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Click arrows to page adverts Home Formulae_Index Nomenclature Weld Strength Calculations Introduction..... Relevant Standards..... Variables Associated With Welds..... Guidance Principles..... Table Basic Weld Calcs...... Assessment of Fillet Welds..... Examples of Fillet Welds Calcs..... Properties of Fillet Welds as lines..... Example of torsion weld calc. using vectors..... Capacities of Fillet Welds..... Design Strength of Fillet Welds..... Introduction The following notes are general guidance notes showing methods of calculation of the strength and size of welds. Welded joints are often crucially important affecting the safety of the design systems. It is important that the notes and data below are only used for preliminary design evaluations. Final detail design should be completed in a formal way using appropriate codes and standards and quality reference documents

Relevant Standards BS 5950-1:2000 ..Structural use of steelwork in building. Code of practice for design. Rolled and welded sections BS EN 10025-1:2004 - Hot rolled products of structural steels. General technical delivery conditions

Variables related to welded joints 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Strength of deposited weld material Type of joint and weld..important Size of weld ..important Location of weld in relation to parts joined..important Types of stress to which the weld is subjected Conditions under which weld is carried out Type of equipment used for welding Skill of welder

Guidance Principles A generous factor of safety should be used (3-5) and if fluctuating loads are present then additional design margins should be included to allow for fatigue Use the minimum amount of filler material consistent with the job requirement Try to design joint such that load path is not not through the weld The table below provides provides approximate stresses in, hopefully, a convenient way. For the direct loading case the butt weld stresses are tensile/ compressive for the fillet welds the stresses are assumed to be shear t s applied to the weld throat. For butt welded joints subject to bending the butt weld stresses result from a tensile/compressive stress In these cases the design basis stress should be = Sqrt ( + 4 ) r b s For Fillet welded joints subject to bending the stresses in the fillet welds are all shear stresses. From bending

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In these cases the design basis stress is generally =Sqrt ( + ) r b s The stresses from joints subject to torsion loading include shear stress from the applied load and shear stresses from the torque loading. The resulting stresses should be added vectorially taking care to choose the location of the highest stresses.

Table of bracket weld subject to direct and bending stresses Stress in Weld Method of Loading Weldment Stress in Weld Weldment Stress in Weld Weldment

b s

Weld size (h)

b

s Weld size (h)

b

s Weld size (h)

Assessment of Fillet Weld Groups ref notes and table Properties of Fillet Welds as lines Important note: The methods described below is based on the simple method of calculation of weld stress as identified in BS 5950- clause

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6.7.8.2 . The other method identifed in BS 5950 - 1 clause 6.7.8.3 as the direction method uses the method of resolving the forces transmitted by unit thickness welds per unit length into traverse forces (F ) and longitudinal forces (F ). I have, to some extent, illustrated T L this method in my examples below The method of assessing fillet welds groups treating welds as lines is reasonably safe and conservative and is very convenient to use. a) Weld subject to bending....See table below for typical unit areas and unit Moments of Inertia A fillet weld subject to bending is easily assessed as follows. 1) The area of the fillet weld A ..(unit thickness) is calculated assuming the weld is one unit thick.. u 2) The (unit) Moment of Inertia I is calculated assuming the weld is one unit thick.. u 3) The maximum shear stress due to bending is determined... = M.y/I b u 4) The maximum shear stress due to direct shear is determined.. = P /A s 5) The resultant stress = Sqrt ( + ) r b s 6) By comparing the design strength p with the resultant stress the value of the weld throat thickness is calculated and then the weld w r size. i.e. if the /p = 5 then the throat thickess t = 5 units and the weld leg size h = 1,414t r w a) Weld subject to torsion...See table below for typical unit areas and unit Polar moments of Inertia A fillet weld subject to torsion is easily assessed as follows. 1) The area of the fillet weld A (unit thickness) is calculated assuming the weld is one unit thick u 2) The (unit) Polar Moment of Inertia J is calculated assuming the weld is one unit thick.. The polar moment of inertia J = I +I u xx yy 3) The maximum shear stress due to torsion is determined... = T.r/J t u 4) The maximum shear stress due to direct shear is determined.. = P /A s u 5) The resultant stress is the vector sum of and . r is chosen to give the highest value of r t s r 6) By comparing the design strength p with the resultant stress the value of the weld throat thickness is calculated and then the weld w r size. i.e. if the /p = 5 then the throat thickess t = 5 units and the weld leg size h = 1,414.t r w

