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# Nugroho, G and Taha, Z

Paper:

## Helicopter Motion Control Using Model-Based Sliding Mode Controller

Gesang Nugroho and Zahari Taha
Department of Engineering Design & Manufacture University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia E-mail: gesang nug@yahoo.com, zahari taha@um.edu.my [Received April 23, 2007; accepted June 27, 2007]

This paper describes a model-based controller design for helicopter using the sliding mode approach. The controller design assumes that only measured output are available and uses sliding mode observer to estimate all states of the system. The estimated states are then used to construct a model reference sliding mode control law. Simulation shows good performance for lateral velocity, longitudinal velocity, vertical velocity and yaw rate control. Keywords: helicopter motion control, sliding mode controller, model-based controller

mance of the controller was simulated for stability as well as tracking requirements. The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section 2 briey introduces the mathematical model used. Section 3 presents the control structure. Section 4 discusses simulation results. Finally, section 5 is the conclusion.

2. Helicopter Dynamics
Helicopter has specic characteristic; the helicopter can move vertically, oat in the air, turn in place, move forward and lateral and can perform these movements in combinations. Because of this, helicopter dynamics modeling is a very complex problem. Consider the helicopter equation of motion in nonlinear form given by x F x u t . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1)

1. Introduction
Helicopters are very important conveyances and are used extensively for rescue mission, monitoring and others. Helicopters can perform forward ight, side ight, climb, hover and any combination of these maneuvers. With its high agility and performance, the dynamics of a helicopter are nonlinear and unstable. As a result an automatic ight control system that will provide good stability in disturbances especially in hover condition is highly desirable. Sliding mode control has been applied to many engineering elds due to its excellent robustness. Fossard  proposed a controller based on sliding mode with model following. However, the proposed control conguration did not actively control aircraft height. Sira-Ramirez et al.  applied sliding mode to a miniature radio-control helicopter. This work only applies to altitude stabilization. Pieper  presented a solution of a particular helicopter ight control design problem of translational rate control of the helicopter in hover using sliding mode controller. Spurgeon et al.  proposed a robust model reference sliding mode controller for helicopter control. In this work a sliding mode observer is used to reconstruct estimates of the internal system states for use in a full information model reference sliding mode control law. However it did not shows tracking performance of the proposed control conguration. In this paper we propose a model-based sliding mode controller for motion control of a helicopter. The perfor-

In 6 degree of freedom form, the motion state and controls are x u wq v p r . . . . . . . (2) u ucol ulat ulong u ped The variable u v and w represents forward, side and vertical velocity respectively; p q and r denote roll, pitch and yaw rates respectively; and , and represent pitch, roll and yaw attitude respectively. A conventional single main rotor helicopter has four independent controls, ulat ulong ucol u ped which denote the deection of the lateral cyclic, longitudinal cyclic, vertical collective and the pedal collective respectively. The nonlinear form of a helicopter equations of motion are given as u v w p q r

vr wq g sin X m wp ur g sin cos Y m uq vp g cos cos Z m qrIyy Izz Ixx L Ixx prIzz Ixx Iyy M Iyy . . pqIxx Iyy Izz N Izz

. . . . (3)

where X, Y and Z are total forces about x, y and z axis respectively, L, M and N total moments about x, y and z axis respectively, m helicopter mass and I moment of inertia. Finally the Euler angle are obtained from transformation

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## Helicopter Control Using Model-Based Sliding Mode Controller

of angular rate and expressed as p q sin tan r cos tan q cos r sin sin q cos r cos cos (4)

where M z1 t

## A11 A12 M z1t

. . . . . . . . (15)

By using the small perturbation theory and for small angle, then the linearized equation of motion for full six degree of freedom can be written as x Ax Bu . . . . . . . . . . . . . (5)

The helicopter used in this work is based on a UH-1H helicopter. Detail of the stability and control derivatives are given in .

In the design of regulator, the matrix governing the sliding motion A11 A12 M must have stable eigenvalues. The switching surface design problem therefore can be consider to be one of choosing a state feedback matrix M to stabilize the reduced order system A11 A12 . One method for the design of the feedback matrix M is using quadratic minimization approach. Consider the problem of minimizing the performance index J 1 2
ts

xt T Qxt dt

. . . . . . . . . (16)

## 3. Sliding Mode Controller Design

3.1. State Feedback Sliding Mode Control
Consider the nth order linear time invariant system with m input given by where A Rnn and B Rnm with 1 switching function s : R Rm to be: st xt Axt But . . . . . . . . . . (6) m n. Dene a

where Q is both symmetric and positive denite and ts is the time at which sliding motion commences. The aim is to minimize Eq. (15) subject to the system Eq. (5) under the assumption that sliding take place. The matrix Q from Eq. (15) is transformed and partitioned compatibly with z so that Tr QTrT Q11 Q12 Q21 Q22 . . . . . . . . . (17)

## And subsequently dene Q And v

where s Rmn is of a full rank and let S be the hyperplane dene by S x Rn : Sx 0 . . . . . . . . . (8)

Sxt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (7)

## Q11 Q12 Q221 Q21

. . . . . . . . . (18)

## z2 Q221 Q21 z1 . . . . . . . . . . . (19)

A convenient way to design the switching function is to rst transform the system into a suitable canonical form . Assume that B is full rank so there exist an orthogonal matrix Tr Rn x n such that Tr B 0 B2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . (9) Tr and par-

After some algebraic manipulation Eq. (15) may then be written as 1 T J z Qz1 vT Q22 v dt . . . . . . . (20) 2 ts 1 Recall the constraint equation may be written as z1 t A11 z1 t A12 z2 t . . . . . . . . (21)

where B2 Rmm and is nonsingular. Let z tition the new coordinates so that z z1 z2

Eliminating the z2 contribution from Eq. (20) using Eq. (18), the modied constraint equation become z1 t where A Az1 t A12 vt . . . . . . . . . (22)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . (10)

where z1 Rnm and z2 Rm . The nominal linear system of Eq. (5) can then be written as z1 t z2 t A11 z1 t A12 z2 t A21 z1 t A22 z2 t B2 ut . . . (11)

## A11 A12 Q221 Q22 . . . . . . . . . . (23)

Suppose the matrix dening the switching function is compatibly partitioned as S S 1 S2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (12) where S1 Rmnm and S2 Rmm . During ideal sliding, the motion is given by And therefore formally expressing z2 t in term of z1 t yields z2 t S1 z1 t S2 z2 t 0 for all t ts . . . . (13)

The problem thus becomes that of minimizing the functional (19) subject to the system (21). A unique positive denite solution P1 is guarantied for the algebraic matrix Riccati equation

## P1 A AT P1 P1 A12 Q221 AT P1 Q 12 Q221 AT P1 Q21 12

. . . (24)

Then the state feedback matrix gain M can be calculated with M . . . . . . . . . (25)

The switching function matrix in term of the original coordinates given by S M S2 Tr . . . . . . . . . . . . . (26)

Mz1 t . . . . . . . . . . . . (14)
Journal of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics 343