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Tissue (biology)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about biological tissue. For other uses, see Tissue.

Cross section of sclerenchyma fibers in plant ground tissue

Microscopic view of a histologic specimen of human lungtissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin.

Tissue is a cellular organizational level intermediate between cells and a complete organism. A tissue is an ensemble of cells, not necessarily identical, but from the same origin, that together carry out a specific function. These are called tissues because of their identical functioning. Organs are then formed by the functional grouping together of multiple tissues. The study of tissue is known as histology or, in connection with disease, histopathology. The classical tools for studying tissues are theparaffin block in which tissue is embedded and then sectioned, the histological stain, and the optical microscope. In the last couple of decades, developments in electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, and the use of frozen tissue sections have enhanced the detail that can be observed in tissues. With these tools, the classical appearances of tissues can be examined in health and disease, enabling considerable refinement of clinical diagnosis and prognosis.

Contents
[hide]

1 Animal tissues

o o o o

1.1 Connective tissue 1.2 Muscle tissue 1.3 Nervous tissue 1.4 Epithelial tissue

2 Plant tissues

o o

2.1 Meristematic tissues 2.2 Permanent tissues

2.2.1 Simple permanent tissues

2.2.1.1 Parenchyma 2.2.1.2 Collenchyma 2.2.1.3 Sclerenchyma 2.2.1.4 Epidermis

2.2.2 Complex permanent tissue


3 See also 4 References 5 External links

2.2.2.1 Xylem 2.2.2.2 Phloem

[edit]Animal

tissues

PAS diastase showing the fungusHistoplasma.

Animal tissues can be grouped into four basic types: connective, muscle, nervous, and epithelial. Multiple tissue types comprise organs and body structures. While all animals can generally be considered to contain the four tissue types, the manifestation of these tissues can differ depending on the type of organism. For

example, the origin of the cells comprising a particular tissue type may differ developmentally for different classifications of animals. The epithelium in all animals is derived from the ectoderm and endoderm with a small contribution from the mesoderm, forming the endothelium, a specialized type of epithelium that comprises the vasculature. By contrast, a true epithelial tissue is present only in a single layer of cells held together via occluding junctions called tight junctions, to create a selectively permeable barrier. This tissue covers all organismal surfaces that come in contact with the external environment such as the skin, the airways, and the digestive tract. It serves functions of protection, secretion, and absorption, and is separated from other tissues below by a basal lamina.

[edit]Connective

tissue

Connective tissues are fibrous tissues. They are made up of cells separated by non-living material, which is called extracellular matrix. Connective tissue gives shape to organs and holds them in place. Both blood and bone are examples of connective tissue. As the name implies, connective tissue serves a "connecting" function. It supports and binds other tissues. Unlike epithelial tissue, connective tissue typically has cells scattered throughout an extracellular matrix.

[edit]Muscle

tissue

Muscle cells form the active contractile tissue of the body known as muscle tissue. Muscle tissue functions to produce force and cause motion, either locomotion or movement within internal organs. Muscle tissue is separated into three distinct categories: visceral or smooth muscle, which is found in the inner linings of organs; skeletal muscle, in which is found attached to bone providing for gross movement; and cardiac muscle which is found in the heart, allowing it to contract and pump blood throughout an organism.

[edit]Nervous

tissue

Cells comprising the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system are classified as neural tissue. In the central nervous system, neural tissue forms the brain and spinal cord and, in the peripheral nervous system forms the cranial nerves and spinal nerves, inclusive of the motor neurons. Nervous tissue functions to transmit messages.

[edit]Epithelial

tissue

The epithelial tissues are formed by cells that cover the organ surfaces such as the surface of the skin, the airways, the reproductive tract, and the inner lining of the digestive tract. The cells comprising an epithelial layer are linked via semi-permeable, tight junctions; hence, this tissue provides a barrier between the external environment and the organ it covers. In addition to this protective function, epithelial tissue may also be specialized to function in secretion and absorption. Epithelial tissue helps to protect organisms from microorganisms, injury, and fluid loss.

[edit]Plant

tissues

Cross-section of a flax plant stem with several layers of different tissue types: hi 1. Pith, 2. Protoxylem, 3. Xylem I, 4. Phloem I, 5. Sclerenchyma (bast fibre), 6. Cortex, 7. Epidermis

Examples of tissue in other multicellular organisms are vascular tissue in plants, such as xylem and phloem. Plant tissues are categorized broadly into three tissue systems: the epidermis, the ground tissue, and the vascular tissue. Together they are often referred to as biomass.

