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Revolt of 1857

Viceroy Lord Aukland Lord Hardinge/ Lord Dalhousie Lord Dalhousie Lord Dalhousie Lord Canning Date / Place 1838-42 1845-49 Event First Afghan War Punjab Wars Points to Remember British Suffered Losses British Suffered Losses

1854-1856 1855-57 1857

Crimean Wars Santhal Rebellion Revolt of 1857

British Suffered Losses British Suffered Losses Economic Peasants heavy taxation/money lender high rates Artisans loss of patronage/ Indian handicraft discouraged vs British goods /no development of modern industries Zamindars quo warranto/ loss of land/ cant beg, work Political EIC greedy policy of self aggrandizement & broken oaths Policies of Effective Control, Subsidiary Alliance, Doctrine of Lapse Mughal Prince Faqiruddinsuccesor had to renounce title post his death in 1856 Socio Religious Racial overtones/ Superiority Complex Christian missionaries proselytisation Social reforms Religious Disability Act 1876, Tax mosque and temple lands Discontent among Sepoys Restrictions on wearing caste and religious symbols General Service Enlistment Act 1856 Bengal Army recruits to serve anywhere undertaking Emoluments discrimination No foreign service allowance when serving in Singh & Punjab Annexation of Awadh Rumor of bones in atta and cartridge of new Enfield Rifles (Greece containing

cow and pig fat) Feb, 1857 / Berhampur March 1857 / Barrackpore May 1857 / Awadh April 24, 1857 / Meerut 19th Native Infantry broke into Mutiny 34th Native Infantry Mangal Pandey shot at a Sergeant Major 7th Awadh Regiment defied its officers 3rd Native Cavalry 9 men refused to accept greased cartridge 3rd Native Cavalry 3rd Native Cavalry Local Infantry killed own European Officers Disbanded in March 1857 April 6 Mangal Pandey executed May Regisment disbanded May - Disbanded

May 9, 1857 / Meerut May 10, 1857/ Meerut May Delhi

Delhi

June 27, 1857 / Kanpur

Nana Saheb Expelled the English from Kanpur and declared himself Peshwa

June 4, 1857 / Lucknow

Begam Hazrat Mahal took reigns

85 dismissed and sentenced to 10 years rigorous imprisonment Sepoys released comrades/killed officers/unfurled revolt banner Simon Faser Killed Lt. Willoughby put some resistance but was overcome Bahadur Shah Zafar was proclaimed Emperor of India General Bakth Khan led the revolt of the soldiers in Bareilley He ran the court with 10 members 6 from army and 4 from civilian in the name of the emperor Delhi captured in Sep 20, 1857 John Nicholson, leader of siege, wonded and dead Lt. Landon Butchered princes on spot at point blank Emperor exiled to Rangoon in 1862 By 1859 Bakth Khan dead Nana Saheb, adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao II was refused official titles Sir Hugh Wheeler surrendered Sir Colin Campbell occupied Kanpur in Dec 6, 1857 Nana Saheb escaped to Nepal Tantia escaped into jungles. Captured and killed in April 1858 By 1859 Rao Sahib (bro of Nana) dead Son Birjis Qadir declared Nawab Sir Henry Lawrence and some europeans lake shelter in the residency. Sir Henry killed

Lord Canning announced Queens Proclamation

Bareilly

Khan Bahadur

Bihar Faizabad

Kunwar Singh Maulvi Ahmadullah

Jhansi

Rani Laxmi Bai

Banaras Lord Canning Nov 1, 1858

Brigadier Inglish held on against heavy odds Attempts by Sir Henry Havelock & Sir james Outram has no success Sir Colin Campbell evacuated the Europeans with Gorkha Regiment March 1858, Lucknow recovered Begam forced to hide in Nepal He was a descendent of a former ruler of Rohilakhand Not enthusiastic about the pension By 1859 Khan Bahadur dead Zamindar of Jagdishpur Britishers had taken his land Native of Madras Had moved to Faizabad By 1859 Maulvi dead Lord Dalhousi had refused to allow her adopted son to ascend to the throne after the death of Raja Gangadhar Rao She was assisted by Tantia Tope an associate of Nana Saheb after the loss of Kanpur Marched towards Gwalior Gwalior captured in June 1858 Jhanshi captured by Sir Hugh Rose Colonel Neill put to death all suspected rebels and disorderly sepoys Great Britain took over Government of India from East India Company

1858-1905
Skipped: Revolutionary Terrorism (92) Political Associations before INC 1836/Bengal 1840s/Bengal

1843/Bengal

Bangabhasa Prakasika Sabha The Zamindari Association or Landholders Society The British Bengal India Society

Founded by raja Ram Mohan Roy in Bengal Founded to safeguard the rights of the landholders

Collection and dissemination of information to people of british india

Employ lawful and peaceful means to secure rights British India Association formed after merger Sent recommendation for Charter of Company separate legislature of popular character/reduction in salaries/abolition of salt duty, abkari & stamp duty 6 additional members included in governor generals council Dadabhai Naroji to discuss Indian Question with influential public in London to promote Indias welfare Mahadeo Govind Ranade Serving bridge between government and people Sisir Kumar Ghosh Simulate sense of nationalism and political education Superseded Indian League Surendranath Banerjea and Anand Mohan Ghosh Discontented by pro landlord and conservative policies of British India Association Create public opinion on political questions/unify Indian people on political programme M Viragaraghavchari, B Subramaniya Aiyar, P Anandacharalu Badruddin Tyabji, PherozshahMehta,K T Telang Understanding of contradictions in Indian and colonial interests economic exploitation Political, administrative and economic unification Western thoughts and education Role of press and literature in 1887 there were 169 vernacular newspapers Rediscovery of Indias past Progressive character of socio religious reform movements Growth of middle class intelligentsia

