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Organization is the foundation upon which the whole structure of management is built. Organization is related with developing a frame work where the total work is divided into manageable components in order to facilitate the achievement of objectives or goals. Thus, organization is the structure or mechanism (machinery) that enables living things to work together. In a static sense, an organization is a structure or machinery manned by group of individuals who are working together towards a common goal. This is mainly for acquiring more knowledge about the functioning and performance of the organizational activities and from this knowledge gets acquainted with the organizational activities and the practice of management. The organization structure is the structural framework within which the efforts of the people are coordinated and related to each other. Exposure to an industrial surrounding provides knowledge about activities and functions of various departments thus providing the better understanding of an organization. Sitaram Ayurvedic Pharmacy is the first company in India to get Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) Certificate. It is also the first joint stock company in ayurvedic industry in South India. Sitaram Ayurvedic works in Thrissur District of Kerala. Perhaps this is one among the oldest Ayurvedic institutes in Kerala. It deals with the manufacture and distribution of quality ayurvedic medicines at competitive and affordable prices. The company produces 450 ayurvedic medicines Sitaram Ayurveda Pharmacy Ltd owes to create a strong and everlasting hand with the consumers by providing superior and highest possible quality products which will delight the consumers by delivering greater value for the money spent by them. Through preparation, communication, employee participation and continuous improvement in its working system, Sitaram aims to achieve zero complaint situations relating to the quality and delivery of the products to the market.

1.1. Background of the study Human assets are the most important asset to any organization. Every organization needs to have well trained &experienced people to perform the activities that have done to be done. To improve the quality of human endeavors & thereby increase the organizations productivity. It is necessary to provide the right training to each employee so that he can perform his allotted tasks efficiently. Training increases versatility and adaptability of the employees. In a rapidly changing society, employee training need analysis is very essential. Training need analysis (TNA) is the process in which HRD needs are identified and articulated. Training plays an important role in improving organizational effectiveness. It is much needed in the private sector in todays competitive environment, especially after liberalization and globalization. In order to make the training more effective in improving organizational as well as individual performance, it is important that the perception regarding effectiveness of training must be made positive. Creating good learning environment, by providing encouragement in terms of promotion or increment and by linking training more closely work practice 1.2. RESEARCH PROBLEM The problem selected for research is to make in depth study of the effectiveness of training in SITARAM AYURVEDA PHARMACY (P) LTD. Training has to be done continuously & properly based on innovation research and experiment. It is aimed at knowing how the employees feel about the system that is prevailing in the firm, their suggestions if any for making the system etc, and to know whether it satisfies the needs of company and employees 1.3. OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY Primary objective To study the effectiveness of training in Sitaram Ayurveda Company Ltd Secondary objective To evaluate effectiveness of training in Sitaram Ayurvedics To study the present system of training adopted in the organisation

1.4. SCOPE OF THE STUDY The scope covers all the important aspects of training need analysis in Sitaram Ayurvedics The scope of the study are like training policy ,facilities given in the organisation, input & skills acquired through training ,types of training given in the organisation ,techniques used , evaluation & feedback & suggestions given by the employees The study will helps to understand more about the positive and negative aspects of present training programmes. The study educates the researcher how effectively the training process can be followed & brings out awareness on different training strategies followed at various occasions. An attempt is to made to study & improve the training need analysis & to know the training requirements. Training given to employees at earlier stage should reflect in future also, After long run the company will achieve its expected standards with help of training.


Research methodology is a systematic way to solve problems. Research is a process through which we attempt to achieve systematically and with the support of the data the answer to a question , the resolution of a problem, or a greater understanding of a phenomenon. According to Clifford Woody Research comprises of defining and redefining problems, formulating hypothesis, collecting , organising and evaluating data, making deduction and research conclusion and at last carefully testing conclusion to determine whether they fit the formulating of hypothesis This process, which is frequently called research methodology. A good research methodology includes the following. 1.5.1 Research Design The design may be specific presentation of the various steps in the process of research. Among the total population, a sample of 100 employees was selected for the research and the data were collected through questionnaire. The research is basically descriptive research 1.5.2 Sample Design A Sample design is a definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. It refers to the techniques the researcher would adopt in selecting some sampling units from which the inference of the population are drawn. Convenience sampling is used for this study. 1.5.3 Universe The universe chosen for the research study is the employees of Sitaram Ayurveda Company Ltd, Thrissur

1.5.4 Sources of Data Collection The data necessary for the purpose of study was mainly collected through primary and secondary sources. The main primary and secondary sources of data collection are: Primary Data Primary sources are original sources from which the researcher directly collects data that have not been previously collected. Primary data are first-hand information. Primary data is considered as the raw material to which statistical methods are applied for the purposes of analysis and interpretation. Primary data was collected through questionnaire and direct interview with the employees. Secondary Data The secondary data are those data which have already been collected, tabulated and presented in some form by someone else for some other purpose. It means data that are already available. Secondary data were collected from Company profile, company magazine, annual report, and internet. 1.5.5 Sample A finite subset of population, selected with the objective of investigating its properties is called sample. A sample is a representative part of the population. A sample of 100 respondents in total has been conveniently selected. The responses to various elements under each question were totalled for the purpose. 1.5.6 Sample Procedure Sample procedure used is convenience sampling. 1.5.7 Sample Frame The study has been carried out in Sitaram Ayurveda Company Ltd, Thrissur 1.5.8 Sample Size The sample size was selected based upon convenience sampling. For the purpose of study 50 samples were taken from the employees.


