksc n = (I-X)/X, ratio of gas to mud x = ec m / ec m. ec m = ppg or SG of Cut mud em = ppg or SG of Uncut mud Ln = Logarithm base e EXAMPLE Determine the pressure reduction of a well with the following data: Depth = 12000 feet e m = 16 ppg e c m = 7 ppg SOLUTION H = (16) (0.052) (12000) = 9984 psi Pg = (14.7) (1.27) Ln [ 9984 / 14.7 ] = 122 psi PRESSURE CONTROL PROCEDURE (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) Stop rotary and pick up kelly to clear BOPs. Stop the pump. Open the HCR valve. Close the BOPs. Close the choke. Read shut-in drill pipe and casing pressures.

Two methods to determine the drill pipe pressure with float in the drill pipe: (a) Start the pump slowly and observe the build up in pressure on the stand pipe gauge. Note the point where the pressure breaks back as the float opens; this is the shut-in drill pipe pressure. (b) Increase the drill pipe pressure in 50 psi (3.5 ksc) increment until an increase of 50 psi (3.5 ksc) is seen on the casing pressure. At this point the float is open and the pressure on the drill pipe is the shut in drill pipe pressure.

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DENSITY REQUIRED TO KILL THE WELL ENGLISH METHOD e r = (SIDPP / 0.052 D) + e 1 + SM METRIC SYSTEM e r = [ (10) (SIDPP) / D ] + e 1 + SM Where: e r = Density required, ppg or SG SIDPP = Shut-in drill pipe pressure, psi or ksc. e 1 = Original density, ppg or SG TVD = true vertical depth, feet or meters SM = Optional safety margin, ppg or SG

SAFETY MARGIN
ENGLISH SYSTEM SM = YP / 11.7 (Dh Dp) METRIC SYSTEM SM = YP / 100 (Dh Dp) Where YP = yield point, # / 100 ft2 Dh Dp = hole dia. drill pipe dia., inches

SYSTEM PRESSURE LOSS


* Ps = P1 ( Q2 / Q1)1.8 = P1 (S2 /S1)1.8 Where: Ps = New system pressure loss, psi or ksc. P1 = Original system pressure loss, psi or ksc. Q2 = Desired pump output. any unit (same as Q1) Q1 = Original pump output, any unit (same as Q2) S2 = Desired rate of strokes, strokes / min S1 = Initial rate of strokes, strokes / min *Use only if system pressure loss was not pre-recorded. Use 2 instead of 1.8 for rough approximation.

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INITIAL CIRCULATING PRESSURE Pi = system pressure loss + shut-in drill pipe pressure. Where Pi = Initial circ. pressure, psi pr ksc FINAL CIRCULATING PRESSURE ENGLISH SYSTEM Pf = (system pressure loss) X (new mud weight / old mud weight) METRIC SYSTEM Pf = (system pressure loss) X (new SG / old SG) Where: Pf = Final circulating pressure, psi or ksc.

TYPE OF KICK FLUID


EQUATIONS: ENGLISH SYSTEM SICP - SIDPP ef =em L (0.052) METRIC SYSTEM 10 (SICP SIDPP) ef =em L Where: e f = Fluid density ppd or SG e m = Mud density ppg or SG SIDPP Shut-in drill pipe pressure, psi or ksc SICP = Shut-in casing pressure, psi or ksc L = Length or height of intruding fluid, ft or meters. Salt water flow if, e f = 9 to 10 ppg or 1.08 to 1.2 SG Gas flow if,

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e f = 1 to 3 ppg or 0.1 to 0.4 SG EXAMPLE TVD MW Bit size Drill pipe Drill collar SIDPP SICP Pit gain Unit Annular Vol. @ DP Unit Annular Vol. @ DC SOLUTION: Total annular vol. @ DC Hence, = 6000 feet = 10.5 ppg = 7-7/8 = 4 X 0.01422 bbl/ft cap. = 5 OD X 400 ft = 275 psi = 500 psi = 20 bbls = 0.0406 bbl/ft = 0.0359 bbl/ft

