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COMPONENTS OF BUILDING Mainly two components Sub-structure Super structure Substructure is a portion of building below ground level, which transmits the load of super structure to the soil. It also called as foundation. Super structure is the component of building which constructed above the building.

Components of super structure

Basement: it is a part of the building lies between the ground level & the plinth level Plinth : top outer edge of the basement around the building Damp proof course: layer of water proof material provided on the top of the basement to prevent the dampness on the wall. Floors : over which occupants of the building moves and keep belongings. It divides building into different stories. Steps : provided for access to the building. Walls and columns: walls to enclose and divide the building into various rooms. Columns are vertical members of superstructure used to transfer the load of roof and its self weight to the foundation Doors and windows : to provide access to outside of the buildings as well as to connect inner rooms of building.

Beams and lintels: A beam is a horizontal structural member, which carries, floor slab or roof. Lintel is a beam that supports the masonry works over the opening in the walls. Sunshade : these are projection provided outside a building above the doors and windows to prevent direct sunlight and rain to rooms Roof: it is cover for building, to protect from sun , rain, wind etc. Parapet: A short masonry wall built on top of the roof of a building. Serves as a enclosure above the roof and as an element for good appearance Weathering course: it is a layer provided over the roof slab to protect the roof from weathering agencies like sunlight, rain, and wind.

Purpose of foundation 1. Even distribution of load Foundation distributes load coming from superstructure over a large area so that the load intensity at the base does not exceed the bearing capacity of soil 2. Reduction of differential settlement All the non-uniform loads from the superstructure are distributed properly on the subsoil by the foundation and hence the differential settlement is minimized. 3. Safety against sliding and overturning Foundation provides safety against sliding and overturning effects due to lateral loads. 4. Safety against undermining Building is protected by the foundation against scouring or undermining due to flood water or burrowing animals 5. Firm and level surface Foundation provides a level and firm surface for the construction of superstructure.

Bearing Capacity of Soil

The supporting power of soil without any failure is called bearing capacity. Bearing capacity depends on a. Properties of soil, such as cohesion, angle of internal friction, density etc. b. Allowable and differential settlement c. Position of water table d. Physical features of foundation
1. Ultimate bearing capacity It is defined as the minimum gross pressure intensity at the base of foundation that soil fails in shear. 2. Net ultimate bearing capacity

It is defined as the minimum net pressure intensity at which soil fails in shear 3. Net safe bearing capacity It is obtained by dividing net ultimate bearing capacity of the soil by a factor of safety. Usually the factor of safety adopted is 2 to 5. 4. Allowable bearing capacity It is the net loading intensity at which the soil neither fails in shear nor there excessive settlement to the structure. Safe bearing capacity of different soils

Types of soil Soft rock Gravel Sand Clay

Safe bearing capacity 450 kN/m2 250to 450 kN/m2 150 to 250 kN/m2 100 to 150 kN/m2

Determination of bearing capacity

Commonly used methods are, 1. Plate load test 2. Standard penetration test 1. Plate load test The principle of this method is that, when a test steel plate is loaded, it settles. At the foundation level these settlements are measured for each increment of load. The ultimate bearing capacity is taken as the load at which the plate starts sinking at a rapid rate. Procedure A pit is made at the prefixed level with size five times that of test plate A square plate of size 30 to 75mm is kept on the soil and loads are applied gradually by gravity or reaction loading In gravity loading, a platform is constructed above the ground level and is connected to plate by steel or timber plate. Weights (normally sand bags) are loaded on this platform. A jack placed between the post and platform for applying the load. Dial gauges are placed between plate and datum bar to measure the settlement Load is increased successively until the failure of the soil in shear is attained. Magnitude and rate of settlement is noted for each increment of loads.

A graph is plotted for load intensity and v/s settlement Ultimate bearing capacity is that load at which the slope of the curve suddenly increases and becomes almost vertical.

2. Standard Penetration Test

This test is used to determine the resistance to penetration of a sampling spoon. This resistance can be correlated to some properties of soil and then by bearing capacity. I.S.2131 1963 gives specification for this test. Standard penetration test is done on a borehole. A split spoon sampler of 50.8mm external dia. and 35 mm internal diameter of steel is used for preparing boreholes. The sampler is driven into the ground by giving blows by a weight of 65kg dropping from a height of 750mm. First the sampler is driven for a depth of 150mm for seating. Then the standard penetration test resistance is counted. The standard penetration test resistance (N) is the number of blows required for driving the sampler of 300mm after seating. Bearing capacity can be found out from SPT and using correlation charts prepared by Terzaghi and Peck.

Methods for improving bearing capacity (B.C.) of soil

Increasing depth of foundation: In granular soil, B.C increases with the depth due to the confining weight
of overlying material.

Compaction of soil: Process by which the soil particles are artificially rearranged and packing together into a
closer state of contact by mechanical means. This will decreases voids and increases strength Drainage and dewatering: Reducing the amount of water in the site & causing densification Chemical stabilization : soil is stabilized by adding different chemical Eg. Nacl, Sodium silicate, cacl2 Grouting: boreholes in sufficient numbers are driven in ground & cement grout is forced through these holes under high pressure. Cracks and voids are filled, results in increased bearing capacity

Geotextiles : These are porous fabrics made of natural or synthetic materials. It has high tensile strength
when properly embedded in soil & contribute to its stability.