Major constraint of the study was that the respondents were reluctant to express their views freely The time available for the study was a limiting factor, prevented in-depth study of the topic Personal characteristic like moods, biases etc may influence the way of answering The assumption are based on the answers given by limited employees

INDUSTRY PROFILE 2.1. Ayurveda : An Introduction Ayurveda is Indias traditional, natural system of medicine that has been practiced for more than 5,000 years. Ayurveda is a Sanskrit word that literally translated means "science of life" or "practices of longevity." Ayurveda was the system of health care conceived and developed by the seers (rishis) and natural scientists through centuries of observations, experiments, discussions, and meditations. For several thousand years their teachings were passed on orally from teacher to student; about the fifth to sixth century BC, elaborately detailed texts were written in Sanskrit, the ancient language of India. For many years Ayurveda flourished and was used by rich and poor alike in India and Southeast Asia. Ayurveda emphasizes prevention of disease, rejuvenation of our body systems, and extension of life span. The profound premise and promise of Ayurveda is that through certain practices, not only can we prevent heart disease and make our headaches go away, but we can also better understand ourselves and the world around us, live a long healthy life in balance and harmony, achieve our fullest potential, and express our true inner nature on a daily basis. Ayurveda provides an integrated approach to preventing and treating illness through lifestyle interventions and natural therapies. It is based on the view that the elements, forces, and principles that comprise all of nature - and that holds it together and make it function - are also seen in human beings. In Ayurveda, the mind (or consciousness) and the body (or physical mass) not only influence each other.Together they form the mindbody. The universal consciousness is an intelligent, aware ocean of energy that gives rise to the physical world we perceive through our five senses. Ayurvedic philosophy and practices link us to every aspect of ourselves and remind us that we are in union with every aspect of nature, each other, and the entire universe. 2.1.1. Ayurveda in Global scenario Ayurveda continues to grow rapidly as one of the most important systems of mind-body medicine, natural healing and traditional medicine," says Dr. David Frawley and adds: "as the need for natural therapies, disease prevention and a more spiritual approach to life become ever more important in this ecological age." No wonder, Ayurveda accounts for $ 60 billion of a $ 120 billion "global herbal market".

The herbal market has been boosted by increasing demand for natural alternative medicines. Disillusionment with conventional medicines is growing and customer perceptions of the health benefits of herbals and botanicals are undergoing major change. WHO (World Health Organization) has forecasted that the global market for herbal products would be worth $5 trillion by the year 2050. Ayurveda, and allied herbal remedies, take a chunk of it. The demand for herbal products worldwide increased at an annual rate of 8 percent during the period of 1994 to 2001. Global sales of herbal products are expected to reach $ 23.2 billion dollars in 2002. Europe and the United States are the two major herbal products markets in the world, with a market share of 41 percent and 20 percent respectively. That is a figure from a WHO report. The demand for medicinal plants is increasing everyday and the World Health Organization (WHO) has projected that the global herbal market will grow to $ 5 trillion by 2050 from the current level of $ 62 billion. According to the presentations made at an International Conference on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants in India recently, the world is waking up to the pharmacological properties of herbs, spices and ethnic food products of India. More people are showing interest in economical, natural and safer herbal remedies rather than the expensive chemical drugs that have many side effects. Consequently, the herbal markets continue to grow at the rate of 7 to 30 percent annually. On the whole, India is stated to have 45,000 plant species. Out of these, about 3,500 species are of medicinal value. Harnessing this potential, according to experts, will not only boost our exports but also go a long way in the development of dry land agriculture in the country. The success of Ayurveda, lies in the fact that it is meant to diagnose and treat the entire person, not one part of his or her body. And the principle behind its treatments is vital. 2.1.2. Ayurveda in Indian scenario Ayurveda is an ancient Indian medical science, the origin of which can be traced back to the Vedas, which are the oldest available classics of the world. Vedas are the ancient books of knowledge, or science, from India. They contain practical and scientific information on various subjects beneficial to the humanity like health, philosophy, engineering, astrology etc. Ayurveda is a holistic healing science which comprises of two words, Ayu and Veda. Ayu means life and Veda means knowledge or science. So the literal meaning of the word Ayurveda is the science of life. Ayurveda is a science dealing not only with treatment of diseases but is also a complete way of life.

Ayurveda is a science of life. Life according to Ayurveda is a combination of senses, mind, body and soul. So it is clear from this definition of life that Ayurveda is not only limited to body or physical symptoms but also gives a comprehensive knowledge about spiritual, mental and social health. Ayurveda practices the theory of balance. According to Ayurveda health is the state of balance and disease is the state of imbalance. The aim of Ayurveda is to give complete health and not just getting free from physical diseases. Ayurveda aims at having a happy, healthy and peaceful society. Two most important aims of Ayurveda are: to maintain the health of healthy people and to cure the diseases of sick people. Ayurveda helps us in understanding each individual at a very subtle personal level and giving a detailed description about diet, daily routine, life-style, actions and activities to be followed. Ayurveda is a science that teaches how to live life in a true and natural balance. It teaches how to live in society and in the universe without disturbing the natural balance. Ayurveda not only deals with diseases and treatments but it is a complete way of life. It describes how one can make his life advantageous or disadvantageous for himself or for others and what one can do to make his life happy or unhappy. It also describes what actions, activities, foods etc. are good or bad for life. As long as we can maintain this balance one remains healthy and when there is imbalance there is disease, unhappiness and misery. Ayurvedic treatment does not suppresses the main symptoms and create new ones as side effects of the main treatment. It is to remove the root cause and give permanent relief. The treatment mainly comprises of powders, tablets, decoctions, medicated oils etc. prepared from natural herbs, plants and minerals. Panch Karma therapy is also used as a treatment in many diseases. Panchkarma is a purifying therapy to enhance the metabolic process through food and herbal medicines. Panch Karma means five types of actions or techniques or treatment. As the wastes are eliminated from the body the person becomes healthy.

