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# Reinforced concrete Points you left - a knol by Sreejith P

## Reinforced concrete Points you left

yes, the points you left in reinforced concrete design
This knol is a venture to remind you about some points while studying reinforced concrete design. This mainly deals with material properties and strength characteristics of RCC materials. This is exclusively for concrete. Hope you may find it useful.
This knol is part of the collection: Structural Design Essentials(INDIA) (IS 456:2000 for competitive exam) Next

## Reinforced concrete points you left

Ok, this is my second venture in making readymade notes. Hope this will be also helpful to you. This typeset gives you some points you may have left while studying RCC Design. Yes, I bet these points regarding the strength and material of concrete and steel covered under material characteristics in all Reinforced Concrete Design text books, you skipped. But these are important in view of competitive examinations. Dont worry; it contains nothing more than in this knoll. So lets get started. In the following paragraphs, the code refers to IS 456:2000. All points are substantially supported with code clauses wherever necessary. CONCRETE Specified by grade M10 to M80 as per code. M60 to M80 High strength concrete. Nominal mix is only allowed up to M20 concrete.

Characteristic strength
Characteristic strength is defined as the strength of material below which not more than 5% of the test results are expected to fall. 2 statistical parameters Standard deviation Coefficient of variation cov = /fm Above two are based on quality control (good, moderate, poor) Code uses CUBE strength to specify characteristic strength, fck CUBE size = 15cm
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## Reinforced concrete Points you left - a knol by Sreejith P

Strength based on shape of specimen depends on two factors Height/Width ratio. Size (length) Both are inversely proportional to strength. Cylinder strength is lower than cube strength. Typically cube strength is 1.25 times higher than cylinder strength fc = 0.8*fck or fck = 1.25fc fc = Specified cylinder strength fck = Characteristic compressive strength

Stress-strain curve
Initially linear behaviour. Show max. Stress at 0.002 strain. For higher grade, strain is less (ultimate strain).

Elastic modulus
Ec = 5000fck Poisson ratio 0.2

Compressive strength
Max. Compressive strength = 0.85fc= 0.85 * 0.8fck = 0.67 fck Max. Strain under direct compression = 0.002 Max strain under flexure = 0.0035

Tensile strength
7 to 15% of compressive strength Code suggests fcr = 0.7fck fcr = modulus of rupture Splitting cylinder test gives splitting tensile strength fct = nearly 2/3 of fcr = 0.46fck

## fck > fcr > fct

Failure strain in tension = 0.0001 0.0002 (not relevant)

Shear strength
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## Normally 10-20% of compressive strength (fck) (not so significant)

Combined stresses.
Biaxial stress system assumed. Confinement in two directions Biaxial compression = 1.27 Uniaxial compression Biaxial compression = Uniaxial tensile strength.

Creep of concrete
Creep strain occurs Represented by creep coefficient Creep coefficient = (creep strain at time t)/(instantaneous strain)

## Code values Period 7 days - 2.2 28 days - 1.6 1 year - 1.1

Shrinkage
Ultimate shrinkage strain 0.0003mm/mm

Temperature
Usually avoided by providing expansion joints and distribution reinforcement in slabs. In structures where this effect is unavoidable a coefficient is used for concrete Coefficient of thermal expansion Range is 6*10-6 to 12*10-6 (mm/mm/ per 0C)

Durability of concrete.
Durability aspect was recently introduced in the structural design aspects. Specified by exposure conditions

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## Reinforced concrete Points you left - a knol by Sreejith P

Mild, Moderate, Severe, Very Severe, Extreme Durability of concrete is mainly controlled by these provisions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Minimum grade of concrete (M20-M40) Min. Clear cover (20mm 75mm) Min. Cement content (300 360Kg/m3) Max. w/c ratio (0.55 0.40) Acceptable limits of surface width of crack (0.1mm to 003mm)

Yes thats all for concrete, steel coming soon. Any valuable suggestions welcome (if you are really serious about this). These typed notes are the products of my free time after studying. So you can use my free time for your study.

This knol is part of the collection: Structural Design Essentials(INDIA) (IS 456:2000 for competitive exam) Next
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Anonymous Concrete Wow, this is a very informative article. Great work. I had no idea that so much went into the creation of concrete. I've heard that there are various types of concrete, but I never knew that you could figure out the strength of concrete in so many ways. http://www.millercrete.com Sep 29, 2011 7:04 PM Report abusive comment 0 Post reply to this comment

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