Eg. Coir, jute, polyethylene etc.

Vertical downward movement of a structure is called as settlement. Its effect on buildings depends upon its magnitude, its uniformity, the length of the time over which it takes place , nature of the structure itself. Two types of settlement 1. Total / equal settlement :

When every part of building settles by equal amount, it is called as total / equal settlement

2. Differential / unequal settlement

When different parts of building settles unequally It may leads to failure of building

Reasons for total settlement Consolidation of underlying soil( squeezing of water) Ground water variation Seasonal swelling & shrinkage of expansive clay Ground water movement on earth slopes( erosion, landslides) Other causes such as adjacent excavation, mining etc. Frost action Reasons for differential settlement Non-uniform load distribution on foundation Non uniformity of soil; weak sub-soil Unequal expansion due to excavation Movement of ground water & uplift pressure Overlap and concentration of stress due to presence of adjacent foundation Excessive vibration due to traffic, machinery etc.

Maximum permitted settlement For individual footing - 25mm For Simple spread footing on sand, Allowable bearing pressure should be such that differential settlement does not exceeds 1/300, total settlement is limited to 50mm Simple spread footing on clay, Allowable bearing pressure should be such that differential settlement does not exceeds 1/300, total settlement is limited to 75mm

Failure of foundation
Causes of failure or foundations are, 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Inadequate bearing area resulting in soil pressure more than the safe B.C. of soil Unequal settlement of supporting soil Seasonal swelling & shrinkage of foundation soil especially clay Movement of soil adjoining the structure Escape of the soil below the foundation Removal of soil due to scouring action of rain and wind Lateral wind and earth pressure that tends to overturn the structure Excessive loading of masonry before the mortar sets causes unequal settlement 1. Shallow foundation When the depth of the foundation is less than or equal to the width, that type of foundation is called as shallow foundation. Also called open foundation since it is normally constructed by way of open excavation. 2. Deep foundation Depth of the foundation is more than its width. Classification of Shallow foundation 1. Isolated or column footing 2. Wall or strip footing 3. Combined footing 4. Continuous footing 5. Cantilever or strap footing 6. Inverted arch footing 7. Grillage foundation 8. Mat or raft

Types of foundation

Note: Footing is a foundation unit constructed in masonry or concrete under the base of wall or column. Foundation may have one or more footing 1. Isolated (column) footing
It is the foundation provided for a column to transfer the load safely to the soil. When the load on the column is less, a spread is given under the column. This is called as isolated footing Shapes of isolated footing can be simple, stepped or sloped

For light column load simple footing is adopted. For Medium and heavy column load stepped or sloped footing can be adopted. These footing can be constructed in stone masonry, brick work & concrete or combination of these.

2. Wall or strip footing It is provided though out the length of a continuous structure. Normally adopted for load bearing walls Shapes may be simple or stepped
Wall or strip footing

3. Strap footing/ cantilever footing In this, independent footing of two columns are connected by a beam Adopted when, When it is not possible to place a footing directly below a column near boundary line or one subjected to eccentric loading condition, strap footing is provided. Two columns are far so that combination of rectangular or step is not economical

4. Combined footing When a footing is constructed for two or more columns Rectangular or trapezoidal shape Shape of combined footing is proportioned such that centroid of the footing area coincides with the centre of gravity of the loads on footing. It is adopted when, Two individual footings overlap When bearing capacity of the soil is less, requiring more area for individual footings. When footings are constructed near boundaries of plot.

Eg. Lift well column, water tank supporting column, bus shelters supporting column

5. Continuous footing A single continuous reinforced slab is provided as foundation for three or more column in a row Suitable for preventing differential settlement in structure & for the safety against earthquake 6. Inverted arch footing It is used to transmit loads above an opening to the supporting walls Constructed between two walls at the base In this, end columns are to be designed to resist the outward pressure caused by arch action eg. Bridge piers, reservoirs, tanks & support for drainage works.

7. Grillage foundations Constructed by rolled steel joist which are placed in single or double tier. In double tier, top tier is placed perpendicular to bottom. Distance between the flanges of RSJ is kept to 1.5 to 2.0 times the width of flange or 30cm whichever is small Pipe separators and nuts are used for keeping in position Entire arrangement of RSJ is completely embedded in concrete to keep in position & act as a cover against corrosion. Minimum depth for concrete bed is 15cm.

Eg. Supporting columns of railway platform

8. Raft or mat foundation It is a combined footing which covers entire area beneath the structure It may consists of single continuous reinforced concrete slab or inverted beam and slab construction & load is transmitted through these.

It is adopted when, load is heavy, but bearing capacity of soil is less When isolated footing of each column requires large area, i.e. total footing area is more than half of total area. Soil is sufficiently erratic such that differential settlement is suspected In highly compressible soil When localised weak spots and loose pockets in soil mass are suspected or detected To counteract the effect of hydrostatic uplift Normally constructed in such a way that the resultant of column loads passes through the centre gravity of the raft, to ensure that pressure developed under the foundation is uniform thereby avoids differential settlements. Three types of raft Solid slab system: when column spacing and loads are small Beam slab system: heavy loads with spacing Cellular system: when loads are extremely heavy