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EXPERIMENT No.

9 OP-AMP INTEGRATOR AND DIFFERENTIATOR

I.

OBJECTIVE Determine and

analyze

the

characteristics

of

op-amp

integrator

circuit

II.

BASIC CONCEPT The slope of the output ramp, for a step input voltage, is proportional to the input step voltage and is inverted in an op-amp integrator circuit. Therefore,

wherein Vin is the step value of the input voltage. The feedback resistor prevents the op-amp from going into saturation. The output voltage is proportional to the rate of change of the input voltage and is inverted in an op-amp differentiator circuit. The input resistors prevent oscillation. III. MATERIALS AND EQUIPMENT 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 LM741 op-amp 0.01 F 0.05 F 0.02 F 500 k 5 k 10 k 1000 k 15 k DC power supply DMM Oscilloscope Function Generator Breadboard for constructing circuit Connecting Wires

IV.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM
RF 5k C1 0.01F + Vcc Signal Gen R1 10k 3 4 - Vcc 2 7 6 Vout

Figure 9.1
RF + Vcc Signal Gen R1 C1 2 7 6 3 4 - Vcc Vout

Figure 9.2 V. PROCEDURE 1. Set the circuit as shown in Figure 9.1. Record the input voltage and the output slope in V/ms. Solve for the value of the output slope in V/ms. Record in Table 9.1. 2. Change the function generator amplitude to 2 V and the oscilloscope channel A and Channel B to 2 V/div. Record the input voltage and the output slope in V/ms. Observe. 3. Change R1 from 10 k to 15 k. Record the input voltage and the new output slope in V/ms. Solve for the expected value of the output slope in V/ms. Record in Table 9.2. 4. Change capacitor to 0.02 F. Measure the input voltage and the output slope in V/ms. Solve for the expected value of the output slope in V/ms. Record in Table 9.3. 5. Change R1 to 10 k and capacitor back to 0.01 F and the oscilloscope time base to 1 ms/div. Draw the input and output wave shape. Record in Table 9.4. 6. Change the oscilloscope channel B to 5 V/div and remove the resitor RF from the circuit. Observe. 7. Set the circuit in Figure 9.2. Draw the input and output wave shape. Record the input slope in V/ms and the output voltage. Solve for the expected output voltage. Record in Table 9.5. 8. Change the function generator frequency to 2 kHz and the oscilloscope time base to 0.05 ms/div. Record the new input slope in V/ms and the output voltage. Observe.

9.

10.

11.

Return the frequency of the function generator to 1 kHz and the time base of the oscilloscope to 1 ms/div. Change the feedback resistor to 10 k. Record the input slope in V/ms and the output voltage. Solve for the expected output voltage. Record in Table 9.6. Change the feedback resistor back to 5 k and change capacitor to 0.1 F. Record the input slope in V/ms and the output voltage. Calculate the expected output voltage. Record in Table 9.7. Change the capacitor back to 0.05 F. Remove the resistor and replace it with a short circuit. Describe what happen. Record in Table 9.8.

VI.

DATA AND RESULTS

Table 9.1 (R1 = 10 k; CF = 0.01 F) Parameters Measured Vin Vout Table 9.2 (R1 = 15 k; CF = 0.01 F) Parameters Measured Vin Vout Table 9.3 (R1 = 10 k; CF = 0.02 F) Parameters Measured Vin Vout Table 9.4 (R1 = 15 k; CF = 0.02 F) Parameters Measured Vin Vout Table 9.5 (RF = 2 k; C1 = 0.05 F) Parameters Measured Vin Vout Table 9.6 (RF = 10 k; C1 = 0.05 F) Parameters Measured Vin Vout Table 9.7 (RF = 5 k; C1 = 0.01 F) Parameters Measured Vin Vout

Expected

% Difference

Expected

% Difference

Expected

% Difference

Expected

% Difference

Expected

% Difference

Expected

% Difference

Expected

% Difference

Table 9.8 (RF = short circuit; C1 = 0.05 F) Parameters Measured Expected Vin Vout

% Difference

VII.

SAMPLE COMPUTATIONS

VIII.

GRAPH @TABLE 9.1 (R1 = 10 k; CF = 0.01 F)

@TABLE 9.2 (R1 = 15 k; CF = 0.01 F)

@TABLE 9.3 (R1 = 10 k; CF = 0.02 F)

@TABLE 9.4 (R1 = 15 k; CF = 0.02 F)

@TABLE 9.5 (RF = 2 k; C1 = 0.05 F)

@TABLE 9.6 (RF = 10 k; C1 = 0.05 F)

@TABLE 9.7 (RF = 5 k; C1 = 0.01 F)

@TABLE 9.8 (RF = short circuit; C1 = 0.05 F)

IX.

QUESTIONS AND PROBLEMS 1. Was the output wave shape for the integrator circuit the integral of the input wave shape? Explain.

2.

How did the calculated value of the integrator output slope compare with the measured value?

3.

Was the value of integrator output slope dependent upon Vin?

4.

Was the value of the integrator output dependent upon input resistor?

5.

Was the value of the integrator output slope dependent upon capacitor? Explain.

6.

Explain why the integrator output slope inverted.

X.

ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF RESULTS

We first set the given circuit in the multisim and added the necessary values given in the circuit. After we record the input voltage and the output slope, we now change the amplitude of the generator and the volts per division of the oscilloscope. After we have gathered all the datas needed. We have observed that in the integrator circuit, an integrator circuit produces a steadily changing output voltage for a constant input voltage. And a differentiator circuit produces a constant output voltage for a steadily changing input voltage.
XI. CONCLUSION

We therefore conclude that the slope of the output ramp, for a step input voltage, is proportional to the input step voltage and is inverted in an opamp integrator circuit. The output voltage is proportional to the rate of change of the input voltage and is inverted in an op-amp differentiator circuit. The input resistors prevent oscillation and the feedback resistor prevents the opamp from going into saturation.