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Read the text carefully RICE IN INDONESIA The mere fact that rice is the main crop of Indonesia masks the degree to which rice and its production intrude into the geography of the country. They physical demands of wet rice production have created entirely new lands capes in the terraced rice fields of Java, Bali, Sulawesi, and Sumatera. Irrigation schemes in Bali have transformed the hydrology of river basins, in some cases transferring water from on basin to another through ancient tunnels. At the scale of the individual field, wet rice culture fundamentally alters a soils characteristic, including its drainage and chemical characteristic, creating a distractive paddy soil. In cultural terms, rice become not just the major part of the diet of most Indonesian, but also an important medium of exchange, and a symbol of mystical and ritual importance. From an economic standpoint, rice was historically one of Javas major exports as well as the key element of production in most household economics. More recently, the need to support the rice economy became a guiding policy initiative for the Indonesia government. In this way, rice can be seen as a linking commodity, binding different spheres of live. It links nutrition with symbolic and ritual meaning, household economies with government action and the changing landscape with political and social organization. The danger lies in assuming that because the visual landscape of rice production appears so unchanging the method of production in other ways in similarly immutable. Almost any conservation with any farmer will emphasize the degree to which although they may be producing the same crop as their forebears, possibly in the same field-production processes having changed. New technologies encapsulated in the term the state into the village through its role in disseminating technology and advice, and assisting in the production and marketing of the crop. Occasionally, new technologies have been rejected by farmer in favor of existing local methods, and then abandoned by the government bodies concerned with dissemination, as they have realized their inappropriateness. Nor is Indonesia a rice growing society in the way that it used to be characterized. Few families depend only on rice for their well-being, and occupational multiplicity is often the only way to meet rising aspirations even, in some cases, to survive.


Reading Compherension
Read the following text carefully. Hydroponics Hydroponics is the term used to describe the several ways in which plants can be raised without soil. These methods, also known generally as soilless gardening, include raising plants in containers filled with water or any one of a number of other non soil mediums-including gravel, sand, vermiculite and other more exotic mediums, such as crushed rocks or bricks, shards of cinder blocks etc. There are several excellent reasons for replacing soil with a sterile medium. Soil borne pests and diseases are immediately eliminated, as are weeds. And the labour involved in looking after your plants is markedly reduced. Raising plants in a non soil medium will allow you to grow more plants in a limited amount of space. Food crops will mature more rapidly and produce greater yields. Water and fertilizer are conserved, since they can be reused. In addition, hydroponics, allow you to exert greater control over your plants, to insure more uniform results. In water culture, the plants are grown only in water, or in a water and nutrient solution. Growing plants in a container filled with a water and nutrient solution is the simplest and least expensive method of hydroponics culture. Water culture is best suited for containers in which only one or two plants are displayed. If youve never worked with hydroponic before, this is the best way to gain experience with the principles involved, even if you intend to move on to more complex practice. Sand culture calls for raising plants in a sterile sand, into which a water and nutrient solution is pumped. Sand has been a frequent choice since thirties. It is sterile, retains moisture well, and can be used with equally good result in both large and small units. The water and nutrient solution is applied to the surface of the sand by a watering can or poured from a jar. The liquid gradually soaks through the roots. While this process works, it is also rather wasteful since some of the solution evaporates. In addition, a unit receiving solution in this manner must be watered several times a week. Aggregate culture replace the sand, using instead any one of the number of materials such as gravel or vermiculate, and retaining the methods of pumping water and nutrient solution into the material. Gravel is easy to keep clean, cannot become water

logged and while heavy can be handled without difficulty. However, when used alone it has the drawback of drying out quickly, necessitating frequent applications of water. You can overcome this problems by mixing sand and gravel together. The sand will act to retain moisture, while the gravel will prevent the sand from becoming water logged.

Wacana :
Livestock is farm animals that are kept for use or profit. The examples are cows, buffaloes, sheep, goat and pigs. Most farmers have them because the raising of livestock give them a lot of advantages. In western countries like the USA, people grow cattle in large amount. What are meant by cattle are cows, bulls and bullocks. Bullocks are castrated bulls, they are unable to reproduce. Steers are young bullock, raised for beef. Cattle raised for beef are called beef cattle. There are also dairy cattle, cows that are raised to produce milk, not for the meat. In Australia, people raise sheep. Australia is a large country so it enables people to raise a lot of sheep. A farmer may raise sheep up to thousands and even ten thousands. The sheep are raised especially for the wool. Wool is the soft hair of sheep. It is mostly made into cloth. A woolen cloth or blanket costs expensive. Not only do farmers get the wool, from the sheep, they also get milk. In Indonesia, people do not grow cattle or sheep like in America or Australia. There is no large field to graze for the cattle. Most farmers grow cows kept in sheds. Only on certain occasions they are released to graze on the grazing place. There are grazing places but not very large. The farmers keep cows for several purposes, for the milk, for the meat, or to help them in the farm. Cows or buffaloes are kept mainly to help them in their work, like drawing ploughs or carts. Almost all farmers in Indonesia keep livestock. Several advantages can be obtained from them. They eat the agricultural products that are not used by man. When they are sold, they get profit. The faeces is a good fertilizer for their farm soil. Certain kind of fish like the catfish feed on it. In large amount livestock faeces may even be used to produce heat to cook or for lights. Some people in Indonesia raise cows for milk or the meat, because of the limited economic ability, however, not many do such a business in a large scale. Very many people raise poultry instead. The most common are leghorns and broiler chickens. Leghorn are raised to produce eggs, while broiler are killed for the meat at the age of 10 to 12 weeks. Those chickens are fed with special feed. The farmers usually do not make the feed themselves, they buy it at the shop. People who live by the shore, however, have another job. Many of them are fisherman. Fisherman earn their living by fishing or catching fish in the sea or perhaps in a lake. A lot of fisherman use traditional tools such as traditional fishing-nets. Part of the sea where fishing is carried in is called a fishery. There are in-shore fisheries and deep-sea fisheries. Fishery can also mean the fishing business and industry. Capitalized fisherman had been making use of trawls, large wide-mouthed fishing nets to be dragged along the sea-bottom until they were prohibited in most fisheries as it will soon become an exploitation to a certain fishery. Nevertheless, some trawlers, boats or fisherman that trawl, are still found stealing in the prohibited areas.