1851/Bengal

Zamindari Association & British Bengal India Society merged

1853 1866/London

Charter Act East India Association Poona Sarvajanik Sabha Indian League Indian Association of Calcutta

1867/Bombay

1875/Bengal 1876/Bengal

Madras Mahajan Sabha 1885/Bombay Bombay Presidency Association Factors in growth of Modern Nationalism

1884/Madras

Lytton (7680) 1876 Reduction of Maximum age limit from 21 to 19 Grand Delhi durbar when country was severe grip of famine Vernacular Press Act Arms Act Ilbert bill controversy

Impact of contemporary movements world wide Reactionary policies and racial arrogance

1877

1878 1878 1883

Ripon (8084)

1883/1885

Dufferin(84- Dec 1885/ 88) Bombay

Conferences of Indian National Conference Indian national Congress

Ripon had sought to abolish judicial disqualification based on race allowing Indian judges to try British offenders Ripon had to modify the bill and it was enacted in a severe compromised state in 1884 Surendranath Banerjea and Anand Mohan Ghosh architects of Indian national Conference A O Hume mobilized intellectuals and conducted the first session of the Indian national Congress. Safety Valve theory platform for intellectuals to release discontent. Hume convinced Dufferin. First session attended by 72 delegates Presided by Womesh Chandra Bonnerjea Hereafter congress met in December every year Aims of Congress: Found democratic, national movement Politicize/ politically educate Establish a headquarters for the movement Promote friendliness amongst nationalists Develop anti-colonial nationalist ideology Formulate and present popular demand to the government

1887 Fallout with British India Government 1890 Kadambini Ganguly first woman to graduate from Calcutta College Session of INC in London

Develop and nurture feeling of nationalhood and unity Congress increasingly critical of colonial Rule Dufferin stick to social questions Sedatious Bramhins , Duffer factory of sedition Addressed INC par

1890

To be held in 1892 Postponed due to british elections in 1891 Plan of setting up a British Committee of INC in London in 1899 Dadabhai Naroji was the anchor

Contribution of Moderates Economic Critique 1892 Constitutional Reform

1904/1905/1906

Self Government like Canada and Australia

Drain Theory Dadabhai Naroji, R C Dutt,Dinshaw Wacha Indian Councils Act of 1861 toothless - disguise official measures as being passed by a representative body/wealthy loyalists selected (exceptions Syed Ahmad Khan, Kristodas Pal, V N mandalik, K L Nulkar, Rashbheri Ghosh) 1885-92 demands expansion of council/ more powers to council (control on finance) power to veto or amend budget Indian Councils Act 1892 Imperial legislative council of governor general to have 10-16 (instead of 610) members / Officials retained majority Some members to be indirectly elected (element of election) / Reformed council met 13 days/ year, unofficial team present 5/25 average Budget could be discussed / Could not be vetoed or amended Questions could be asked / Supplimentaries not allowed Naroji/Gokhle/Tilak

Administrative Reforms

Defence of Civil Rights

Indianisation of services Separate judicial and executive Critique Tyrannical Bureaucracy & time consuming judiciary Critique aggressive foreign policy Afghan wars/ Burma wars Increase in expenditure on welfare Better treatment of labor abroad Speech , thought, association, free press

1905-1918
Skipped: New forces, revolutionary forces Why Militant Nationalism Grew Recognition of true nature of British Rule Growth of Self Confidence Tilak, Bipin, Aurobindo appealed to national character Growth of education International influence Progress of Japan post 1868, Italy defeated by Ethopia (1896), Boer War (1899-1902) where british faced reverses, Japans Victory over Russia (1905) Nationalist movements in Ireland, Egypt, Russia, China, Turkey, Persia Reaction to westernization Swami Vivekananda/ Bankim Chandra Chatterjee/ Dayanand Saraswati Dissatisfaction with moderates Pray/ Petition/ Protest Reactionary Policies of Curzon Criticized Killed 90 lakhs Bubonic Plague in Dacca

1892 1896/1900 1897

Indian Council Act Severe famine Tilak Arrested/ Nathu Brothers deported Repressive Laws Calcutta Corporation Act Official Secrets Act Indian Universities Act

1898 1899 1904 1904

IPC 124A augmented with 156A Number of members in Calcutta cooperation reduced

Swadeshi and Boycott Movement December 1903 Govt. decision to partition Bengal

1903-1905

Government announce decision to partion Bengal Bengal (78 million people) difficult to admin Bengal Nerve Center of nationalism to be weakened On language (17 million Bengali and 37 million Oriya Hindi) 42/54 Hindu (Western Half), Eastern Half (18/24) Muslim Surendranath Banerjea, Prithvishchandra Ray, K K mitra 3P Method

July 1905

Aug 7,1905

Oct 16, 1905

Partition of Bengal announced ignoring public opinion Boycott Resolution Passed in Calcutta Townhall Partition came into force