Epidermis - Cells forming the outer surface of the leaves and of the young plant body. Vascular tissue - The primary components of vascular tissue are the xylem and phloem. These transport fluid and nutrients internally.

Ground tissue - Ground tissue is less differentiated than other tissues. Ground tissue manufactures nutrients by photosynthesis and stores reserve nutrients.

Plant tissues can also be divided differently into two types: 1. Meristematic tissues 2. Permanent tissues

[edit]Meristematic

tissues

Meristematic tissue consists of actively dividing cells, and leads to increase in length and thickness of the plant. The primary growth of a plant occurs only in certain, specific regions, such as in the tips of stems or roots. It is in these regions that meristematic tissue is present. Cells in these tissues are roughly spherical or polyhedral, to rectangular in shape, and have thin cell walls. New cells produced by meristem are initially those of meristem itself, but as the new cells grow and mature, their characteristics slowly change and they

become differentiated as components of the region of occurrence of meristimatic tissues, they are classified as: a) Apical Meristem - It is present at the growing tips of stems and roots and increases the length of the stem and root. They form growing parts at the apices of roots and stems and are responsible for increase in length,also called primary growth.This meristem is responsible for the linear growth of an organ. b) Lateral Meristem - This meristem consist of cells which mainly divide in one plane and cause the organ to increase in diameter and growth. Lateral Meristem usually occurs beneath the bark of the tree in the form of Cork Cambium and in vascular bundles of dicots in the form of vascular cambium. The activity of this cambium results in the formation of secondary growth. c) Intercalary Meristem - This meristem is located in between permanent tissues. It is usually present at the base of node, inter node and on leaf base. They are responsible for growth in length of the plant.This adds growth in the girth of stem. The cells of meristematic tissues are similar in structure and have thin and elastic primary cell wall made up of cellulose. They are compactly arranged without inter-cellular spaces between them. Each cell contains a dense cytoplasm and a prominent nucleus. Dense protoplasm of meristematic cells contains very few vacuoles. Normally the meristematic cells are oval, polygonal or rectangular in shape. Meristemetic tissue cells have a large nucleus with small or no vacuoles, they have no inter cellular spaces.

[edit]Permanent

tissues

The meristematic tissues that take up a specific role lose the ability to divide. This process of taking up a permanent shape, size and a function is called cellular differentiation. Cells of meristematic tissue differentiate to form different types of permanent tissue. There are 3 types of permanent tissues: 1. simple permanent tissues 2. complex permanent tissues 3.Special or Secretory tissues (Gandular)

[edit]Simple permanent tissues


These tissues are called simple because they are composed of similar types of cells which have common origin and function. They are further classified into: 1. 2. 3. Parenchyma Collenchyma Sclerenchyma

4.

Epidermis

[edit]Parenchyma
It consists of relatively unspecialised cells with thin cell walls. They are live cells. They are usually loosely packed, so that large spaces between cells(intercellular spaces)are found in this tissue. This tissue provides support to plants and also stores food.In some situations, it contains chlorophyll and performs photosynthesis, and then it is called chlorenchyma. In aquatic plants,large air cavities are present in parenchyma to give support to them to float on water. Such a parenchyma type is called aerenchyma.

[edit]Collenchyma

Cross section of collenchyma cells

Collenchyma is Greek word where "Collen" means gum and "enchyma" means infusion. It is a living tissue of primary body like Parenchyma. Cells are thin-walled but possess thickening of cellulose and pectin substances at the corners where number of cells join together. This tissue gives a tensile strength to the plant and the cells are compactly arranged and do not have inter-cellular spaces. It occurs chiefly in hypodermis of stems and leaves. It is absent in monocots and in roots. Collenchymatous tissue acts as a supporting tissue in stems of young plants. It provides mechanical support, elasticity, and tensile strength to the plant body. It helps in manufacturing sugar and storing it as starch. It is present in margin of leaves and resist tearing effect of the wind.

[edit]Sclerenchyma
Sclerenchyma is Greek word where "Sclrenes" means hard and "enchyma" means infusion. This tissue consists of thick-walled, dead cells. These cells have hard and extremely thick secondary walls due to uniform distribution of lignin. Lignin deposition is so thick that the cell walls become strong, rigid and impermeable to water. Sclerenchymatous cells are closely packed without inter-cellular spaces between them. Thus, they appear as hexagonal net in transverse section. The cells are cemented with the help of lamella. The middle lamella is a wall that lies between adjacent cells. Sclerenchymatous cells mainly occur

inhypodermis, pericycle, secondary xylem and phloem. They also occur in endocorp of almond and coconut. It is made of pectin, lignin, protein. The cells of sclerenchymatous cells can be classified as : 1. 2. Fibres- Fibres are long, elongated sclerenchymatous cells with pointed ends. Sclerides- Sclerenchymatous cells which are short and possess extremely thick, lamellated, lignified walls with long singular piths. They are called sclerides. The main function of Sclerenchymatous tissues is to give support to the plant.