2.1.3. Ayurveda in State scenario Kerala is the cradle of ayurveda and traditional system of medicine. The Ayurvedic manufacturing sector in the state comprises nearly 760 units having GMP Certification (report by Ayurvedic medicine manufacturers Association). Ayurvedic medicines are produced by several thousand companies in India, but most of them are quite small. The total export earnings of the Ayurvedic medicines in 2001-2002 were Rs.750

crores and are expected to increase by Rs.5000 crores by 2006. Medical tourism is a thriving activity in the state with huge employment potential. Creation of an advanced multipurpose analytical testing and standardization laboratories caters to the needs of the Ayurvedic and pharmaceutical industry for meeting international specification. Though totally different from modern (allopathic) medical practices,we do stake the help of modern diagnosis of the patients-pressure reading, conditions of vital organs heart, liver, kidney etc. But, still, the treatment style can be worlds apart. To know more about Ayurveda in Kerala would be highly beneficial. They are as follows: Nagarjuna Ayurveda centre Aryavaidyasala - near Kozhikode Aryavaidya pharmacy - Coimbatore Kerala Ayurveda pharmacy - Aluva near kochin Sitaram Ayurveda pharmacy ltd Thrissur Advantages of ayurveda It is preventive, protective, health primitive and curative in nature. At the same time herbal remedies are self contained, and nutritive rendering them harmless and non toxic. This provides a constructive approach against destructive forces. Ayurveda is not manmade but is believed to be divine gift. It is for us to study, seek, search and take the benefits from the treasure of knowledge. Ayurveda is mainly based on herbs, plants, flowers, fruits, vegetables and all vegetation that grows around us in plenty. It is our native system based on the peculiar Indian conditions. Further whatever is available on our own country is bound to be more suitable in creating good health to us rather than borrowed knowledge as well as materials. CharakaSamhita stresses the same point. Ayurveda begins when everything fails and when the treatment is uncertain and prolonged; ayurvedic approach is the right choice since it cures chronic and stubborn diseases by its deep-rooted treatment procedures and drugs.

COMPANY PROFILE 2.2. History and origin of Sitaram Ayurveda Pharmacy ltd Sitaram Ayurveda Pharmacy Ltd is a limited company engaged in the production and marketing of branded ayurvedic medicines. The company was originally registered in the name of Sitaram Anglo Ayurveda Pharmacy Ltd in the year 1921. Later in 1994, the name was changed to Sitaram Ayurveda Pharmacy Ltd. The company started under the instruction of his-Highness Ramavarma Thampuran, the Maharaja of Cochin. Now the company has completed 89 years of manufacturing and distribution of quality ayurvedic medicines at competitive and affordable prices to the customers. The factory is located in Gandhi Nagar road, Nedupuzha. The company can operate smoothly in this location because it is the central part of the state so that it ensures the easy availability of raw materials and ready market for their products. The emblem of Sitaram Ayurveda Pharmacy Ltd ASHTADALAM is a symbolic expression of their vision; Kaya (general medicine), Bala (gynecology & pediatrics), Grita (manacika), Udyana (ENT &dentistry), Shalya (surgeon), Agathathondru (toxicology), Jena (genetics) and Vrishna (rejuvenation). A gift from Sitaram to the nation for the millennium is its new manufacturing facility constructed to follow the GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) in the production of ayurvedic medicines as per the notification of ministry of Health and Family welfare, government of India, New Delhi, dated 23rd June 2000. The factory has incorporated all the guidelines stipulated by WHO to produce quality herbal medicines as this facility can be compared with any modern drug manufacturing unit in the western world. Sitaram registered under ISO 9001-2000 in South India. Features: Manufacturing more than 500 ayurvedic formulation

Treatment of patient for various diseases at sitaram super speciality hospital Quality medicine at reasonable price Majority of the ayurvedic medicine are prepared by using traditional method with modern technology More than 400 agencies in different location both inside and outside kerala. 2.2.1. Vision & Mission

Vision Vision guides the company to achieve its objectives. Sitaram has a powerful vision. Sitaram Ayurveda Pharmacy Ltd has always been striving to provide their customers with quality product that help them to lead a healthy life with products ranging from Kashayam to Arishtam available at affordable price. The vision of the company also include to wipe out the diseases by using Ayurvedic treatment.

Mission Sitaram committed to supply quality product at the competitive price to consumer. They give more priority to customer satisfaction. Quality product at reasonable price Towards good clinical practice

2.2.2. Quality policy Sitaram Ayurveda Pharmacy Ltd owes to create a strong and everlasting hand with the consumers by providing superior and highest possible quality products which will delight the consumers by delivering greater value for the money spent by them. Through preparation, communication, employee participation and continuous improvement in its working system, Sitaram is aims to achieve zero complaint situations relating to the quality and delivery of the products to the market. 2.2.3. Objectives of the company Objectives may be defined as the guidelines that helps in the smooth flow of the work in an organization. Main objective of Sitaram Ayurveda Pharmacy Ltd is to provide quality ayurvedic medicines with less cost. The other objectives are:

It carry the business of manufacturing, processing formulating, preparing, supplying, distributing, purchasing, selling, exporting, importing or otherwise dealing in Ayurvedic medicines, drugs, herbal extractions compound solution , pharmaceuticals toiletries, cosmetics products like shampoo hair oils etc. To establish Research and Development Centre, libraries and to promote educational institutions for the development of Ayurvedic science. To create a good relation with customers To deal and trade all raw materials used for the production To manufacture and deal in all kinds of vetenary products To ensure fair compensation to employees To create complaint free product To provide a good working condition To give opportunity to the employees 2.2.4. Share capital of the organization Unless otherwise determine by the articles the authorized share capital of the company is Rs.600000 (6 lakhs) divided into sixty thousand equity shares of Rs.10, each with powers of decrease or reduce the same, in accordance with See 24 and 100 and other provisions of the Companies Act 1956. 2.2.5. Achievements & Awards A gift from Sitaram to the Nation for the Millennium is its new Manufacturing Facility Constructed to follow the GMP (Good Manufacturing Practice) in the production of Ayurvedic Medicines as per the Notification of Ministry of Health &Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, dated 23rd June 2000. The factory has incorporated all the guidelines stipulated by World Health Organization (WHO) to produce quality herbal medicines. As this facility can be compared with any modern drug manufacturing unit in the western world. Sitaram Ayurveda Pharmacy Ltd has now received the First GMP Certificate Vide Order NO:ML4.08534 /2000/ DC GMP.NO:1/2000/DC. KERALA. Dated 12th July 2000. 1. Worlds First Ayurvedic company to be awarded the GMP certification as per the guidelines by the WHO. 2. South Indias First Ayurvedic company to be awarded the ISO 9001:2000 certifications. 3. Recipient - National Award for Best SSI Unit 2005. 4. Recipient - Udyog Rattan award by the Institute of Economic Studies, New Delhi. 5. Central Govt. approved R & D centre 6. Best pharmacy award for Sitaram Ayurveda Speciality Hospital 2.2.6. Competitors

Success of every organization depends upon the ability and capacity to meet the competition. Sitaram Ayurveda Pharmacy Ltd faces tough competition in this field. Major competitors of the company are; Dabur Himalaya Healthcare Ltd Vaidyaratnam Oushadhasala Anaril Ayurvedics Kottakkal Arya Vaidyasala Pharmaceutical Corporation Kerala Ltd Oushadhi 2.2.7. Organization profile Name of the company Registered office - Sitaram Ayurveda Pharmacy Ltd - Sitaram Ayurveda Pharmacy Ltd Pathayapura building Round south Thrissur-680 001, Kerala South India - III, 475 A Gandhi Nagar Road Nedupuzha P.O Thrissur- Kerala - Velliyannur road Thrissur- Kerala - Kerala - Ayurveda industry - South Indian Bank - Trivandrum, Thiruvalla, Kottayam, Calicut, Kannur


Specialty hospital State of registration Type of industry Bank Branches of the company

2.2.7. Board of directors Board of directors controls the day to day affairs of the company. Directors meeting conducted weekly. There are 7 directors. Among these one will be the chairman and one becomes managing director. Remaining will be other directors.

Name 2.2.8. Sri. T.K.G.Nair Dr. D. Ramanathan Mr. Remadurai Adv. D.Meenakshi Sundaram Smt. Valli Ramanathan Dr. Vignesh Devaraj Dr. K.V Shanmughadas Department Study

Designation : Chairman : Managing Director : Director : Director : Director : Director : Director

In every organization, there are certain departments for effective functioning of the organization. The type of departments and number of departments are dependent upon the type of product manufactured and its management. The departments and its functions vary from organization to organization. Sitaram Ayurveda Pharmacy Ltd has certain departments for the purpose of its effective functioning and management of the organization. The departments are divided in, are mainly depends upon main functions of the organization and areas to which the management is needed. Measurement techniques of departmental objectives I. Ensuring effective management of human resource by identifying strength and weakness of human resource of Sitaram Ayurveda Pharmacy. And providing proper training programme for improvement. a) The strength and weakness are identified through consolidated performance appraisal reports. b) Proper training through training plan and training programme. II. Ensuring the provision of infrastructure for proper resource management based on the critically requirement affecting the conformity of quality of products. III. Monitoring the purchase system of the time office of the second gate and identifying the unauthorized absence through the following ways. a) Collecting the details of unauthorized for the shift in charge during the working hours. b) Identifying the person who are absent in the plant. c). Collecting the feed back of the employees of the company.

In this company have mainly 14 departments. Production, marketing, human resource, finance, purchase, research and development, quality control and dispatch are some of the important departments in SAPL. The departments maintained in Sitaram Ayurveda Pharmacy Ltd are as follows: Production department Purchase department Finance department Marketing department Human resource department Research and development department Dispatch Department Production department Production refers to the manufacture or assembly of goods. Production is the conversion of input into output. The department includes the raw material department and different section in production department like gulika, choornam, tablet, kashayam and arishtam. Production department is the department in which raw materials are converted to finished products. Production department does all the activities relating to production. The activities of production start with the purchase of raw materials. The raw materials are purchased through four different channels. They are follows. Through purchase agencies Through local purchase Through purchase from either districts or through brokers Through interstate purchase

Equipment/unit operations involved in the manufacturing process Following are some of the equipments that are used during manufacturing process. Raw materials cleaning, drying and presentation