Dec, 1905 / Benaras

INC session under Gokhle

Dec,1906/Calcutta

INC session under Dadabhai Naroji

Proclamation fo Swadeshi Movement Boycott Manchester Cloth/ Lanchester Salt Bath in Ganga/ Sing Bande Mataram/ fast/ Peaceful Demonstration Surendranath & Anand Mohan addressed huge gatherings Tilak Poona Bombay, Lala Lajpat Rai & Ajit Singh Punjab, Syde Haider Raza Delhi, Chidambaram Pillai - Madras Condemn partion of Bengal and Curzons policies Support Swadeshi Movement Tilak/ Rai/ Bipin/ Aurobindo wanted to take the movement outside Bengal and make it a full fledged national movement in line with attaining swaraj. But moderate were not willing to go that far and were in favor of constitutional methods Extremists wanted Tilak as president but Naroji proposed Swaraj or self government declared to be goal of congress Embolden by this the extremist called for passive resistance boycott of school,colleges etc Council reforms had been announced moderates didnt want that screwed Extremists thought this was an

Dec, 1907/ Surat

INC session under Rashberi Ghosh

opportunity which could not be missed Extremists wanted this to be held in Nagpur but it was held in Surat so that Tilak doesnt become president Anti Congress body under Nawab Salimullah (reactionary element) encouraged, Waqar-ul-Mulk & Mohsinul-Mulk Governments rallying them, Carrot and Stick strategy Extremists repressed moderately to scare the moderates/ moderates placated with concessions/ Extremists subdued

1907

Al India Muslim League Formed

Government Strategy

1907 1908

1908

Seditious Meetings Act Indian Newspapers (Incitement of Offence) Act Tilak sent to Mandalay for 6 Years

1909

Morley Minto Reforms

Biping Pal and Aurobindo retire from active politics Lala Lajpat Rai leaves for abroad Tilak Back in 1914 1906 Shimla Delegation by Aga Khan for separate electorates for Muslims. This group took over Muslim League. Clonial self government as demanded by congress is not for india Morley Aimed at using Moderates vs Extremists and Muslims vs nationalism The Reforms: Members in Imperial & Provincial Legislative Councils increased. Non official majority introduced, non elected majority retained. Imperial Legislative Council 68 total 32 non official 5 nominated / 27 elected 8 muslims, 6 british capitalists, 2 landlords (reserved), 13 general electorate Elected members indirectly elected Local Body Electoral college Provincial Legislature Central Legislature Besides separate electorates for muslims, representation in excess of

strength. Income qualification lowers than hindus. Power of legislature increased recommendations (which may not be accepted), ask supplementary, vote separate items of the budget but not the whole.

1910 June 1914 1914

Indian Press Act Tilak Back First World War

Moderates supported as a matter of duty Extremists supported in the hope that retain would repay with gratitude of self government Revolutionaries opportunity to overthrow with Japanese or German support Ramdas Puri, G D Kumar, Taraknath Das, Sohan Singh Bakhna, Lala Hardayal reached in 1911 Swadesh Sevak Sangh Vancouver & United India House Seattle Ship carrying 370 Punjabi Muslim & Sikh from Singapore to Vancouver returned by Canadian Authorities. People refuse to alight in Calcutta 22 people die in police action. Kartar Singh Saraba, Raghubar Dayal Gupta left for India Bengal revolutionaries contacted Rashberi Bose, Sachin Sanyal Foiled by Treachery Regiment disbanded, leaders arrested depoeted & killed, 45 hanged Rashberi Bose fled to Japan Sachin Sanyal transported for life Virendranath Chattopadhayay, Lala hardayal, Bhupendranath Datta help of German under Zimmerman Plan Punjabi Muslim 5th Light Infantry 36th Sikh Battalion Jamadar Chisty Khan, Jamadar Abdul gani, Jamadar Daud Khan

Revolutionaries 1913

Ghadr established

Sep 1914

Komagata Maru

Feb 21, 1915 Armed revold by Ghadarites in Ferozpur, Lahore, Rawalpindi Defense India Act Berlin Committee for Indian Independence Mutiny in Singapore

March, 1915 1915

Feb 15,1915

Aug 1914

Bengal & Punjab Revolutionaries

Home Rule League

December, 1914

INC session

1915

Dec, 1915

Annie Besant has launched a campaign to demand self government for India INC Session

Rashberi Ghosh & Sachin Sanyal with Ghaderites Bengal groups were organized by Jatin Mukherji Organized on the lines of Irish Home Rule Leagues Annie Besant and Tilak were the pioneers Section of nationalist felt that popular pressure was needed to attain concessions Moderates disillusioned with MorleyMinto War time miseries high tax, high prices people ready for aggressive action Inter imperialist war & propaganda exposed supremacy myth Tilak had toned down stand ready to assume leadership Both Tilak and Annie Besant realized that a unity of Moderates and Extremists was imperative for the movement to succeed Failure to reach Moderate-Extremists rapproachment, Tilak and Besant decide to revive political activity on their own Campaign through News papers New India and Commonwealth

April, 1916

Tilaks Home Rule League

Sep, 1916

Annie Home Rule League

Extremists decided to be admitted to congress Annie Besants Home Rule League not approved Congress agrees on educative propaganda and local level congress committees Annie Besant puts condition that if the congress does not implement its recommendations, she was free to set up her league Maharashtra (Excluding Bombay), Karnata, Central Province, Berar Swaraj, Linguistic States, education in vernacular Rest of India (Including Bombay) George Arundale secretary, main work done by B W Wadia, CP Ramaswamy