[edit]Epidermis
The entire surface of the plant consists of a single layer of cells called epidermis or surface tissue. The entire surface of the plant has this outer layer of epidermis. Hence it is also called surface tissue. Most of the epidermal cells are relatively flat. the outer and lateral walls of the cell are often thicker than the inner walls. The cells forms a continuous sheet without inter cellular spaces. It protects all parts of the plant.

[edit]Complex permanent tissue


A complex permanent tissue may be classified as a group of more than one type of tissue having a common origin and working together as a unit to perform a function. These tissues are concerned with transportation of water, mineral, nutrients and organic substances. The important complex tissues in vascular plants are xylem, phloem.

[edit]Xylem
Xylem consist of- i)Tracheid

ii)Trachea iii)Xylem fibers iv)Xylem parenchyma

Xylem is a chief, conducting tissue of vascular plants. It is responsible for conduction of water and mineral ions. Xylem is a very important plant tissue as it is part of the plumbing of a plant. Think of bundles of pipes running along the main axis of stems and roots. It carries water and dissolved substances throughout and consists of a combination of parenchyma cells, fibers, vessels, tracheids and ray cells. Long tubes made up of individual cells are the vessels, while vessel members are open at each end. Internally, there may be bars of wall material extending across the open space. These cells are joined end to end to form long tubes. Vessel members and tracheids are dead at maturity. Tracheids have thick secondary cell walls and are tapered at the ends. They do not have end openings such as the vessels. The

tracheids ends overlap with each other, with pairs of pits present. The pit pairs allow water to pass from cell to cell. While most conduction in the xylem is up and down, there is some sideto-side or lateral conduction via rays. Rays are horizontal rows of long-living parenchyma cells that arise out of the vascular cambium. In trees, and other woody plants, ray will radiate out from the center of stems and roots and in cross-section will look like the spokes of a wheel.

[edit]Phloem
Phloem consist of - i)Sieve tube

ii)Sieve cell iii)Companion cell iv)Phloem fiber v)Phloem parenchyma

Phloem is an equally important plant tissue as it also is part of the plumbing of a plant. Primarily, phloem carries dissolved food substances throughout the plant. This conduction system is composed of sieve-tube member and companion cells, that are without secondary walls. The parent cells of the vascular cambium produce both xylem and phloem. This usually also includes fibers, parenchyma and ray cells. Sieve tubes are formed from sieve-tube members laid end to end. The end walls, unlike vessel members in xylem, do not have openings. The end walls, however, are full of small pores where cytoplasm extends from cell to cell. These porous connections are called sieve plates. In spite of the fact that their cytoplasm is actively involved in the conduction of food materials, sieve-tube members do not have nuclei at maturity. It is the companion cells that are nestled between sieve-tube members that function in some manner bringing about the conduction of food. Sieve-tube members that are alive contain a polymer called callose. Callose stays in solution as long at the cell contents are under pressure. As a repair mechanism, if an insect injures a cell and the pressure drops, the callose will precipitate. However, the callose and a phloem protein will be moved through the nearest sieve plate where they will form a plug. This prevents further leakage of sieve tube contents and the injury is not necessarily fatal to overall plant turgor pressure. Phloem transports food and materials in plants in upwards and downwards as required.

[edit]See

also

Plant stem cell Cellular differentiation Laser capture microdissection Tissue microarray

Tissue stress

Animal Tissues Levels of Organization


Tissue Multicellular (large) organisms function more efficiently if cells become specialized for specific functions. A tissue is composed of cells that function together in a specialized activity. There are four types of tissues found in animals: epithelial, connective, nerve, and muscle tissue. Sponges do not have tissues. Organs Organs are composed of two or more tissues which function together to perform a common task. For example, the heart contains all 4 types of tissues. Sponges and cnidarians do not have organs. Organ systems An organ system consists of two or more organs which perform a specific task. Some organ systems are: the integumentary, nervous, sensory, endocrine, skeletal, muscular, circulatory, immune, digestive, respiratory, excretory, and reproductive systems.

