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(i) understand the relationship between logarithms and indices, and use

the laws of logarithms (excluding change of base)

(ii) understand the definition and properties of ex and ln x, including the

relationship as inverse functions and their graphs

Let x = a p ⇔ loga x = p ; y = a q ⇔ loga y = q

xy = a p . a q = a p + q ; log a xy = log a x + log a y

x ap x

= = a p−q ; log a = log a x − log a y

y aq y

x n = (ap )n = ap n = log a x n

= n log a x

log a a = 1 ; log a 1 = 0

x3

i) Express log in terms of log x and log y. (3logx − 12 logy)

y

ii) Express 3 log 8 − log 2 5 as a single logarithm.

1 (log5)

iii) Solve the equation log 6 x + log 6 ( x + 5) = 2 . (x = 4; x = −9(not acceptable))

Graphs of ex and ln x

1

y

y

y = ln x

y=ex

1 Solve for x

i) ex - 2 - 3e-x = 0 ( x = ln 3)

ii) e 3t + 2et = 3e2t (t = 0, ln 2)

2

−b

iii) - 2 ln x = b (x = e 2 )

iv) 3 ln x – ½ ln x = 5 (x = e2 )

v) ln x = 2 ( ln 3 - ln 5 ) ( x = 9 25)

vi) ak – ekx = 0 ( x = ln a )

vii)x ln x = e ( x = e, e −1 )

viii) 2 + 5 e − 4x = 3

t

ix) - ln x = 50

+c

1

x) ln x = (ln 16 + 2 ln 2) ( x = 4)

3

xi) ax = e 2x +1

xii) 2 (ln 2x) = 1 + ln a

( x = ± 2 ae )

1

xiii)32x = 42 – x

xiv)ex - 2e— x = 1

a) 7x . 8 2x - 1 = 6.3 ( x = 0.642)

b) 32x – 3x +2 + 8 = 0 ( x = 0 ; 1.893)

c) 2x = 3

d) 3x+1 = 18

e) 2x . 32x = 5 ( 0.5568)

3 Solve for x

a) ex ( 1 - 2x ) = 0

( x = 12)

b) e-x ( 1 + x ) = 0

−x

{e = 0 (not possible); x = −1}

d) ex - e-x = 6 (1.818)

ln 3

a) 2 2x - 5 . 2x + 6 = 0 (x = = 1.5849; x = 1)

ln 2

b) 32x + 1 + 32 = 3x + 3 + 3x ( x = −1; x = 2)

5 If y = ln ( 1 + 6x + 8x2 ) - ln ( 1 + 5x + 4x2 ) + ln ( 1+ x )- ln (1 + 2x ),

prove that y is independent of x.

a) x - y = 1 ; 2x . 3y = 432

3

b) log x + log y = log 10 ; log x - log y = log 2.5

c) 2x . 4- y = 2 ; 3- x . 92y = 3 ( x = 3, y = 1)

d) log x + log y = 1 ; log x - log y = log 2.5 ( x = 5, y = 2)

3

e) x1/2 + y 2/3 = 6 ; x - 1/2

+y - 2/3

=¾ ( x = 16, y = 2 2 ; x = 4, y = 8)

f) log 2 (xy 2) = 4 ; log 2 x . log 2 y = 2 ( x = 4, y = 2)

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