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Running Head: SMART RESPONSE

A Literature Review: Implementation of Smart Response Clickers Julie A. Sharkey Bowling Green State University

Running Head: SMART RESPONSE

Abstract The final project for my EDTL 6310 course is the implementation of Smart response clickers in my classroom. My project will start with a model unit based upon lapsed time. This time unit will include interactive Smartboard lessons and assessments done with the use of Smart Response clickers. The assessments will be for both summative and formative assessments. The following literature review is focused on the use of clickers in the implementation of teaching curriculum standards. This literature review explores why the use of clickers is beneficial in maintaining student involvement and improving student achievement.

Running Head: SMART RESPONSE

A Literature Review: Implementing Effective Use of Smart Response Why Clickers? Teachers want their students to be engaged in their lessons, and they hope the students fully understand what is being taught. Teachers usually ask if there are any questions during a lesson and sometimes no one raises their hand (Duncan, 2006). Duncan stated that experienced teachers understand that students do not always speak up if they do not understand (2006). He continued by saying that some of the students may not be engaged with the lesson (Duncan, 2006). Technology can be used to support teaching practices and curricular goals (Zhao, Pugh, Sheldon, & Byers, 2002). Clickers, according to Duncan, can give immediate feedback on what each student is thinking (2006). Through the use of a projector, teacher and students can see which students have not answered the question, and optional ways to view the percentages showing the answers chosen (Duncan, 2006). Duncan indicated that the teacher can see right away if students are having difficulty with the information, and so may choose to keep going with the assessment or spend more time with the material (2006). The student is also made immediately aware whether he or she comprehends the concepts being assessed (Duncan, 2006). Positive Student Attitudes Through Technology Use Duncan stated that the regular use of clickers can positively change the classroom as students become active participants (2006). The students are more engaged and they ask more questions (Duncan, 2006). A study by Autio, Hietanoro, and Ruismaki (2010) concluded that technology use in the classroom can have a positive effect on student motivation. They continued by saying that immediate feedback is a key element in motivation (Autio et al., 2010). The

Running Head: SMART RESPONSE

twofold problems of reaching and sustaining student attention should be addressed throughout the activity (Silk, Higashi, Shoop, and Schunn, 2010). The activity must encourage student involvement at the beginning of a lesson and actively sustain it through the end of the unit (Silk et al., 2010). Maintaining interest is important, but students also need to be cognitively engaged with the targeted goals of the lesson (Silk et al., 2010). Effective in Student Achievement An important issue involving the use of technology in education is the conditions that will prove the use to be effective in student achievement (Zhao et al., 2002). Duncan pointed out that studies done at the University of Colorado and the Illinois Institute of Technology found that regular clicker use helped increase student attendance (2006). Duncan identified that clickers can be used as a pre-assessment, assess student understanding, and facilitate discussion and peer instruction (2006). Technology in Math Lessons Mathematics taught with technology education provides students opportunities to learn math in contexts that they understand (Silk et al., 2010). Silk et al. stated that designing effective learning activities to align with target objectives requires more than just a checklist matched to a list of standards. They continued by saying that teachers are more effective if they use a smaller number of standards used, to keep the content directed and precise (Silk et al., 2010).

Running Head: SMART RESPONSE

Discussion Duncans article gave insight into why clickers can be beneficial and how they are used. I found this information valuable because I am trying to use clickers for the first time with my students. He stressed that clickers have the tendency to engage students and improve their learning. This evidence proves that clickers can be an effective tool in student achievement. Duncan explained that clickers are inexpensive; are easily accessible; and are user-friendly. This was comforting for me to learn because clickers are new to me and I am somewhat of an immigrant in the world of technology. Taking Part in Technology Education: Elements in Students Motivation, by Autio, Hietanoro, and Ruismaki, corresponded with Duncans article in that it discussed how students can be motivated through the incorporation of technology in learning activities. I have found this to be factual through my limited use of technology with my students. My students seem to get excited anytime we use the Smart board or the computer lab. Some of them are surprisingly computer literate at the age of six. Conditions for Classroom Technology Innovations, authored by Zhao, Pugh, Sheldon, and Byers, substantiated Duncans remarks in agreeing that technology should be used to reach curricular goals and that the overall learning conditions should be taken into account when deciding how to use technology effectively. Since my goal is to use clickers as part of a time math unit, I felt it was necessary to read an article that will help me bridge mathematics and technology in my planning and teaching. I chose to use Designing Technology Activities that Teach Mathematics, by Silk, Higashi, Shoop, and Schunn. This article stressed the importance of using a few standards at a time in technology-based mathematics lessons. The idea behind this is to make the lessons more concise

Running Head: SMART RESPONSE

and focused. The knowledge gained from this article will aid me in planning my lessons so that they will be more focused. This will allow my students and me to dive deeper into the content, which will bring about better understanding of the material learned. I am hopeful that the insight gained from these articles will help me plan a model mathematics unit on lapsed time that will be beneficial to my students achievement. Through the practice of using clickers, I expect to become more comfortable with them and use them with other subjects and lessons. I also believe my students and my comfort level with technology will also increase as we learn how to use clickers together.

Running Head: SMART RESPONSE

References Autio, O., Hietanoro, J., and Ruismaki, H. (2010). Taking part in technology education: Elements in students motivation, Int J Technol Des Educ, 1(21). pp. 349-361. DOI 10.1007/s10798-010-9124-6. Retrieved from http://0journals.ohiolink.edu.maurice.bgsu.edu/ejc/pdf.cgi/Autio_Ossi.pdf?issn=0957757 2&issue=v21i0003&article=349_tpiteeism Duncan, D. 2006, "Clickers: A new teaching aid with exceptional promise," Astronomy Education Review, 1(5). Retrieved from http://casa.colorado.edu/~dduncan/ teachingseminar/AER05-01-02-03.pdf Silk, E., Higashi, R., Shoop, R. and Schunn, C. (2010). Designing technology activities that teach mathematics, The Technology Teacher, (12). pp. 21-27. Retrieved from http://0-web.ebscohost.com.maurice.bgsu.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?sid=ebca80821768-4e0b-9b60-4ad6d894dfe2%40sessionmgr10&vid=8&hid=13 Zhao, Y., Pugh, K., Sheldon, S., and Byers, J. 2002. Conditions for classroom technology innovations, Teachers College Record, 104(3). pp. 482-515. Retrieved from http://crcsalon.pbworks.com/f/Conditions+for+Classroom+Technology+Innovations.pdf