Embryonic Tissues
Ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm are embryonic tissues that give rise to all of the tissues, organs, and organ systems in the body.

Ectoderm forms the outer layer of skin and nervous system. Mesoderm forms the muscles, connective tissues, skeleton, kidneys, and circulatory and reproductive organs. Endoderm forms the lining of the gut, respiratory tract, and urinary bladder. It also forms the glands associated with the gut and respiratory tract.

Junctions
Cells are joined to each other by proteins. The point of connection between two cells is called a junction. Junctions bind cells together. Some kinds of junctions prevent the passage of molecules between cells. Other kinds of junctions allow molecules to pass from one cell to another.

Epithelial Tissue
Epithelial tissue covers external surfaces and internal cavities and organs. Glands are also composed of epithelial tissue. Epithelia forms boundaries. Most substances that move into or out of the body must pass through epithelial tissue. One surface of the tissue is free and the other adheres to a basement membrane.

The photograph below shows kidney tubules. The cells lining the tubules are epithelial tissue. One surface is attached (the basal surface) and the other surface is free.

The apical surface of epithelial cells may have tiny projections called microvilli. These function to increase surface area. For example, microvilli on intestinal cells increase the surface area available for absorption. Eipthelial cells may have cilia. Cilia can be seen on the cells lining the trachea in the photograph below. They function to move mucus and trapped particles upward toward the mouth where it will be swallowed, thus keeping the trachea clear of foreign particles.

Function of Epithelial Tissue

Protection Epithelial tissue forms the skin of many animals. Terrestrial vertebrates have keratin in their skin cells making them resistant to water loss. Ciliated epithelium lines the respiratory tract. Numerous cilia on these cells sweep impurities toward the throat. Absorption Absorption is an important function of epithelial tissue. For example, the gut is lined with epithelial tissue and it functions to absorb nutrients from food. The lungs are also lined with epithelial tissue and it functions to absorb oxygen. Secretion Glandular epithelium secretes chemicals. Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into the extracellular space. Exocrine glands often secrete through DUCTS; they secrete mucus, saliva, wax, milk, etc. Layers Simple epithelium is one cell thick. Example: Respiratory surfaces such as the lining of the lungs or the skin of a frog (below) are only one cell thick so that gasses can pass through quickly.

Squamous Epithelium - Frog Skin Flat Mount Click the photograph to view a larger photograph.

Stratified epithelium has more than one layer. It is found in areas of high abrasion such as the skin or the lining of the mouth. Cell division occurs in cells near the basement membrane, pushing older cells toward the surface. Cells lost by abrasion at the surface are replaced by cells underneath.

Example: the human skin shown below contains stratified epithelium.

Stratified Squamous Epithelium, Human sec. X 100

Pseudostratified epithelium appears to be layered but each cell touches the same basement membrane. Some cells are elongate; they extend from the basement membrane to the free surface. Other cells are smaller, causing the tissue to appear stratified. The nuclei in the cells shown below appear to form multiple layers but the cells are all attached to the same basement membrane.

Pseudostratified Ciliated Columnar Epithelium

Shape Epithelial cells are flat (squamous), cube-shaped (cuboidal), or elongated (columnar).

The words that describe layers (previous slides) can be used with words that describe shape.

For example, simple squamous epithelium is one layer of flat cells.


Squamous

Simple Squamous Epithelium

Simple squamous epithelium is a single layer of flat cells. It is found in the walls of small blood vessels (capillaries) and in the air sacs of the lungs (alveoli). Because it is thin, it permits diffusion of substances from one side to the other. For example, materials can diffuse out of the capillaries. In the lungs, oxygen can diffuse across the alveoli and into the blood. Below: The skin of a frog is used for gas exchange. The outer layer of skin is simple squamous epithelium. The thin, flattened cells promote rapid diffusion of gasses between the air and the blood vessels underneath the epithelium.

Squamous Epithelium - Frog Skin

Cuboidal

The cells that line the tubules of the kidneys are cuboidal. They function in secretion and absorption. The ducts of some glands contain simple cuboidal epithelium.

Simple Cuboidal Epithelium

Simple Columnar

Simple columnar epithelium is a single layer of elongate cells. It is found in the lining of the gut and parts of the respiratory tract. It functions in secretion and absorption. The photograph below is a cross section of the small intestine.