Ayurvedic herbs, roots, leaves etc are the major components of ayurveda medicines. Therefore these have to cleaned and dried well. Machine is used for washing the materials and these washed materials have to be well dried. Raw materials cutting Certain raw materials are in big size. For reducing size of such raw materials, these have to put into a machine. Earlier these activities were carried manually. Raw materials disintegrator/pulverize Raw materials are required in disintegrated form and certain finished and semi finished products also required to be pulverized. Size reduction as per the process requirement also accomplished in machines provided for these. Wet grinder/juicer Different types of wet grinders are deployed for getting juice from green herbs and for preparing paste that are required in processing Drug boilers This is used for preparing water of disintegrated herbs required in different kinds of Kashayam.Seven drug boilers are available in the company. Heating pans There are 12 open heating pans with thermal fluid heating facility. These can be used simultaneously for different preparation. These are used for concentrating the extracts obtained from the drug boilers. Fermentation vessels There are a number of fermentation vessels for preparing Arishtam and Asavas. Water jacket is provided to the vessels to remove fermentation heat. Bottling/filling and sealing activities Product filling and bottling for liquid products are done in semi automatic machines. Semi liquid products are filled in containers manually. Sealing is done on the bottles with the machinery. Pills are sundried after forming and filled by poly film packets and packed in sealed containers. Blending and Tableting machines These machines are required for the products that are manufactured in tablet form. Pulping machines These are used to make pulp from fruits. At present only one pulping machine is used. Hydraulic press This machine is used to collect Thailam from the sediment produced after evaporation. Hydraulic oil is used to run the machine. Number of hydraulic press is limited to one. Products of the company

The product means everything the purchaser gets in exchange for his money. Sitaram Ayurveda Pharmacy Ltd offer many ayurvedic products, both patent and non patent products to their customers. They have over 450 medicines; 25 of them are patented medicines. Following are some of the patent ayurvedic products developed by the companys R & D. All products have been duly recognized and hailed by physicians and patients as well. List of the patent products are shown below; Take care: the Energy Supplement

A preparation bottled to provide you that extra punch you need in life. Energy being required by all age groups and having no gender bias, this product can be taken by all people. This product is beneficial for ones general good health and its great taste will appeal very much to the children. Narasimham Tablet

This enigmatic tablet provides one with the strength of a buffalo, as declared in the ayurvedic text Ashtangahriday

Aller G

This chewable tablets guard you against allergic cough, sneezing, running nose, pollen allergy, dust allergy etc. It has not side effect like sedation. Bye Cough

This cough syrup containing 21 herb extracts protects one from various irritating coughs like, smokers cough, productive cough, dry cough and night cough. With no side effects like sedation, this provides instant relief. StomaCool.

This antacid tablet prevents the gastric irritation, burning sensation, stomach irritation, by offering excellent comfort in way of cooling your stomach and chest. HerbaCals

This sweet herbal calcium candy is meant to rectify the calcium deficiency in children and women. The sweet taste makes this a favorite of children. An added advantage is that, being herbal; it is ensured that regular usage of this does not result in kidney bladder stone, unlike other calcium tablets. Narasimham Oil

This oil is the one and only solution to ones hair problems. This is prescribed in the ayurvedic text Ashtangahriday. This oil is an excellent remedy for hair loss, greying of hair and brittleness. Mai Man This herbal product gives one the right kind of power from the inside. In this strenuous world, performance gets affected in all areas of life. This product assures the user adequate power to satisfy his women. Release

This preparation closely follows the text and authentically offers your body a painless stack. This smoothing balm preparation is excellent to release your pains from your body. Purchase Department Purchasing is the most important function of material management. If the size of a business concern permits they should be a separate purchasing department. And the responsibility of purchasing all types of materials should be entrusted to the purchase department. Purchase Department is headed by Purchase Manager. Purchase officers, supervisors and clerical staffs are associated with him. In Sitaram, purchasing includes procuring of materials, supplies, machines, tools and services required for the equipment, maintenance and operations of the business. It is the duty of the purchase manager to avoid multiplication, waste and obsolescence and to reduce stock holding by rationalization, better stocking arrangements, wiser ordering and encouraging use of near and cheaper alternatives. He collects BMR from the production department and makes necessary arrangements for the materials.

Purchasing functions of Sitaram Ayurveda Pharmacy ltd Price paid for raw material is reasonable To purchase good quality raw material Receive purchase requisitions Establish purchase policies, procedures and practices Invite quotations or tenders from suppliers for supplying goods of requisite quantity and quality in accordance with the purchase requisitions Select a supplier who may be able to supply the described quantity and quality of materials within the described time with the most favorable terms and conditions. Issue purchase order to the selected supplier. Follow up these purchase orders to ensure delivery of materials within the specified time Assemble documents certifying that the proper quantity and quality order have been received Approve purchase invoice for payment after checking price. Keep constant touch with market conditions and try to secure new goods or materials Finance Department Finance is the life blood of the business. Without the proper utilization of finance there will be total confusion and the company will be loss. So the purchase department has to do the function of allocation of fund in a very powerful way. Preparation of financial statement is the responsibility of the financial manager. It includes balance sheet, income statement, cash flow etc. These are prepared to evaluate the financial strength and weakness of the concern. Finance department is headed by finance manager. Assistant finance manager, account manager, account officers and clerical staffs will help the finance manager in the day to day affairs. Internal audit will be conducted every 3 months in a year. In recent years, accounting department is fully computerized. Following are the books of accounts maintains by Sitaram Ayurveda Pharmacy Ltd; v General ledger v Cash book v Day book v Sales register v Purchase register v Journal register v Finished goods register v Raw material ledger v Credit note ledger v Voucher

Functions of finance department v Preparation of budget, appropriation of accounts, re-appropriations, surrender and savings v Control of expenditure v Audit v Treasury administration v Administration of Taxes i.e. Sales Tax, Entertainment Tax, Luxury Tax and Entry Tax etc v Service Conditions including Freedom Fighters Pensions. v Resource mobilization through loans, Institutional Finance, Small Savings, Credit and Investment and public debt. v Financial concurrence and advice v Compilation of Codes, Rules and procedures concerning financial transactions and having bearing on State finance and their implementation. v Safety and investment of funds from consolidated funds, contingency fund and public account. Duties of finance manager Verifying and controlling all functions of finance department Submitting financial report to board meeting Controlling account managers in their dealings Making payment to employees Submitting all statutory reports within specified time Calculating bonus, ESI, PF, labour welfare fund and contribution Identifying bills from the purchase department Transferring funds for purchasing raw materials Marketing Department Marketing is the selling of goods that do not come back to people who do. Marketing is used to identify the customer, to keep the customer, and to satisfy the customer. Marketing should be considered a central business function as it establishes, develops and commercialize long-term customer relationships so that the objectives of both the parties are met, customer needs are served and the company earns profits. Marketing activities are numerous and varied because they basically include everything needed to get a product off the drawing board and into the hands of the customer. The broad field of marketing includes activities such as:

Designing the product so it will be desirable to customers, by using tools such as marketing research and pricing. Promoting the product so people will know about it, by using tools such as public relations, advertising, and marketing communications. Setting a price and letting potential customers know about your product and making it available to them. Marketing is an active process than passive. It requires smart and good communication skill people. On SAPL includes lot of these types of employees to promote the products. Advertising, sales promoters store come under the marketing department. Marketing department of SAPL consist marketing manager, deputy sales manager, branch manager, field operation etc. Marketing function starts from the production and ends with sale. But in wider sense, marketing begins and ends with the customers. Sitaram is the market leader in the ayurvedic industry. Marketing department is headed by marketing manager, Deputy sales manager, branch managers, regional sales manager, area sales manager etc provide help to marketing manager to perform his function in an effective way. Branch doctor and other branch managers come under branch manager. Deputy sales manager, regional sales manager, area sales manager, sales executives and sales representatives come under marketing manager. A short term demand forecast for a period of three months is prepared by the sales manager on the basis of past sales and present economic conditions. Medicines are produced according to this. There is a store in marketing department. They are formed for the arrival of the finished goods from production department on a daily basis and in turn arranges for the execution of pending orders, store planning etc. Monthly marketing requirement is forwarded to the store keeper. The company follows dual pricing policy. Normally price revision for the public is done within two to three years. Price charged to government is 30% lesser than the price charged to the public. Price list for the government and public are prepared as per the government regulations. Human Resource Department Human resource is of paramount importance for the success of any organization. It is a source of strength and aid. Human resources are the wealth of the organization which can help in achieving its goals. Human resource is the total knowledge, abilities, skills, talents and aptitude of an organizations work force. Human resource department deals with the personal and the general administration function of the board like wages and salary administration, maintains of

personal rewards, grievances, redressal, training, performance evaluation of employees. The values, ethics, beliefs of the individuals working in an organization also form a part of human resource. Human Resource Department is headed by HR manager. He has to discharge his managerial functions in order to achieve the goal of his department with his subordinates. SAPL has total labour force 72 persons. There include 32 permanent office staff and trainers, 40 factory workers. The work here is divided in to two shifts. The workers are placed accordingly. The working time of the company is from 8 am to 6 pm. Research and Development Department New product design and development is more often than not a crucial factor in the survival of a company. In an industry that is changing fast, firms must continually revise their design and range of products. This is necessary due to continuous technology change and development as well as other competitors and the changing preference of customers. Without an R&D program, the firm must rely on strategic alliances, acquisitions, and networks to tap into the innovations of others. This function is concerned with new product developments as well as improvements to existing products or product lines. In many industries, it also involves product design as well. Improvements to existing products are often ongoing as a result of market research or customer feedback. R & D staff aim to work with designers to develop a usable product that can be manufactured at a reasonable cost, sold at a competitive price and is safe to use. Sitaram Ayurveda Pharmacy Ltd is committed to provide quality products to consumer. As a part of this strategy, Research and Development Department has been entrusted with checking the quality of samples from production. This facility has the latest technology with experienced doctor at command. All kinds of research and development take place in this department. Lab assistants conduct research for the new products and consult with their managers. The research is found successful when it goes under testing. This department is headed by research and development manager. He possesses certain scientific qualifications. Research doctor and workers assist him. Functions of the R&D department The main functions are; 1. Researches for and development of new products 2. Product maintenance and enhancement

3. 4. 5. 6.

Quality and regulatory compliance Analyzing market conditions Ensuring that whether the proposed project will suit company Dealing with customers complaints Dispatch Department The department which deals with packing and sending of goods to customers. All products produced by the company have to be dispatched properly. Dispatch department manage this functions effectively. Dispatch Department deals with the packing and dispatching of the products as per the production orders received from the concerned agencies. This department deals only with the finished products. Dispatch officer and his subordinates are engaged in the distribution of finished products to the distributors. Before dispatching, he has to check many things like packing, labeling, safety etc. Since the company has distributors in many countries, proper care should be given regarding this.

Duties of dispatch department checking finished goods before sending to markets Ensuring packing of goods Preparing goods for transportation. Preparing reports regarding finished goods and submitting as and when required.


Review of literature is the strong pillar to support research study. In this chapter an attempt is made to review the literature available on the effectiveness of training. According to L.R Potti review of literature can be of two types namely conceptual and empirical. The conceptual literature is that which contains concepts and theories. Empirical literature is one which deals with studies made earlier and so it consists of many facts and figures observed in the earlier studies. 3.1. Empirical studies According to Davenport (2006), mentioned in his recent studies that its easy to implement strategy with the internet supported software. Some of the Training theories can be effective immediately on the future of the skill and developments. The content and the access are the actual factors for the process. It is a representation itself by the Access on main aspect what is effective to the adopted practice in training development. As per the recent theories to access the knowledge is changing from substantial in the traditional to deliver the knowledge for the virtual forms to use the new meaning of information with electronic learning use. There is a survey confirmation for using classroom to deliver the training would drop dramatically, (Meister, 2001). A manager is that what the other members of the organization want them to be because it is a very popular trend of development training for the managers in the training for the management.