Muslims and Anglo Indians didnt join as they felt it was a Hindu majority high caste thing Extremist readmission pitched by tilak & annie, relisation that unity imp, Gokhle & pherozshah Mehta had died Lucknow pact congress & Muslim league Britain refusal to help turkey, annulment of Bengal partition 1911, outgrow in outlook from Aligarh (Muslim League Calcutta session 1912 self governance for India if doesnt hurt muslim interest) Joint statement self governance asap, increase size of legislature, 50- % Indians Congress League diff identities milestone in 2 nation theory Aim self government through political education and discussion through public meetings, conferences etc Russian Revolution helped Case instituted against Tilak, rescinded by high court June 1917 Annie, wadia, Arundale arrested leaqds to nationwide protest Sir S Subramaniya Aiyar renounces knighthood Tilak follows passive resistance Sep 1917 Annie released Communal riots 1917-18 Lack of effective organization Moderates who had joined after Annies arrest pacified by release and Montagu Reforms Tilak had to go out for a case; Anie was unsure lack of leadership Recognises self governance

Dec,1916/Lucknow Session of INC under Ambika Charan Majumdhar

Home rule Program Aug,1917 Montagu Statement

1917

Government Suppression

Why it faded

1918-1939
Skipped: Evolution of 2 nation theory(153), Page 169 (other upsurges) 1894 - 1915 Gandhi in Africa Born Oct 2,1869, Porbandar, Gujarat Went to Aftica for his client Dada

Jan 1915

Gandhi Comes to India

July,1918

Montagu Chelmford (Montford) Reforms and Government of India Act 1935

Abdullah 1894 1906 Found Natal Indian Congress and Indian Opinion to unite Indians in Africa Satyagrah Against Registration Certificates -1906 Campaign Against registration of Indian Migrations Setting up Tolstoy Farm Campaign against poll tax and invalidation of Indian marriages Gokhle, Viceroy Lord Hardinge influenced judgements in his favor Decides to understand things for a year 1917 champaran civil disobedience first invited by Rajkumar sukhla to champaran in bihar against the tinkanthia system of indi planters/accompanied by rajendra parsad, mazhar ul haq, mahadeo desai, narhari parekh, j b kriplani 1918 ahmedabad mill strike first hunger strike 35 % increase in wage by owners 1918 kheda satagrah Gujarat first non cooperation peaants asked to withhold revenue/ Britishers challenged as per Revenue Code/ Youngsters like Sardar Patel & Indulal Yagnik be Came followers Provincial: Executive Dyarchy reserved & transferred list Sectary and viceroy can interefere in reserved but restricted in transferred Legislative Expanded 70% to be elected Communal & class electorate further consolidated Women could vote Legislature could initiate legislation - Governors assent needed/ he can veto Central: Executive Provincial & Central lists Legislature:

Bicameral arrangement Legislative Assembly 144 103 elected 52 general, 30 muslims, 2 sikh, 20 specials Council of State 60 34 elected 20 G, 10 M, 1 S, 3 Europeans 75% budget still not votable

March 1919

Rowlatt Act

Feb 1919 April 6, 1919 April 13, 1919

Satyagrah against Rowlatt Act Declared Satyagrah Launched Jalianawal bagh massacre

Page 117 Authorized govt to imprison without trial and conviction in court Habeus Corpus repealed First mass satyagrah

Unaware of prohibitory orders Protest against arrest of leaders Saiffudin Kitchlew & Satyapal Tagore renounced knighthood in protest Rowlatt Act, Martial law in Punjab & Jallianawala Bagh Massacre Hunter Commission report Turkey Issue with Muslims Ali Brothers (Shaukat Ali, Muhammad ali), Maulana Azad, Azmat Khan, Hasrat Morani Tilak was opposed to alliance on a religious issue with the Muslims as well as to satyagraha as a political movement Some were against some provision of non cooperation like the boycott of councils Gandhi was able to get congress approval Mission abortive

April 18,1919 Satyagrah Called off Khilafat & Non Cooperatation

Early 1919

Khilafat Committee formed All India Khilafat Conference calls for boycotting foreign goods

Nov 1919

Feb 1920 Hindu Muslim delegation sent to viceroy to address issues Treaty of Severes with Turkey All party meet approves boycott of schools, colleges etc Tilak dies

May 1920 June 1920

Turkey Dismembered

Aug 1,1920

Aug 31,1920 Sep, 1920

Dec, 1920

Non Cooperation movement Launched Congress session approved non cooperation till Punjab & Khilafat wrongs corrected INC session Nagpur

Boycott schools, colleges,law courts,foreign clothes Legislative councils CR das not in favor Renunciation of govt titles Self govt thrugh constitutional means replaced by swaraj through peaceful and legitimate means CWC setup, provincial congress committees setup Gandhi Under pressure to launch civil disobedience CR Das presides from Jail Hakim Azmal Khan acting president Political prisoners to be released Press controls to be removed

Dec, 1921

INC session Ahmedabad

Feb 1,1922

Feb 5,1922

Gandhi threatens to launch civil disobedience from Bardoli Chauri Chaura incident

Feb, 1922 March, 1922 Nov, 1922

INC meets at Bardoli Gandhi arrested and sentenced to 6 years Turkey issue non existant

Gorakhpur,UP 22 policemen killed by protesters when they were fired on while they had come to protest in front of the police statio Decides to stop all activity