Small Intestine (Jejunum) X 200

Connective Tissue
The cells of connective tissue are separated by non-living material. Connective tissue binds and supports body parts, protects, fills spaces, stores fat (for energy), and transports materials. Structure of Loose and Dense Connective Tissue Loose connective tissue and dense connective tissue contain three kinds of fibers. Collagen fibers provide strength and flexibility. Collagen is the most abundant protein in animal bodies. Elastic fibersprovide elasticity. When stretched, they return to their original shape. Reticular fibers are small and branched. They provide a support framework for organs such as the liver and lymph nodes. The cells of loose and dense connective tissue are called fibroblasts. They produce the fibers

and nonliving matrix material. Macrophages are cells specialized for phagocytizing foreign materials, bacteria, and cleaning up debris. Macrophages will be discussed in the chapter on the immune system. Loose Connective Tissue Loose connective tissue includes areolar, adipose, and reticular connective tissue. Areolar Connective Tissue The fibroblasts (cells) of areolar connective tissue are separated by a nonliving, jellylike matrix. The tissue contains collagen fibers for flexibility and strength, and numerous elastic fibers that enable it to be stretched.

Areolar connective tissue X 200

Areolar connective tissue is found in the skin and in most internal organs of vertebrates, where it allows the organs to expand; it also forms a protective covering for muscles, blood vessels, and nerves. Adipose tissue is a type of loose connective tissue. It has reduced matrix material and contains enlarged fibroblasts (cells) that store fat. Adipose tissue functions to store energy, insulate, and provide padding, especially in the skin and around the kidneys and heart.

Adipose Tissue Human sec X 200

Reticular Connective Tissue Reticular connective tissue contains an abundance of reticular fibers. It provides a supporting framework for organs such as the lymph nodes, spleen, and liver. Dense (Fibrous) Connective Tissue The collagen fibers of dense connective tissue are more closely packed than those of loose connective tissue.

White Fibrous Connective Tissue X 200

Regular dense connective tissue contains collagen fibers oriented in one direction to provide strength in that direction. It is found in tendons and ligaments. Tendons connect muscle to bone; ligaments connect bone to bone. Irregular dense connective tissue (not shown) contains collagen fibers oriented in many different directions. It is found in the deep layers of the skin (dermis) and the tough capsules that surround many of the organs such as the kidneys, adrenal glands, nerves, bones, and the covering of muscles. It provides support and strength. Cartilage The cells of cartilage are embedded in a protein-containing matrix that is strong but flexible. It contains collagen and elastic fibers.

Hyaline Cartilage X 200

It is resilient; it does not stretch and can resist compression. It is also flexible but maintains its shape. It is found in the ends of bones where it prevents friction within the joints. In the nose, external ear, and the walls of the trachea it functions to support the softer tissues. The intervertebral disks function as shock pads. The fetal skeleton of vertebrate animals is composed of cartilage before bone forms. The skeleton of cartilaginous fish is composed of cartilage. Bone Bone forms when calcium salts are deposited around protein fibers. The calcium salts provide rigidity while the fibers provide elasticity and strength.

Bone, dry ground human c.s. X 100

Blood Blood is a connective tissue. Like other kinds of connective tissues, it contains cells that are separated by a non-living material. In this case, the nonliving material is the plasma.

Human Blood, Wright Stain X 1000

Muscle Tissue
Muscle tissue contracts in response to stimulation. It cannot lengthen by itself but is lengthened by the contraction of other muscles.. Muscle tissue is used for locomotion, food movement in gut, and heat production. Smooth Muscle Smooth muscle is involuntary. It surrounds the gut and moves food through the digestive tract. It surrounds the blood vessels where it controls the distribution of blood. There is not enough blood in the body to fill all of the blood vessels so some must be contracted while others are filled. For example, after meals, the blood vessels of the gut are opened while many of those in the skeletal muscles contract. The ends of the cells are tapered.

Smooth Muscle, Human X 200

Skeletal Muscle

Skeletal muscle is voluntary. The cells are very long, extending the length of the muscle. They are multinucleate, and striated (striped).

Skeletal Muscle Teased X 200

Cardiac Muscle Cardiac muscle is found in the heart. It is striated and branched.

Cardiac Muscle X 200

Muscle tissue will be discussed in more detail in the chapter on motor systems.

Nervous Tissue
Nervous tissue responds to stimuli and transmits impulses from one body part to another.

Motor Neuron X 200

Nervous tissue will be discussed in more detail in these two chapters: 1) neurons, 2) nervous systems.