According to Joe Perdue, Jack D. Niemeyer, Robert H. Woods (2002), Describes a study undertaken to assess how private club managers perceive the relative effectiveness of alternative training methods to attain specific types of training objectives. Data were obtained from 123 club managers who were members of the Club Managers Association of America. Participants rated the effectiveness of 16 alternate training methods for potential use in six different types of training situations. Training methods studied included case study, video-tape, lecture, one-to-one, role play, games, computer simulations, paper and pencil, audiotapes, selfassessment, movies/films, multi-media, audio, computer and video conferencing and sensitivity training. Training objectives studied were knowledge acquisition, changing attitudes, problem solving, interpersonal skill development, participant acceptance and knowledge retention. Analysis of data indicated that one-to-one training is the preferred method to attain all objectives except interpersonal skill development

According to Kate Johnston, Peter van der Side (2003), successfully measuring effectiveness in management training and development can be a difficult task. Design of a valid measurement programmed should include evaluation in key areas; including emotional reaction and knowledge gain measured after training interventions. Behavioral change and organizational impact measurements should be used on a longer time horizon to evaluate the progress and currency of the management development programme. Finally, research shows that maintaining a balance of the above measurements is the final key to success in measuring the effectiveness of management training and development According to Ching-Yaw Chen, Phyra Sok, Keomony Sok (2007), purpose A previous study found that the quality of education in Cambodia is poor compared to other developing countries. However, the working performance of commercial banks in Cambodia is high. It was speculated that effective training was the main factor underlying this contradiction. Therefore, the main purpose of this article is to explore the elements of training conducted by commercial banks in Cambodia and to examine their relationship with training effectiveness. Design/methodology/approach The research focuses on six factors: training needs assessment; training program; flexibility of training; self-efficacy; social support; and transfer of knowledge. The data came in the form of questionnaires and desk research. (Phillip C. Wright,1992),Reports on a study of current and past training literature which suggests that, to be effective and to isolate both training needs and those problems having other, nontrainable solutions, training must be preceded by a needs analysis. Proposes a needs assessment model to illustrate an optimum needs assessment process, and compares this model with the Ontario Government's. (Farhad Analoui 1995) Traditionally, the effectiveness of the senior officials within the public sector has been disproportionately associated with task instead of people-related skills. A study of 74 senior managers within Indian Railways, over three years, has revealed that managers, in order to become effective, not only require task and people skills but also self-development knowledge and skills. Moreover, the above broad categories of managerial skills form a hierarchy which suggests that the more senior positions which managers occupy, the greater the need for people and self-development. It explores the implications of the above for senior management training and development in public sector briefly.

(Oladele Akin,1991) Evaluation is increasingly being regarded as powerful Toolo enhance the effectiveness of training. Three major approaches to training evaluation: quality ascription, quality assessment and quality control are highlighted. In order to enhance the effectiveness of training, evaluation should be integrated with organisational life

, (Diarmuid De Faoite, Colette Henry, 2002) Discusses the importance of proving the effectiveness of training. Effectiveness is the primary motive for training. Describes ways to evaluate trainings effectiveness, behaviour changes on the job being the most important. Defines an approach whereby individuals can see how they have changed and quantify the amount of change. (Diarmuid De Faoite, Colette Henry, Kate Johnston, Peter van der Sijde,2003)A growing body of academic research has examined the effectiveness of entrepreneurship training and support initiatives, with recent studies focusing on the provision of trainingand other skills development opportunities. An important theme that has emerged from this work is the failure of many programmes and initiatives to take on board the particular needs of the entrepreneurs in developing training and support systemst. (Gary D. Geroy, 2004) A common approach towards enhancing managerial effectiveness is to focus attention on improving the knowledge and skill of the manager, (Ogundeji,2004 )The gap between evaluation theory and practice is a serious problem for training in industry and business[1]. A recent literature review of the summative evaluation on training noted (Clinton O. Longenecker, Laurence S. Fink,2005) effective management training and consequences of ineffective training programs. Design/methodology/approach Seasoned managers (278) working in rapidly changing organizations were surveyed on issues related to management training. Findings Content analyses revealed a number of specific benefits associated with management training. Conversely, managers identified a series of problems caused by ineffective management training. Jack welch(1992) companies cant promise life time employment ,but by constant training and education we may able to grant lifetime employability. Organization and individual should develop and progress simultaneously for their survival and attainment of mutual goals. So every modern management has to develop the organization through human resource development. Employee training is the important sub system of human resource development. Employee training is specialized function and is one of the operative function for human resource development. (Clinton O. Longenecker, Laurence S. Fink,2005) effective management training and consequences of ineffective training programs. Design/methodology/approach Seasoned managers (278) working in rapidly changing organizations were surveyed on issues related to management training. Findings Content analyses revealed a number of specific benefits associated with management training. Conversely, managers identified a series of problems caused by ineffective management training.

CONCEPTUAL LITERATURE Human resource is a term used to describe the individuals who make up the workforce of an organization. In simple terms, an organization's human resource management strategy should maximize return on investment in the organization's human capital and minimize financial risk. Performance appraisal of employee is important in managing the human resource of an organization. Human Resource Management is the organizational function that deals with issues related to people such as compensation, hiring, performance management, organization development, safety, wellness, benefits, employee motivation, communication, administration, and training After a newly appointed employee joined in the organization, the next phase of the personnel programme is to impart necessary training to them to make them fully fit for the job they are supposed to handle. In modern industrial organization, the need for employees training is widely recognized so as to keep the employees touch with the newly developed technologies. Every company has systematic training for the development for their employees. It may be noted the term training is used to regard to teaching of specific skills, whereas the term development denotes the overall development of personality of employees. Meaning and nature of training
What is training?