Dec, 1922

INC Gaya Session, Congress Swarajya Khilafat Party

Dec 1923

People rose under Mustafa Kamal Pasha and deprived the sultan of his political power. European style judicial system put in place. Swaragists Motilal Nehru, CR Das, Azmal Khan wanted to end boycott of council entry No Changers Vallabhai Patel, C Rajgopalchari, Rajendra Prasad, M A Ansari continue constructive work Swarajist proposal defeated, Motilal Nehru and CRDas resigned for presidentship and secretaryship respectively. President & Secretary of the new party Both side consulted with Gandhi Compromise was reached and the Swarajists joined back with the understanding that could entry wuld be allowed to them

Nov 1923 1924

Elections Communal Riots and division of swarajists on communal lines

1925

1928 Nov 8,1927

Vithal Bhai Patel Speaker of central Legislative Assembly Public Safety Bill Defeated 7 member Indian Statutory Commission appointed under Chairmanship of John Simon

Swarajists won 42/141 elected seats Split amongst Swarajists responsivists and non-responsivists, furher weakened by death of C R Das in 1925 Responsivists Lala Lajpat Rai, Madan Mohan Malviya, NC Kelkar stay in office and further hindu interests. These guys joined Hindu Mahasabha. Non Resposivists Motilal Nehru advocated not staying in office and mass civil disobedience withdrew from legislature in 1926 Responsivists went to elections and did badly 1926. Resigned post Lahore session for Civil Disobediance Movement. Swarajist Achievement

Swarajist Achievement Whether India was ready for Further consti tutional reforms and on what lines Constitutional reforms were due in 1929, conservative party did not want to leave the question of India to labour party Appointed by conservative secretary of state Lord Birkenhead Boycott the commission at every stage and in every form Complete Independence was declared as the Goal - Managed By Nehru Nehru & Subhash emerged as new leaders Nehru and GB Pant Beaten Lala Lajpat Rai Beaten Oct, 1928/ dies in Nov 1928 Birkinhead challenges Indian Politicians to come up with an agreed constitution acceptable to everyone Motilal Nehru Finished by Aug 1928 Consensus on majority except dominion status or complete independence

Dec,1927 INC session under MA Ansari Feb 3, 1928 Simon landed in India

Feb 1928

All Party Conference Sub Committee to draft constitution

Dec 1927 Dec 1928

Delhi Proposals by Muslim League All Party Meet

Dec 1928

INC session, Calcutta

Page 160 Hindu Mahasabha opposes Some concessions made my Nehru Jinnah proposes Amendments to the updated Nehru report and gives his 14 point demands Nehru and Congress reject Dominion Status as goal and setup Independence for India League Subhash & Nehru reject Dominion Status Gandhi and Motilal Nehru reason that the consensus over dominion status has been built over years, 2 years grace period be given to government to accept the demand; reduced to 1 year If government doesnt accept, adopt complete independence as the goal and launch civil disobedience

1929 1929 May,1929

Oct,1929

Meerat Conspiracy Bombing by Bhagat Singh and B K Dutt Labour government under Ramsay McD comes to power Irwins Statement

Nov 2, 1929

Delhi Manifesto

Page 164 Montagu Statetement non committal dominion status (in time) RTC after Simon Submits Report Purpose of RTC to formulate scheme for Dominion Status Congress to have Majority

Dec 23,1929 Dec ,1929

Irvin Rejects Delhi Menifesto INC session in Lahore under Nehru

Dec 31,1929

Tricolor hoisted at banks of River Ravi

Nehru declared president due to Gandhis backing 15/18 congress provincial committee had opposed Nehru Decisions RTC to be boycotted Complete independence declared to be aim of congress Civil disobedience to be launched Jan 26,1930 fixed as the first Independence Day

Jan 26, 1930

amongst Inqalab Zindabad Civil Disobediance Launched

Public Meetings all over India Independence Pledge read out

Jan 31, 1930 Feb 1930

March 12- April 6, 1930 April 1930 May 4, 1930 July 1930

Gandhis 11 Demands No reply from govt Gandhi authorized to launch Civil Disobediance Movement Dandi March Nehru Arrested Gandhi Arrested Viceroy suggested RTC and reiterated goal of dominion status Motilal and Jawaharlal Nehru taken to Yeravada Jail to Gandhi to discuss possibility of settlement. Nehru Gandhi Reiterate Round Table Conference

Page 166 Page 166

Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi

When he announced raids on Darshana Salt Works Tej Bahadur Sapru / M R Jayakar to explore possibilities of peace

August 1930

Right of secession from Britain Complete national government with control over finance and defense Independent tribunal to settle britains financial claims

Talks broke Jan 25,1931 Gandhi and everyone else released unconditionally Delhi Pact/ Gandhi Irwin Pact Signed

Nov Jan 1930

Congress Boycotted Britain and India as equals Muslim League/ Hindu Mahasabha/ Liberals & Princes attended Everyone reiterated that a discussion was impossible without congress

Feb 14, 1931

March, 1931

To Endorse Gandhi Irwin pact

Irwin agreed to - Page 174 Gandhi agreed to suspend civil disobedience movement and participate in 2nd RTC March 23, 1931 Bhagat Singh, Rajguru and Sukhdev hanged Gandhi showed black flags on his way to

Dec 1931/London

2nd Round Table Conference

Karanchi Resoluion of National Economic Programme and Fundamental Right Adopted Talks Fail Page 177 Ramsay Macdonald announces two muslim majority province etc Page 177