Skin
The skin is the largest organ in the body. It protects the tissues underneath, prevents invasion by foreign organisms, prevents dehydration, helps regulate body temperature, and contains receptors that provide information about the external environment. Epidermis The outer layer, the epidermis, is composed of stratified squamous epithelium. These cells prevent dehydration because they are filled with a waterproof protein called keratin. The lower layers of the epidermis are basal cells that continuously divide to replace the layers above. The basal layer also contains melanocytes which produce melanin, the pigment that darkens skin and protects from ultraviolet radiation in sunlight. Dermis The dermis lies underneath the epidermis and is composed of dense connective tissue. Hair of mammals originates in hair follicles, which are embedded in the dermis. A smooth muscle called the arrector pili is attached to the hair follicle. When it contracts, the hair becomes erect. Sebaceous glands secrete an oily substance (sebum) into the follicle to lubricate the hair and skin. Sweat glands are found in the dermis and subcutaneous layer. They secrete water to the surface, which cools the body when it evaporates. The dermis contains blood vessels and neurons that control the flow of blood through the skin in order to regulate body temperature. When the body temperature is high, blood flow to these vessels increases. The increased blood flow to the surface helps the body lose excess heat. When the body temperature is low, blood flow to the dermis decreases. Shivering occurs as a mechanism to produce heat when the body temperature is low.

The dermis contains receptors for pressure, touch, temperature, vibration, and pain. Subcutaneous layer The subcutaneous layer is the deepest layer and is composed of loose connective tissue. This layer is actually not part of the skin. Adipose tissue in this layer insulates and stores energy in the form of fat.

Germ layer
Image:Mergefrom.gifIt has been suggested that organogenesis be mergedinto this article or section. ([[{{{2|: talk:Germ_layer}}}|Discuss]]) A germ layer is a collection of cells, formed during animal embryogenesis. Germ layers are only really pronounced in the vertebrates. However, all animalsmore complex than sponges(eumetazoansand agnotozoans) produce two or three primary tissue layers(sometimes called primary germ layers). Animals with radial symmetry, like cnidarians, produce two called ectoderm and endoderm. Animals with bilateral symmetryproduce a third layer in-between called mesoderm. Germ layers will eventually give rise to all of an animal?s tissuesand organsthrough a process called organogenesis. Image:Cell differentiation.gif

Inhaltsverzeichnis

1 Germ layer o 1.1 Development 2 Ectoderm o 2.1 What forms from it (general)? o 2.2 What forms from it (vertebrates)? 3 Endoderm o 3.1 What forms from it? 4 Mesoderm o 4.1 Categorizing Animals o 4.2 What forms from it (general)? o 4.3 What forms from it (vertebrates)? 5 References 6 See also

Germ layer
Image:Gastrulation.png Caspar Friedrich Wolffobserved organization of the early embryo in leaf-like layers. Later, Heinz Christian Panderdiscovered germ layers while studying chick embryos. According to the number of layers produced, animals are classified as diploblastic(two layers) or triploblastic(three layers). All animals, except for those in the branch radiata, are triploblastic.

Development

Fertilizationleads to the formation of a zygote. During the next stage, cleavage, mitoticcell divisions transform the zygote into a tiny ball of cells called a blastula. This early embryonic form undergoes a massive reorganization called gastrulationforming a gastrulawith either two or three layers (the germ layers). In all vertebrates, these are the forerunners of all adult tissues and organs. The appearance of the archenteronmarks the onset of gastrulation.

Ectoderm
The ectoderm is the start of a tissue that covers the body surfaces. It emerges first and forms from the outermost of the germ layers.

What forms from it (general)?



Nervous system Outer part of integument

What forms from it (vertebrates)?


In vertebrates, the ectoderm has three parts: external ectoderm, the neural crest, and neural tube.

External Ectoderm o skin(along with glands, hair, nails) o epitheliumof the mouthand nasal cavity o lensand corneaof the eye Neural Crest o melanocytes o peripheral nervous system o facial cartilage o dentin(in teeth) Neural Tube o brain(rhombencephalon, mesencephalonand prosencephalon) o spinal cordand motor neurons o retina o pituitary

Endoderm
Cells migrating inward along the archenteronform the inner layer of the gastrula, which develops into the endoderm.

What forms from it?



gastrointestinal tract respiratory tract endocrineglands (including liverand pancreas)

Mesoderm
Mesoderm forms in the embryos of animals more complex than cnidarians. Some of the cells migrating inward to form the endoderm form an additional layer between the other two.

This key innovation evolved hundreds of millions of years ago and led to the evolution of nearly all large, complex animals. The formation of a mesoderm led to the formation of a coelom. Organs formed inside a coelom can freely move, grow, and develop independently of the body wall while fluid cushions and protects them from shocks.