Training is an organized activity for increasing the knowledge and skills of the people for a definite purpose. It involves systematic procedure for transferring technical know how to employees so as to increase their knowledge and skill for doing a specific jobs with proficiency. In other words the trainees acquire technical knowledge, skill and problem solving ability by undergoing training programme According to Edwin.B.Flippo, Training is the act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee for doing a particular job. Training involves the development of skills that are necessary to perform a specific job. Its purpose is to achieve a change in the behavior of the trained and to enable them to their job better. Training makes newly appointed workers fully productive in the minimum of time. Training is equally necessary for the old employees whenever new machines and equipment are introduced and /or there is a change in techniques of doing the things. In fact, training is a continuous process. It does not stop anywhere. The managers are continuously engaged in training their subordinates. They should ensure that any training programme should attempt to bring about the positive changes in the knowledge, skills and attitudes of the workers. The purpose of the training is to bring about improvement in performance of the includes learning of such techniques as are required for better performance of definite tasks.

Need and rationale of training

Training is important not only from the point of view of organization, but also for the employees. Training is valuable to employees because it will give them greater job security and opportunity for advancement, a skill acquired through training is an asset to the organization and the employee. It can be taken away only by the complete elimination for that skill because of technical changes The need for training arises because of the following reasons, 1. Changing technology. Technology is changing at a fast pace. The workers must learn new technique to make use of advance technology. Thus, training should be treated as continuous process to update the employees in new method and procedures. 2. Quality conscious customers. The customers have become quality conscious and their requirements keep on changing. To satisfy the customers, quality of products should continuously improve through training of the workers. 3. Greater productivity. It is essential to increase productivity and reduce cost of production for meeting competition in the market. Effective training can help increase productivity of workers. 4. Stable workforce Training creates a feeling of confidence in the minds of the workers. It gives them a security at the workplace. As a result, labour turn over and absenteeism rates are reduced. 5. Increased safety. Trained workers handle the machines safely. They also know the use of various safety devices in the industry. Thus, they are less prone to industrial accidents. 6. Better management. Training can be used as an effective tool for planning and control. It develops skill among workers for the future and also prepares them for helps in reducing the costs of supervision, wastages and industrial accidents.
What does training include? Training enables the employee to get acquainted with jobs and also increase their aptitude and skills and knowledge. It makes newly recruited employees fully productive in the minimum of time. Even for the old workers, it is necessary to refresh them and to enable them to keep up with new methods and techniques as well as new machines and equipments for doing the work. Thus training is not an one step process, it is continuous or never ending process because it increases the knowledge and skills of the employees in performing their jobs and serves as a refresher course for the old employees. Training job will never finish as long as the organization remains in operation. At any given time, the different phases

of training programme will be found at practically every stage of progress. Men may be learning by their own experience and by trail and error method. Training does not disappear from any organization merely because its presence is ignored. The purpose of the training is to bring about improvement in performance of the workers. It includes the learning of such techniques as are required for the intelligence performance of definite tasks. It also comprehends the ability to think clearly about the problems arising out of the job and its responsibilities and to exercise sound judgment in making decisions affecting the work. Lastly, it includes those mental attitudes and habits which covered under the general term morale. Objective of training

1. To increase the knowledge of workers in doing specific job. 2. To impart new skills among the workers systematically so that they learn quickly. 3. To bring about change in the attitude of workers toward the fellow workers, supervisor and the organization. 4. To improve the overall performance of the organization. 5. To make the workers handle materials, machines, and equipment efficiently and thus check wastage of time and resources. 6. To reduce the number of accidents by providing safety training to workers. 7. To prepare workers for the higher jobs by developing advanced skills in them.

Significance of training

Training plays an important role in human resource development. It is necessary, useful and productive for all categories of workers and supervisory staffs. It is very important in present age as development in science and technology are introducing radical changes in the industrial field. Training is important as it gives various benefits to the employers and workers. The basic purpose of training is to develop skills and efficiency. Every organization has to introduce systematic training programmes for its employees. This is because trained personnel are asset of the organization. They are responsible for the progress and stability of an organization. Training is important as it constitutes a vital part of the managerial control. Big organizations hire a large number of persons every year. Since the vast majority of newly employed persons do not know fully how to perform their job, they must be trained properly so that they may contribute to the well-being of the organization. There are also certain jobs where no one can afford untrained person. For instance, nobody would dream of allowing an untrained individual to pilot or to operate a lathe. The need of systematic training has increased because of rapid technological changes which eliminates old ones and create new jobs. New jobs demand certain special skills which can be developed in the new as well as old workers by providing them an appropriate training.

The responsibility for imparting training to the employees rests with the employer. If there is no training programme in the organization, the workers will try to train themselves by trail and error by observing others. But this process will take a lot of tome and will result in higher cost of training. Moreover, the workers may not be able to learn the best operative method. Training is important not only from the point of view of employees but also in the point of view of organization. It is valuable to employees because it will give jobs security and an opportunity for advancement. A skill acquired through training is an asset to the organization and employees. It can be taken away by the complete elimination of the need for that skill because of rapid technological changes.

Why should training imparted to employees?

Modern organization arrange for training of their human resources to achieve the following benefits: 1. Quick learning Training helps to reduce the learning time to reach the acceptable level of performance. The employees need to learn by observing others and waste time if formal training programme exists in the organization. The qualified instructor will help the new employees to acquire the skills and knowledge to do a particular jobs quickly. 2. Higher productivity. Training increases the skill of the newly employee in the performance of a particular job.