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y = d / 2(b+d) = 42mm..(From table below) Simple Method as BS 5950 clause 6.8.7.2 ..The vector sum of the stresses due to forces and moments should not exceed the design strength P w A u = Unit Throat Area Direction Method as BS 5950 clause 6.8.7.3 L = Length of weld 1 unit thick = (From table below) b + d = (120 + 150) = 270mm To obtain radius of Force from weld Centre of Gravity (Cog) . A = 250-27 =223mm Moment M = P.r = 10000.223 = 2,23.10 N.mm J = Polar Moment of inertia for weld 1unit(mm) thick. u = [(b+d) - 6b d ] /12 (b+d) = 1,04.10 mm /mm..(From Table)

= (From table below) b + d = (120 + 150) = 270mm To obtain radius of Force from weld centre of gravity A = 250-27 =223mm

2 2

It is necessary to locate the point subject to the highest shear stress..For a weld subject to only torsion this would be simply at the point furthest from the COG. However because the weld is subject to torsion and direct shear the problem is more complicated. A normal method of It is necessary to locate the point subject to the highest shear stress..For determining the stresses in these cases is to use vector addition. a weld subject to only torsion this would be simply at the point furthest from the COG. However because the weld is subject to torsion and It is generally prudent to calculate the total shear stress at both positions, direct shear the problem is more complicated. A normal method of using the method below, and select the highest.. For this example the determining the stresses in these cases is to use vector addition. method used is to resolve the stresses in the x and y directions J u = [(b+d) - 6b d ] /12 (b+d) = 1,04.10 ..(From Table) It is generally prudent to calculate the total shear stress at both positions, using the method below, and select the highest.. For this example the First considering point Z method used is to resolve the stresses in the x and y directions Horizontal distance from centroid r First considering point Z Horizontal distance from centroid r Vertical distance from centroid r The vertical stress = + zv tv = 120-27= 93mm zh = 42mm Vertical distance from centroid r The vertical force /mm run F F F F sv tv v zv = 120-27= 93mm zh = 42mm

2 2

sv

The horizontal stress h = sh + th

= M.r

sh

th

The resultant stress on the weld at z

= M.r /J = 2,23.10 .42/1,04.10 = 90 N/mm run th zv u F = 90 N/mm run h The resultant force on the weld/mm run at z F = Sqrt (F + F ) = 253 N/mm run r h v

Now considering point w Horizontal distance from centroid r Vertical distance from centroid r wv = 27mm wh = 150-42= 108mm

Now considering point w Horizontal distance from centroid r Vertical distance from centroid r The vertical stress = - wv tv = 27mm wh = 150-42= 108mm

= M.r

sv

sh

th

= M.r /J = 2,23.10 .108/1,04.10 = 231,6 N/mm run th wv u F = 231,6 N/mm run h The specific force on the weld at w

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sh

The resultant stress on the weld at w

The maximum stress is similar but greatest at z .... The design strength p for the weld material is 220 N/mm w 2 The weld throat thickness should be 253 /220 = 1,15mm . The weld size is therefore 1,414. 1,15 = 1,62mm use 3mm fillet weld

Referring to weld capacities for longitudinal stresses P for fillet welds L Capacities of Fillet Welds the weld capacity for a 3mm weld with and E35 Electrode S275 Steel is 462N /mm run. This weld would be more than sufficient.