Categorizing Animals
Not all triploblastic animals have a coelom, like flatworms, the simplest animals with organs that form from three tissue layers. Three different configurations of mesoderm in relation to ectoderm form a method of categorizing animals.

Acoelomates o no coelom o tissues and organs packed between gut and body wall Pseudocoelomates o false coelom o unlined or partially lined body cavity between gut and body wall Coelomates o proper coelom o lined cavity between gut and body wall

What forms from it (general)?


Note: Not all triploblasts produce all of the items listed.

Bones most of the Circulatory system connective tissuesof the gut and integuments Excretory Tract Mesenchyme Mesothelium Muscles Peritoneum(lining of the coelom) Reproductive System Urinary System

What forms from it (vertebrates)?


In addition to the general list, the mesoderm of a developing vertebrate differentiates into the following:

Chordamesoderm o lies along the central axis, under the neural tube o gives rise to the notochordal process which later becomes the notochord Paraxial Mesoderm o at the sides of the neural tube o gives rise to the somitesand head mesoderm. somites form the vertebral column dermis and skeletal muscle head mesoderm will develop into facial muscle and cartilage Intermediate Mesoderm o located between the paraxial mesoderm and the lateral plate o develops into the part of the urogenital system (kidneysand gonads) Lateral Plate Mesoderm o found at the periphery of the embryo o will split into two layers, the somatic layer/mesoderm and the splanchnic layer/mesoderm

somatic layer forms the future body wall splanchnic layer forms the circulatory system and future gut wall. between the two is the coelom

References

Evers, Christine A., Lisa Starr. Biology:Concepts and Applications. 6th ed. United States:Thomson, 2006. ISBN 0-534-46224-3. Previous articles on Germ Layer, Mesoderm,Ectoderm,and Endodermmerged into this article.

See also

cellular differentiation embryogenesis neurulation organogenesisde

http://www.botany.uwc.ac.za/sci_ed/grade10/plant_tissues/epidermis.htm

Nervous tissue
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Example of nervous tissue.

Nervous tissue is one of four major classes of vertebrate tissue. Nervous tissue is the main component of the nervous system - the brain, spinal cord, and nerves-which regulates and controls body functions. It is composed of neurons, which transmit impulses, and the neuroglia cells, which assist propagation of the nerve impulse as well as provide nutrients to the neuron. Nervous tissue is made of nerve cells that come in many varieties, all of which are distinctly characteristic by the axon or long stem like part of the cell that sends action potential signals to the next cell. Functions of the nervous system are sensory input, integration, controls of muscles and glands, homeostasis, and mental activity. All living cells have the ability to react to stimuli. Nervous tissue is specialized to react to stimuli and to conduct impulses to various organs in the body which bring about a response to the stimulus. Nerve tissue

(as in the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves that branch throughout the body) are all made up of specialized nerve cells called neurons. Neurons are easily stimulated and transmit impulses very rapidly. A nerve is made up of many nerve cell fibers (neurons) bound together by connective tissue. A sheath of dense connective tissue, the epineurium surrounds the nerve. This sheath penetrates the nerve to form the perineurium which surrounds bundles of nerve fibers. Blood vessels of various sizes can be seen in the epineurium. The endoneurium, which consists of a thin layer of loose connective tissue, surrounds the individual nerve fibers. The cell body is enclosed by a cell (plasma) membrane and has a central nucleus. Granules called Nissl bodies are found in the cytoplasm of the cell body. Within the cell body, extremely fineneurofibrils extend from the dendrites into the axon. The axon is surrounded by the myelin sheath, which forms a whitish, noncellular, fatty layer around the axon. Outside the myelin sheath is a cellular layer called the neurilemma or sheath of Schwann cells. The myelin sheath together with the neurilemma is also known as the medullary sheath. This medullary sheath is interrupted at intervals by the nodes of Ranvier.
Contents
[hide]

1 Neuronal communication 2 Classification of neurons 3 Cancer 4 See also

[edit]Neuronal

communication

Nerve cells are functionally made to each other at a junction known as a synapse, where the terminal branches of an axon and the dendrites of another neuron lie close to each other but normally without direct contact. Information is transmitted across the gap by chemical secretions called neurotransmitters. It causes activation in the post-synaptic cell. All cells possess the ability to respond to stimuli. The messages carried by the nervous system are electrical signals called impulses.

