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Interconnection Requirements for Parallel Generators 25-kW or Less Including Net Metering Projects

I.

General Requirements
A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. Application of Codes and ANSI/IEEE Guides Power Quality and Reliability Isolation at the Point of Connection Line Reclosing Consideration Isolation Device Metering Arrangement Commissioning Test Generator Maintenance

II.

Additional Considerations Single-Phase Generators


A. B. DC Generators with Line Commutated Synchronous Inverters Induction Generators

III.

Additional Considerations Three-Phase Generators


A. B. C. Protective Relaying Isolation Transformer Synchronization Requirements

IV.

Power Quality and Operating Requirements


A. B. C. D. E. F. Power Factor Requirements Harmonics Requirements Operating Voltage Requirements Voltage Flicker Requirements Frequency Requirements Phase Unbalance Requirements

This document describes the general guidelines and the minimum protection requirements for safe and effective operation of the 25-kW or less generator(s) connected directly to the PGE company system.

I.

General Requirements
A. Application of Codes and ANSI/IEEE guides Installation shall be in compliance with the National Electrical Code, National Electrical Safety Code, state and local electrical codes, IEEE P929 Standard, IEEE P1547 Standard, and the PGE Electric Service Requirements as applicable. In all cases, the protective relaying design and equipment proposed for the interconnection of generator(s) must be approved by PGE. B. Power Quality and Reliability The interconnection of the generation equipment with the PGEs system shall not cause any reduction in the quality or reliability of service. The parallel generator must conform to the latest revision of the IEEE standard 519. The Parallel Generator is responsible for the protection of their equipment from transient surges initiated by lightning, switching, or other system disturbances. PGE reserves the right to require the Parallel Generator, at the Parallel Generators expense, to provide corrections or additions to existing protective equipment in the event of modification of government or industry regulations and standards. C. Isolation at the Point of Connection The Parallel Generator system shall be designed to automatically disconnect from the PGE system for both internal and external faults, and for any abnormal system conditions. The Parallel Generator is responsible for providing all necessary protective relaying equipment to detect those conditions. As a minimum requirement, the protective relays include over/under-voltage and over/under-frequency relays to detect a loss of voltage and system disturbances. The relay settings shall be as follows: a. b. c. d. D. Over-frequency Relay: Under-frequency Relay: Over-voltage Relay: Under-voltage Relay: 60.5 Hz, 0.16 Second 59.3 Hz, 0.16 Second 110%, 1 Second 88%, 2 Seconds

120%, 0.16 Second 50%, 0.16 Second

Line Reclosing Consideration If the Parallel Generator(s) is connected to a PGE distribution feeder, additional relaying equipment may be required, at the Parallel Generators expense, to ensure that high-speed (approximately 20 cycles) reclosing practice is retained for the existing customers.

E.

Isolation Device A readily accessible, lockable and visible-break isolation device shall be provided at the point of interconnection for PGE use. This isolation device may be locked in the open position by PGE operating personnel for the following conditions:

1.

If it is necessary for the protection of the line crew personnel when working on de-energized circuits during a system emergency or during routine maintenance. If inspection of Parallel Generators equipment reveals a hazardous condition or a lack of proper maintenance. If the Parallel Generators generating equipment interferes with other customers or with the operation of the PGE company system.

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F.

Metering Arrangement Non-Net Metering: The Parallel Generators generation and load shall be metered separately. Net Metering: Net metering will be arranged so that the Utility measures the net electricity produced or consumed. A single meter shall be installed in the net metering arrangement which will be capable of only measuring the direction and difference in power flow from the Parallel Generator to the Utility and from the Utility to the Parallel Generator.

G.

Commissioning Test Prior to initial energization of the Parallel Generator system, inspection and/or tests will be jointly performed by both the Parallel Generator and the designated PGE personnel to verify the proper operation of said generator and related equipment.

H.

Generator Maintenance The Parallel Generator shall maintain his equipment in good operating condition at all times. The generator(s) and related equipment may be subject to PGEs inspection. The Parallel Generator shall assume full responsibility for the routine maintenance of the generator and all the protective equipment, as well as the record keeping for such maintenance. These records shall be available to PGE for inspection at all times.

II.