Direction Method as BS 5950 clause 6.8.7.3

Moment = M = 30000*60=18.10

Simple Method as BS 5950 clause 6.8.7.2 Unit Weld Area = A = 2(d+b) =2(100+75) =350mm u Unit Moment of Inertia = I u = d (3b+d) / 6 = 100

Length of Weld of unit thickness = L = 2(d+b) =2(100+75) =350mm Moment of Inertia / mm throat thickness = I / mm u = d (3b+d) / 6 = 100

r = Sqrt( s2 + b2) s = P / A u = 30000/350 = 85,71 N/mm 2 b = M.y / I u = 18.105 . 50 / 5,42.105 = 166,05 N/mm 2 r = Sqrt(85,71 2 + 166.052) =186,86 N/mm2 r / p w = 186,86 / 220 = 0,85 = Throat Thickness.....

( Throat thickness for = 220 N/mm ) Leg Length = Throat thickness *1,414 = 1,2mm use 3mm weld thickness

F = Resultant force per unit length of weld. r F = Shear force per unit length of weld. s F = Bending force per unit length of weld. b F = Sqrt(F +F ) r s b F = P / L = 30000/350 = 85,71 N per mm length of weld s F = M.y / I b u = 18.10 . 50 / 5,42.10 F = Sqrt(85,71 r

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Note : If a leg length h= 1,2mm is used in the equations in relevant part of the "Table of bracket weld subject to direct and bending stresses" above a value of b = 198 N/mm and

For this case for the welds under greatest loading the type of loading is traverse loading. The bending stress is in line with horizontal element and the shear stress is in line with vertical member. The angle of the resulting specific load to the horizontal element = arctan(85,71/166,5)= 27,5 . This is an angle with the weld throat

2 a value of = 100 N/mm results with a resultant stress of s 2 + 2) = 222N/mm2..Which is in general Sqrt ( b s

agreement with the above result

Referring to weld capacities table below.Weld Capacities K is calculated at 1,36 for this resultant direction of forces. P = a.K.p for a E35 Weld electrode used with S275 steel T w p = 220 N/mm and therefore P = a*300N/mm .. w T A 3mm weld (a = 2,1mm) therefore will therefore have a design capacity of 630 N/mm run and will easily be able to support the load of 186,86 N per mm run

Properties of weld groups with welds treated as lines It is accepted that it is reasonably accurate to use properties based on unit weld thickness in calculation to determine the strength of welds as shown in the examples on this page. The weld properties I I and J are assumed to be proportional to the weld thickness. The xx yy typical accuracy of this method of calculation is shown below...

This is illustrated in the tabled values below d Accurate Simple Error 3 3 b 60 60 h 50 50 I xx 955080 900000 6% I yy J= I +I xx yy 1063080 1008000 5%

108000 108000 0

Note: The error identified with this method is lower as h increases relative to d. This error is such that the resulting designs are conservative.

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Calculation based on real weld sizes 1) The area of the welds (based on throat weld thickness at 0,707.5 = 3,5mm) Area = (57.3,5 + 2.55.3,5) = 584,5mm 2) The moment of area about x-x =

Calculations based on unit values This calculation uses equations from table below for Area, centroid, and J u 1) Area of weld = 0,707.5.(2b+d) Area = 0,707.5.(2.55 + 50) = 565.6mm

M of Area = (57.3,5.3,5/2 + 2.55.3,5.(27.5 + 3,5)) = 12 284mm 3) The centroid v = Moment of Area/Area M of Area / Area = 21 mm 4) The radii r , r , r & r are calculated .. A B C D r = r = Sqrt ((58,5-21)^2 + 28,5^2 ) = 47,1 A B r = r = Sqrt ((21)^2 + 28,5^2 ) = 35,40... C D 5) The angles , , & are calculated .. A B C D

2) There is no need to calculate the Moment of Area with this method 3) The centroid v = b /(2b+d) v = 55 /(2.55+50)= 18,9mm 4) The radii r , r , r & r are calculated .. A B C D r = r = Sqrt ((55-18,9)^2 + 25^2 ) = 43,9 A B r = r = Sqrt (18,9^2 + 25^2 ) = 31,34 C D 5) The angles , , & are calculated .. A B C D