= 400 x 0.0359 = 14.4

L = 400 + [ (20 14.4) / 0.0406] = 538 ft e f = 10.5 [ (500 275) / (0.052 X 538) ] = 2.4 ppg Therefore, fluid is a gas! MAXIMUM GAS PRESSURE IN ANNULUS NOMENCLATURE Pg = max gas pressure in annulus, psi or ksc. Pb = Formation pressure, psi or ksc Y = Distance between bottom of gas and top of new mud, feet or meters e 1 = Original mud weight, ppg or SG e 2 = New mud weight , ppg or SG TVD = True vertical depth, feet or meters D = Any depth under consideration, feet or meters Vg = Pit volume gain, bbls or m3 VA = Unit vol of annulus (between hole and drill pipe), bbl/ft or m3 /m EQUATIONS *Pg = (B/2) + { (B/2)2 + C }1/2 Where: ENGLISH SYSTEM B = Pb + (0.052) (Y) (e 2 e 1) (TVD D) (0.052) e 2

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(0.052) (e 2) (Pb) (Vg) C = VA METRIC SYSTEM B = Pb +[ (Y) (e 2 e 1)] / 10 [ e 2 (TVD D) ] / 10 Monday, September 02, 2002 (e 2) (Pb) (Vg) C = 10 VA *Equation simplified by neglecting: 1. Density of gas. 2. Drill collar (one hole configuration only) 3. Temperature and compressibility change EXAMPLE If the casing depth of the previous example is at 2000 feet, determine the maximum gas pressure at the shoe and at surface using 11.5 ppg kill mud. SOLUTION: At the shoe, Pb = (10.5) (0.052) (6000) + 275 = 3551 psi Y = [ (6000) (0.01422) ] / 0.0406 = 2101 ft B = 3551 +(0.052) (2101) (11.5 10.5) (0.052) (6000 2000) (11.5) = 1046058 Pg (1268 / 2) + { (1268/2)2 + 1046058}1/2 = 1837 psi. Equivalent MW @ shoe = 1837 / [2000 (0.052)] = 17.7 ppg. At surface: B = 3551 + (0.052) (2101) (11.5 10.5) (0.052) (6000 0) 11.5 = 72.3 C = 1046058 (previously computed) Pg = (72.3/2) + [ (72.3/2)2 + 1046058 ]1/2 = 1060 psi

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EXAMPLE Determine the casing shoe pressure if using Drillers method of the last example. Pb = 3551 psi (previously determined) e 2 = e 1 = 10.5 B = 3551 + 0 0.052 (6000 2000 ) (10.5) = 1367 C = [ (0.052) (10.5) (3551) (20) ] / 0.0406 Pg = (1367/2) + [ (1367/2)2 + 955069 ]1/2 = 1876 psi Equivalent MW @ shoe = 1876 / [ (2000) (0.052) ] = 18 ppg

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FORMULAE USED IN KICK AND KILL PROCEDURES 1. Hydrostatic Pressure (psi) MW (lb./gal) X TVD (ft) X 0.0519 (kpa) MW (sg) X TVD (m) X 0.0098 (MW) = Mud Weight TVD = True Vertical Depth 2. Circulating Pressure (psi): (MW X TVD X 0.0519) / PL o PL o = Annular Pressure Loss 3. Initial Circulating Pressure (psi) SPR + SIDP SPR = System pressure loss at kill rate (psi) usually taken at varying slow circulating rates SIDP = Shut-in drill pipe pressure (psi) 4. Final Circulating Pressure (psi): (KMW / MW) X SPR KMW = Kill mud weight 5. Kill Mud Weight (lb./gal): MW + [ SIDP / (TVD X 0.0519)] 6. Formation pressure (psi): SIDP / (MW X TVD X 0.0519) 7. Density of influx (ppg): MW [ (SICP SIDP) / (L X 0.0519) ] SICP = Shut-in casing pressure (psi) L = Length of influx. (ft) 8. Length of kick around drill collars (ft): Pit Gain (bbls) / Annular Volume around collars (bbls/ft) 9. Length of kick, drill collars and drill pipe (bbls/ft) Collar length + (Pit gain collar annular volume) / (D12 D22 X 0.000971) D12 = hole diameter D22 = drill pipe diameter 10. Gas bubble migration rate (psi/ft): Pa / (0.0519 X MW) Pa = pressure change over time interval / time interval (hr) 11. Barite required (sk/100 bbls mud): 1490 X (KMW MW) / (35.8 KMW) 12. Volume increase caused by weighting up: 100 X (KMW MW) / (35.8 KMW).

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