Dec 31, 1931 Jan 4,1932

Willington refuses to meet Gandhi Gandhi Arrested

Civil Martial Law imposed Congress organization at all levels banned Leaders, sympathizers arrested/properties confiscated Press Gagged Depressed classed recognized as minorities and to be given separate electorates Poona Pact signed between Ambedkar and Gandhi in Sep, 1932 Passive resistance all over the country but tempo could not be sustained Masses were not prepared Constructive Work Constitutional Struggle elections in 1934 M A Ansari, Asaf Ali, Bhulabhai Desai, S Satyamurty, B C Roy Continue Civil Disobedience Nehru his opposition to Struggle-TruceStruggle strategy vis Struggle-Victory Strategy Nationalist with apprehension & Britishers were hoping for a split Gandhi goes in favor of council entry

August, 1932

Sep 20,1932

April 1934

1934-35

Ramsay McD announces Communal Awards Gandhi Indefinite Strike to blackmail Ambedkar Gandhi withdraws the Civil disobedience movement Three perspectives

May 1934

Oct 1934

All India Congress Committee met at Patna to set up a parliamentary committee to fight elections Gandhi resigns from congress

He was in disagreement with parliamentary politics Ppl were perplexed w3ith his obsession for charkha

Nov 1934 1932 Central Legislativ Assembly elections Admist struggle of 1932 - Third RTC

Socialists including Nehru had issues with Gandhis STS strategy Congress captures 45/75 seats

1935

Government of India Act, 1935

1936, Lucknow 1937, Fizapur

INC session INC Session

1937

Provincial Elections

1938 Oct 1939

National Planning Committee World War breaks out

Congress did not participate Government of India Act 1935 formulated Separate Electorates based on Communal awards made operational Page 186 Act of 1935 to be Opposed Socialist led by Nehru Not to contest provincial elections or swarajist strategy to stall council Proponents of office acceptance fight legislature elections and oppose act Gandhi opposed but by 1936 became favourable Congress decides to fight elections Congress decided to fight elections Congress manifesto totally rejected Act of 1935 Congress contested 716/1161 seats It got a majority in all provinces except Bengal, Assam, Panjab, Sindh NWFP, Single largest party in Bengal, Assam, NWFP Nehru Conceded to S-T-S strategy Setup under Subhash Bose Congress resigns

1939-1947
Skipped: Parallen Government (210), INA (216), 3 - Upsurges (221) Sep 1, 1939 Sep 3, 1939 Germany attacks Poland Britain attacks Germany Second world war starts Declares Indias Support

Indias Offer to cooperate in War efforts: After the war, a constituent assembly will be convened to determine political structure of free India Some form of genuinely responsible

government to be setup at center Sep 10-14,1939 INC session Wardha Offer Rejected by Linlithgow Gandhi unconditional support Subhash take advantage of situation Nehru No support even though its democracy vs fascism until India was free Congress 1) India will not be a party to a war for democracy when its own democracy is denied 2)Govt should declare its war aims 3) if Britain is fighting for democracy it should set india free Tried to use Muslim League & Princes vs congress Did not define war aims Received support from Conservative PM Churchill & Secretary Zetland Rejected viceregal statement as reiteration of imperial policy Refused to supportthe war Asked ministers to resign from legislature (top block ending) Dominion Status of the Westminster variety is the goal of the british policy I India Congress was not ready for a mass struggle / mass not ready for struggle/ allies cause just/ hindu muslim unity issue could result in riots So, congress would launch civil disobedience when it was ready or when circumstance precipitates Leftist group (subhash bose) supported an all out mass struggle Muslim League Geographically contiguous muslim majority areas to become independent states Hitlers success and fall of Belgium , Holland and France prompted Britain to make an offer Dominion status/constituent assembly/expansion of executive council/ veto to minorities Congress rejected dominion status

Oct 17,1939

Linlithgow Response

Oct 23,1939

CWC meeting

Jan 4,1940

Linlithgow Statement

March,1940

INC session Ramgarh

March, 1940 Pakistan Resolution

August 1940

August Offer by Viceroy

July 1941 Viceroys executive council enlarged Individual Satyagrahas Dec 1941 Congress leaders released

End of 1940

March 1942

Cripps Mission

League appreciated veto, reiterated partition 8/12 given to Indians Defence, Finance, Home with Britishers National Defense Council formed Delhi Chalo Vinoba Bhave 1st person followed by Nehru By May 1941 25000 convicted of Civil Disobedience Anxious to defend India Overrode Gandhi and Nehrus objection and CWC decided to go to Allied aid full independence after war, substance of power transferred immediately Gandhi designates Nehru as successor Stafford cripps left wind labourite and leader of house of commons Reverses suffered by Britain and Japan threat imminent Pressure from Allies Indian nationalists agree to support if substance power transferred immediately

Nehru and Maulana Azad Oficial Negotiators Proposal: Dominion status/ constituent assembly/province not willing could constituate a separate dominion Talks failed (Page 206) July 14,1942 Gandhi Called for British withdrawal and non violent non cooperation movement against Japanese invasion INC session Gowalia Tank, Bombay All senior leaders arrested in a Sweep

Aug 8, 1942 Aug 9, 1942

Quit India Resolution ratified Do or Die Public passive resistance, Gets violent at places Government suppression severe Usha Sharma Ran a radio

Feb 1943

Gandhi goes on Fast against government

Mar 23,1943 1943

repression Pakistan Day celebrated by League Famine Rajgopal Chari Formula Desai Liaqat pact

Southwest Bengal 1.5 to 3 million dead Page 213 Page 214 Put leaque and congress on equal footing Churchill keen to reach a constitutional solution Lord Wavell sent to negotiate Page 215 League wanted to be representative of all Muslims and congress objected to being designated a Hindu Party Wavell announced a breakthrough giving the League a Veto this would have far reaching consequences in the elections of 1945-46 It failed to break constitutional deadlock Negotiations involving govt, congress, muslim league ending in freedom or partition Sporadic localized often militant violances