6) The direct shear stress on the area = Force /Area

6) The direct shear stress on the area = Force /Area

7) The Moment on the weld group = Force.Distance to centroid M = 5000.(100+21) = 6,05.10 Nmm 8) The polar moment of inertia of the weld group = J = I I = 2.[55.3,5 /12 + 3,5.55.(50/2 + 3,5/2) ] xx +I yy

7) The Moment on the weld group = Force .distance to centroid M = 5000.(100+18,9) = 5.94.10 Nmm 8) The Unit Polar moment of inertia of the weld group = J = 0.707.5.(8.b +6bd +d )/12 + b /(2b+d) u J = 0,707.5.(8.55 +6.55.50 + 50 )/12 - 55 /(2.55+50) = 4,69.10 u

yy

2 3 3

+ 57 .3,5/12 = 3,3.10 mm I xx

4 2 2 5 4

TA

10) The resultant stresses ,= and ,= RA RB RA RB TC = TD = 6.055Nmm.35,4mm / 5,4.105mm4= 39,70N/mm2 are obtained by adding the stress vectos graphically as shown below 10) The resultant stresses RA ,= RB and RA ,=

RB

RA = RB=48,59 N/mm2

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RC = RD = 45,56N/mm2

Note: The example above simply illustrates the vector method adding direct and torsional shear stresses and compares the difference in using the unit weld width method and using real weld sizes. The example calculates the stress levels in an existing weld group it is clear that the weld is oversized for the loading scenario. The difference in the resulting values are in less than 4%. If the welds were smaller i.e 3mm then the differences would be even smaller.

Table properties of a range of fillet weld groups with welds treated as lines -

Location of COG x y

xx

-(unit)

J-(Unit)

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Table Of Weld Capacities The fillet weld capacity tables related to the type of loading on the weld. Two types of loading are identified traverse loading and longitudinal loading as show below

{ (F /P )

L L

+ (F /P )

T T

}1

The following table is in accord with data in BS 5950 part 1. Based on design strengths as shown in table below ... Design Strength P = a.p L w P = a.K.p T w a = weld throat size. K =1,25 (1,5 / (1 + Cos

2)

P based on elements transmitting forces at 90 i.e = 45 and K = 1,25 T o o Weld Capacity E35 Electrode S275 Steel Leg Length mm Throat Thickness mm Longitudinal Capacity P (kN/mm) L kN/mm Transverse Capacity P T (kN/mm) Leg Length mm Weld Capacity E42 Electrode S355 Steel Throat Thickness mm Longitudinal Capacity P L Transverse Capacity P T

kN/mm

kN/mm

kN/mm

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3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 18 20 22 25

2,1 2,8 3,5 4,2 5,6 7,0 8,4 10,5 12,6 14,0 15,4 17,5

0,462 0,616 0,770 0,924 1,232 1,540 1,848 2,310 2,772 3,08 3,388 3,850

0,577 0,720 0,963 1,155 1,540 1,925 2,310 2,888 3,465 3,850 4,235 4,813

3 4 5 6 8 10 12 15 18 20 22 25

2,1 2,8 3,5 4,2 5,6 7,0 8,4 10,5 12,6 14,0 15,4 17,5

0,525 0,700 0,875 1,050 1,400 1,750 2,100 2,625 3,150 3,500 3,850 4,375

0,656 0,875 1,094 1,312 1,750 2,188 2,625 3,281 3,938 4,375 4,813 5,469

Design Strength p

of fillet welds Electrode classification 35 Steel Grade S275 S355 S460 220 220 220 N/mm 43 50

2

220 250 250

N/mm

2

220 250 280

N/mm

Useful Related Links 1. Gowelding..A Real Find..this site has lots of Information on calculating the strength of Welds 2. Weld Design Notes .. A set of excellent design notes

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Home Formulae_Index Nomenclature Please Send Comments to Roy Beardmore Last Updated 21/02/2010

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