Additional Considerations Single-Phase Generator(s)


A. DC Generators with Line Commutated Synchronous Inverters The commutation in the inverter is controlled by the system frequency, so selfcommutation is not possible. The frequency and voltage functions of the built-in inverters electronics can be accepted as meeting the minimum relaying requirement for interconnection. Usually, a contactor is used to isolate the DC source from the inverter if the AC voltage is lost, thereby de-energizing the contactor coil. PGE personnel shall test and verify the isolation function of this system before granting acceptance. The synchronous inverters shall be adequately filtered to prevent undesirable harmonics, generated from the switching action of the thyristors, from interfering with radio and TV signals. B. Induction Generators With appreciable local reactive power supply, the induction generator may become selfexcited if accidentally isolated from PGEs system. The self-excited induction generator

can produce abnormally high voltage or undesirable frequency excursions, which can cause damage to equipment.

III.

Additional Considerations Three-Phase Generators


A. Protective Relaying

1.

Each projects protection arrangements and design drawings must be reviewed by the PGE Protection Engineering and approved prior to installation. The completed installation shall be subjected to a final inspection and test by PGE Electrical Maintenance & Construction Department personnel before the commencement of parallel generation is permitted. The Parallel Generator will provide suitable automatic equipment to disconnect the Parallel Generators from the PGE system in the event of power outage or a fault on PGEs supply circuit. The relays used to control the automatic disconnecting device shall be so selected, designed and set that they can detect a loss of voltage or a fault occurring on the PGE circuit. The Parallel Generator should be aware that a phase unbalance disturbance on the PGE system can result in overheating stress in Parallel Generators generator. A negative-sequence type relay (current or voltage) may be necessary to initiate tripping for phase unbalance or single phasing, and also block closing of the automatic disconnecting device. The Parallel Generator is responsible for providing such relay equipment. If the Parallel Generator(s) is on a PGE distribution feeder and the existing automatic sectionalizing devices are single-phase type, PGE will replace them, at the Parallel Generators request and expense, with a three-phase type (line recloser, etc.). This can minimize the single phasing exposure for the Parallel Generator(s). The Parallel Generator is responsible for protecting its facilities from any and all sources of potential damage. This section recommends the protection devices that the parallel generator should consider adding to the generation facility. The minimum design requirements in section 1c are not intended to protect the Parallel Generator from every possible source of damage. The following items should be considered for additional protection of the Parallel Generator: Over/Under-Speed Protection (12/14). Anti-motoring or Reverse Power Protection (32). Phase and/or Neutral Grounding Overcurrent Protection. (50/51N) Voltage Surge Protection. Unbalance Protection (46/47) Relay Targets or devices to indicate the operation and status of a relay. Static Power Converters may use microprocessor-based control with appropriate protective relay functions included.

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B.

Isolation Transformer

The Parallel Generator(s) shall be served through a dedicated generator transformer that serves only his generation and /or load. Each proposed electrical arrangement should be evaluated and designed to avoid ferroresonance exposure. C. Synchronization Requirements 1. Synchronous Generator A synchronism check relay shall be installed to supervise manual synchronization with or without slip frequency. 2. Induction Generator A Parallel Generators speed must be brought up to within 5 percent of synchronous speed before being allowed to connect to the PGE system. 3. DC generator with Line Commutated Synchronous Inverter. The AC output of the synchronous inverter must be compatible with the PGE system voltage and frequency.

IV.

Power Quality and Operating Requirements


The IPP is responsible to operate its generator(s) within the specified electrical limits under the following categories: A. Power Factor Requirements The Parallel Generators synchronous generator(s) power factor requirements at the point of connection to the PGE system shall be between 90% lagging and 95% leading (within 5 percent of rated voltage). Induction machine(s) or inverter(s) shall be equipped with adequate reactive power supply to support the above acceptable power factor range. B. Harmonics Requirements 1. 2. 3. Voltage Harmonics Distortion Limit: Total Current harmonic distortion Limit: Individual Current harmonic Distortion: 3 percent 5 percent of Fundamental 3 percent of Fundamental

The IPP is responsible for correcting a harmonics problem if the PGE customer service quality is threatened. The IPP facility is subject to be disconnected from PGE system until the problem is corrected. C. Operating Voltage Requirements The steady-state operating voltage shall be maintained within 5 percent of nominal. D. Voltage Flicker Requirements The IPPs generator(s) must not cause harmful voltage fluctuations and is subject to be disconnected form PGE system until the problem is corrected.

E.

Frequency Requirements The operating frequency shall be maintained within 0.1 Hz of nominal.

F.

Phase Unbalance Requirements Current Unbalance Limit: Voltage Unbalance Limit: 5 percent 5 percent