May 1945

June 1945

Europe war ends but Japanese threat on India still there Wavell Plan, Shimla

June 1945-Feb 1946

Upsurges

July 1945

Aug 1945

Sep 1945

Sep 1945

Labor party came to power, Clement Atlee PM, Patrick Lawrence Secretary Election to Central & Provincial legislatures announced Constituent Assembly would be convened & Govt would work according to spirits of cripps plan INC Session Bombay

Announced by government

Nov 1945

INA trials

Strong resolution in support of INA Bhulabhai Desai, Tej Bahadur Sapru, Asi Ali, Nehru, Katju Defense of the convicts In redfort of Prem Kumar Sehgal, Gulbaksh Singh DHillon,Shah Nawaz

Election Results May 1946 Feb 20,1947 June 3,1947 June 18,1947 Cabinet Mission Atlees Statement Mountbatten Plan India Independence Act

Khan Congress 52/102 Muslim League 30 reserved seats Page 226 Page 233 Page 235 Page 236

Reforms
Sati Raja Ram Mohan Roy Bengal Regulation 1829 Bengal regulation 1795,1804 tantamount to murder Act 1870 child to be registered Brahmo Samaj Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar Hindu Widow Remarriage Act, 1856 Widow Remarriage Association Pundit Vishnu Sashtri, 1850 Satya Prakash Karsondas Mulji, 1852 Indian Womens University, Bombay 1916 D K karve he married a widow in 1893, became president of Widow Remarriage Association Native Marriage Act/ Civil marriage Act, 1872 Age of Consent Act, 1891 prohibit marriageof girls < 12 B M Malabari Sarda Act, 1930 Marriageable age 18 and 14 for boys and girls Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1978, age increased 18 to 21, 14 to 18 Calcutta Female Juvenile Society 1819, Calcutta Missionaries Bethune School JED Bethune in 1849, Calcutta Pundit Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar 35 girls schools Bengal Charles Woods dispatch 1845 stress on women education Womens Medical Service 1914, training as nurses Indian Womens University 1916, Karve Lady Hardinge Medical College, 1916, Delhi Sarojini Naidu Congress President 1925, Governor of United Province 1947-49 All India Womens Conference 1920 Special Marriage Act, 1954 intercaste/religious marriages Hindu Marriage Act,1955 abolished bigamy, dissolution marriage on special grounds Hindu Succession Act,1956 discrimination w.r.t inheritance abolished

Female Infanticide Widow Remarriage

Child Marriage

Women Education

Legislative Measures in Free India

Caste

Brahmo Samajh

Hindu adoption and Maintenance Act enhanced status of women in matters of adoption Maternities Benefits Act,1961 amended to included women not covered under ESI Act 1948 Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 no discrimation in payment Factories(Amendment) Act establishment of crches where 30 women are employed Supression of Immoral Traffic Act in Women and Girls Act,1956 Renamed to Immoral Traffic Act,1986 Dowry Prohibition Act,1961 1987 Act glorification of sati a cognisible offence 1932-All India Harijan Sangh Gandhi All India Schedule Caste Federation Ambedkar Jyotiba Phule All India Depressed Classes Association other leaders Government of India Act,1935 special representation Self Respect Movement EV Ramaswamy Naiker Maharajah of Kolhapur Encouraged anti Brahmin movement Sri Narayan Guru & Sahadaran in Kerala Raja Ram Mohan Roy Gift to Monotheist, 1809/Atmiya Sabha,1814/Precepts of Jeasus,1820 1818 Anti Sati movement resulted in Bengal regulation 1829 1817 Supported David Hares efforts to setup Hindu College, Calcutta 1825 Setup Vedanta College 1828 Brahmo Samaj Found 1833 Death 1842 Maharishi Debedranath tagore joined Brahmo Samaj he was founder of Tatvabodhini sabha 1858 Kesab Chandra Sen made acharya of Brahmo Samaj 1865 Kesab dismissed from acharyaship radical views on caste system and support for inter caste marriage 1866 Kesab founded Brahmo Samaj of India/ Debendranath Adi Brahmo Samaj 1878 Kesab got his 13 year old daughter married to a maharaja Split and formation of new Sadharan Brahmo Samaj 1863- Kesab Chandra Sen 1826-31 Henry Vivian Dorazio Reform Hinduism/ attack Brahmin orthodoxy /darpan, 1832 Gyan Prasarak Mandalis 1848 organize lecture on scientific topics and popular questions 1849 one god/break caste rule/women education and widow remarriage

Prarthna Sabha Young Bengal Movement Bal Shastri Jambekar Students Literary and Scientific Societies Param Hansa Mandalis

Satyasodhak Samaj Gopalhari Deshmukh Lakahitawadi Gopal Ganesh Agarkar Servants of India Society

