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ABSTRACT on DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF OPERATIONAL TRANSCONDUCTANCE AMPLIFIER

A Thesis to be submitted by MEENAKSHI YADAV

(MVLSI-258-2K10) for the award of the degree of Master of Technology (VLSI DESIGN) Under the guidance of Mrs. NITIN SACHDEVA

Department of Electrical & Electronics Engineering YMCA University of Science & Technology, Faridabad
MAY, 2012

ABSTRACT
The outside world is actually of analog nature and to be able to interact with computrs etc. we need some analog and mix analog/digital circuits. Among various analog circuits operational amplifier has a very dominant role. It is used in almost all analog applications. Its main characterstics are high input resistance, low output resistance, high gain , high CMRR, high unity gain bandwidth, and high common mode range (CMR) . Performance of any analog application depends on these characterstics if they meet the desired specification. Once the topology is been selected the main thing , which put impact on characteristics is the design (values) of components. A fully differential CMOS folded cascade OTA and telescopic OTA is analyzed and result are presented in the form of design equation and procedures. Trade off among factors such as DC gain, Unity gain bandwidth, Phase margin, Output swing, Slew rate is studied. An op amp circuits with various parameters have been studied and simulated using Tanner tool. On the basis of simulation results the performance analysis has been done.

OBJECTIVE
An OTA is a voltage controlled current source, more specifically the term operational comes from the fact that it takes the difference of two voltages as the input for the current conversion. The operational transconductance amplifier is basically an op-amp without output buffer. An OTA without buffer can only drive loads. It can be defined as an amplifier where all nodes are low impedance except the input and output nodes. The transconductance of the OTA is set by the transconductance of input differential amplifier. A useful feature of OTA is that its transconductance can be adjusted by bias current. Filters made using the OTA can be tuned by changing the bias current. OTA was developed to improve the input common mode range, slew rate, output swing, offset and Power Supply Rejection of two-stage op-amp. Folded Cascode op-amp is cascade of a differential transconductance stage with a current stage followed by a cascade current-mirror load . This op-amp uses cascading in output stage combined with an unusual implementation of the differential amplifier to achieve good input common mode range. Telescopic OTA the transistors are placed one on the top of the other to create a sort of Telescopic composition (this led to the circuit name as telescopic op-amp). The input differential pair injects the signal currents into common gate stages. Then, the circuit achieves the differential to single ended conversion with a cascode current mirror. The small signal resistance at the output node is quite high; it is the parallel connection of two cascade configurations. Such a high resistance benefits the small signal gain without limiting the circuit functionality when we require an OTA function.

WORKDONE

The thesis primarily focused on the design and analysis of folded cascode OTA and telescopic OTA

The graph of dc gain unity gain bandwidth , input/ output swing, CMG and slew rate phase margin has been studied on 1.25um and 0.18um technology

Telescopic OTA

Folded cascode OTA

Design Procedure of A Folded Cascode CMOS OTA


FOR 1.25um Technology
Slew rate is 10v/us Load capacitance is 10pf

FOR 0.18um Technology


Slew rate is 10v/us Load capacitance is 10pf

max & min output voltage are +- 2V max & min output voltage are +for +- 2.5 power supply Unity gain bandwidth is 10Mhz Mini input common mode range is -1.5V Max input common mode range 2.5V Differential voltage gain > 5000 V/V Differential voltage gain > 5000 V/V 1.3V for +- 1.8 power supply Unity gain bandwidth is 10Mhz Mini input common mode range is -0.8V Max input common mode range 1.8V

W/L ratio for 1.25um technology


MOS M1 M2 M3 M4 M5 M6 M7

(W/L) (um/um)

124.86/2

124.86/2

132.84/2

303/2

303/2

182/2

182/2

MOS
(W/L) (um/um)

M8 75/2

M9 75/2

M10 75/2

M11 75/2

M12 166.84 /2

M13 303/2

M14 303/2

W/L ratio for 0.18um technology


MOS
(W/L) (um/um)

M1

M2

M3

M4

M5 7.21/0.18

M6

M7

4.122/0.18 4.122/0.18 1.912/0.18 7.21/0.18

5.18/0.18 5.18/0.18

MOS
(W/L) (um/um)

M8

M9

M10

M11

M12

M13

M14

1.098/0.18 1.098/0.18 1.098/0.18 1.098/0.18 2.677/0.18 7.21/0.18 7.21/0.18

RESULTS

Technology DC Gain

UGB (MHz)

PM

CMG

SR (V/us)

IO Swing

O/P Offset

PSRR (db)

(Degree) (db)

(db) 1.25 um 0.18 um 46.48 52.67 3.76 29.61 -99.82 -90.17 45.97 48.18 3.61 12.04 5/4.75 3.6/3.25

(V) 0.5 0.6 50 52.42

Design Procedure of A Folded Telescopic OTA

FOR 1.25um Technology


Slew rate is 1000v/us Load capacitance is0.5pf +- 2.5 power supply DC gain 60 db Unity gain bandwidth 500Mhz

FOR 0.18um Technology


Slew rate is 1000v/us Load capacitance is 0.5pf +- 1.8 power supply DC gain 60db Unity gain bandwidth 500mhz

W/L RATIO FOR 1.25 UM TECHNOLOGY

MOS
w/l (um)

M1 395/2 M5 606/2

M2 395/2 M6 606/2

M3 395/2 M7 606/2

M4 395/2 M8 606/2

MOS
w/l (um)

W/L RATIO FOR 0.18 UM TECHNOLOGY

MOS
w/l (um)

M1 56.29/0.18 M5 14.34/0.18

M2 56.29/0.18 M6 14.34/0.18

M3 56.29/0.18 M7 14.34/0.18

M4 56.29/0.18 M8 14.34/0.18

MOS
w/l (um)

RESULTS

Technology

DC Gain (db)

UGB (GHz)

PM

CMG

SR (V/us)

IO Swing

O/P Offset (V)

(Degree) (db)

1.25 um 0.18 um

46.48 62.77

3.76 1.45

-99.82 -123.81

45.97 57.58

3.61 85.39

5/4.75 3.6/2.69 0.0644

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE SCOPE

Operational transconductance amplifier is a voltage controlled current source. It has a high differential input impedance and high output impedance take at a capacitive load. It is a open loop amplifier therefore used without external feedback thereby having better frequency capability. The important parameter of OTA is its transconductance.

Folded cascade OTA and telescopic OTA if designed for a specific Gm value it is used to implement active filter component such as resistor, inductors which are futher used to implement active filter such as butterworth filter chebwyshev filter Bessel filter and elliptical filters.