Jyotiba Phule Sarvajanik, Satyadharma,Gulamgin Rationalism and attach on hindu orthodoxy Humanism 1905 Gopal Krishna Gokhle Train missionaries to serve india by constitutional means 1915 died / took over by Srinivasa Sashtri Gokhle follower Narayan Manohar Joshi Secure for masses beter conditions of life and job 1920 - Also found AITUC Objective 1)band of nmonks to spread universal message of Vedanta 2)lay principles to carry preaching, philanthropic and charitable work looking upon all men as veritable menifestations of divine Objective 1 Ramkrishna Paramhans found Ramkrishna Math Objective 2 Vivekananda (Narendranath Datta 1862 to 1902) found Ramkrishna Mission, 1897 1875 Arya Samaj first unit at Bombay, later headquarter shifted to Lahore Dayanand Saraswati or Mulsankar (1824 83). Received education of Vedanta from blind teacher Swami Virajnanda in Mathura Criticised puranas and hindu orthodoxy Samaj Fixed marriageable age at 25 for boys and 16 for girls Caste system not by birth but by occupation Inter caste marriages encouraged 1886 Dayanand Anglo Vedic school established at lahore 1902 Swami Shraddhanand start Gurukul at Hardwar Dayanand criticized hindu escapist attitude of Maya Encouraged Vedic Study and Vedic Purity Call for revival of vedic study and not times After death work carried by Lala Lajpat Rai, Swami Shradhanand, Lala Hansraj, Pundit Gurudatt 1920 In zeal to protect hindu society shuddi communal tension 1885 B M Malabari Parsi women education, medical and welfare 1887 Shiv Narayan Agnihotri in Lahore eternity of soul/supremacy of guru/ need for good action Deva Shastra 1830 Radha Kant Dab Orthodox society status quo in hindu matters Counter Brahmo Samaj Defend Orthodox Hinduism against Arya samajist, ramkrishna

Social Service League

Ramkrishna Mission

Seva Sadan Deva Samaj

Arya Samaj

Dharma Sabha

Bharat Dharma

Mahamandala

Radhaswami Movement

Sri narayan Guru Dharma Pripalan Movement

Vokkaliga Sangha Justics Mvement Self Respect Movement Arravi ppuram Movement Temple entry Movement

Indian Social Conference

Wahabi /Wallimullah

Titu Mir

Faraizi Movement

Ahmadiya Movement

mission, theosophists 1902 founded at Varanasi Pandit Madan Mohan Malviya important figure 1861 Tulsi Ram or Shiv Dayal Saheb founded the movement Believe in one supreme being/supremacy of guru/company of pious people/simple social life 1902 - SNDP Movement Right of admission to schools/recruitment fo govt services/temple entryand political representation for backward castes 1905 Anti Brahmin Movement in Mysore CN Muriladhar, T M nair, P thyagaraj non Brahmin representation in legislature and jobs E V ramaswamy Naicker renounce Brahmin religion 1888 Narayan Guru installed a siva idol in aravippuram in Kerala 1924 Vaikon Satyagraha K P Keshava open temples and roads to untouchables 1931 Subramaniyam Tirumambu led a group of 16 volumteers to Guruvayur 1936 Maharaja of Travancore threw open all temples to all hindus 1938 C Rajgopalchari govt took actions in Madras Founded by M G ranade and Raghunath Rao in 1887 in Madras Pledge Movement against child marriage Inter caste marriage, opposed polygamy Shah Walimullah (1702 62) inspired this revivalist approach against western influence on Indian muslims Shah Abdul Aziz / Syed Ahmed Barelvi carried forward the teachings Darul-ul-harb to Darul-ul-Islam through Jihad Directed against Punjab but post 1849 annexation to british 1870 fizzled out Mir Nithar Ali disciple of Syed Ahmed Raebarelvi founder of Wahabi Movement Organized muslim pesants against hindu landlords and british indigo planters 1931 killed in action Founded by hazi Shariat Allah Emphasis on Islamic pillars of faith Eradication of social innovations among muslims 1840 became revolutionary under dudu mian hajis son Target hindu landlords and even police 1862 dudu mian died 1889 Founded my Mir Gulam Ahmed Muslim version of Brahmo Samaj humanism and anti jihad

Sir Syed Ahmed Khan & Aligarh Movement

Deoband School

Rahnumai Mazdayasnan Sabha

Sikh Reform

Theosophical Movement

1875 Mohmeddan anglo oriental college, Aligarh Wanted to aligh the teachings of the quaran with modern nationalism Allow govt. partonate to simulate growth in Indian Muslims through education and employment opportunities Social reforms in muslim society In his Zeal to promote muslim interest got played up in british hands 1866 Qasim Nanatovi & Rashid Ahmed Gangohi Moral and religious regenation of muslims revivalist movement 1888 issues fatwa against Syed Ahmeds organization United Patritic Association & Mohammedan Anglo Oriental Association Supported Congress Shibli Numani Favoured inclusion of English and sciences founded Nadwatlal Ulema and Darul Ulum in Lucknow in 189496 believed in cooperation of Hindus and Muslims as a state Parsi reformist movement Dadabhai Naroji, Naoroji Furdonji, K R Cama, S S Bengalee Rast Goftar Newspaper Women education/ uplift women/ purdah Singh Sabha founded in 1873 Amritsar counter proselytisation by Christians and hindus/ modern education to Sikhs (khalsa schools established) Akali movement was an offshoot of Singh Sabha Movement to make sikh gurudwara free from control of Udasi Mahants 1921 Non cooperation non violent protests 1922 Sikh Gurudwara Act Control of sikh given to sikh masses through the Siromani Gurudwara Prabandhak Committee Blvatsky, Olcott inspired by Indian cultures 1875 Theosophical Society founded in US 1882 Shifted to Adayar Promoted hindu culture etc 1907 Olcott dies, annie besat becomes president 1898 Central Hindu College founded in Calcutta both hindu and western sciences taught 1916 benarus hindu university founded