[edit]Classification

of neurons

Neurons are classified both structurally and functionally. Structural Classification Neurons are grouped structurally according to the number of processes extending from their cell body. Three major neuron groups make up this classification: multipolar (polar = end, pole), bipolar and unipolar neurons. Multipolar Neurons (3+ processes) These are the most common neuron type in humans (more than 99% of neurons belong to this class) and the major neuron type in the CNS Bipolar Neurons

Bipolar neurons are spindle-shaped, with a dendrite at one end and an axon at the other. An example can be found in the light-sensitive retina of the eye. Unipolar Neurons Sensory neurons have only a single process or fibre which divides close to the cell body into two main branches (axon and dendrite). Because of their structure they are often referred to as unipolar neurons.

[edit]Cancer
Tumors in nervous tissue include:

Gliomas (glial cell tumors)

Gliomatosis cerebri, Oligoastrocytoma, Choroid plexus papilloma, Ependymoma, Astrocytoma (Pilocytic astrocytoma, Glioblastoma multiforme), Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumour,Oligodendroglioma, Medulloblastoma, Primitive neuroectodermal tumor

Neuroepitheliomatous tumors

Ganglioneuroma, Neuroblastoma, Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor, Retinoblastoma, Esthesioneuroblastoma

Nerve sheath tumors

Neurofibroma (Neurofibrosarcoma, Neurofibromatosis), Schwannoma, Neurinoma, Acoustic neuroma, Neuroma

[edit]See

also

Epithelium
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. For the fungal structure of the same name, see Pileipellis.

Epithelium

Code

TH H2.00.02.0.00001

Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue. Epithelial tissues line thecavities and surfaces of structures throughout the body, and also form many glands. Functions of epithelial cells include secretion, selective absorption, protection, transcellular transport and detection of sensation. In Greek "epi" means, "on, upon," and "thele" meaning "nipple".[1] Epithelial layers are avascular, so they must receive nourishment via diffusion of

substances from the underlying connective tissue, through the basement membrane.[2][unreliable
source?]

Epithelia can also be organized into clusters of cells that function as exocrine and endocrine glands.

Exocrine and endocrine epithelial cells are highly vascular.


Contents
[hide]

1 General structure

o o

1.1 Basement membrane 1.2 Cell junctions

2 Classification of epithelial tissue

o o

2.1 Simple epithelium 2.2 Stratified epithelium

3 Functions

o o

3.1 Secretory epithelia 3.2 Sensing the extracellular environment

4 Embryological development 5 Growing in culture 6 Location 7 Additional images 8 See also 9 References

o o

9.1 Notes 9.2 Bibliography

10 Further reading

[edit]General

structure

Cells in epithelium are very densely packed together like bricks in a wall, leaving very little intercellular space. The cells form continuous sheets which are attached to each other at many locations by tight junctions and desmosomes.[3] The epithelial tissues cover the interior and exterior part of our skin.

[edit]Basement

membrane

All epithelial cells rest on a basement membrane, which acts as a scaffolding on which epithelium can grow and regenerate after injuries.[4] Epithelial tissue is innervated, but avascular. This epithelial tissue must be nourished by substances diffusing from the blood vessels in the underlying tissue, but they don't have their own blood supply. The basement membrane acts as a selectively permeable membrane that determines which substances will be able to enter the epithelium.[5][6]

[edit]Cell

junctions

Cell junctions are especially abundant in epithelial tissues. They consist of protein complexes and provide contact between neighbouring cells, between a cell and the extracellular matrix, or they build up the paracellular barrier of epithelia and control the paracellular transport.[citation needed] Cell junctions are the contact points between plasma membrane and tissue cells. There are mainly 5 different types of cell junctions. They are tight junctions, adherens junctions, desmosomes, hemidesmosomes, and gap junctions. Tight junctions are a pair of trans-membranar protein fused on outer plasma membrane. Adherens junctions are a plaque (protein layer on the inside plasma membrane) which attaches both protein and microfilaments. Desmosomes attach to the microfilaments of cytoskeleton made up of keratin protein. Hemidesmosomes resemble desmosomes on a section. They are made up of the integrin (a transmembraner protein) instead of cadherin. They attach the epithelial cell to the basement membrane. Gap junctions connect the cytoplasm of two cells and are made up of proteins called connexins (six of which come together to make a connexon).

[edit]Classification

of epithelial tissue

Types of epithelium

Tissues are generally classified by the morphology of their cells, and the number of layers they are composed of.[3][5][7] Epithelial tissue that is only one cell thick is known as simple epithelium.[8] If it is two or more cells thick, it is known as stratified epithelium.[9] However, when taller simple epithelial cells (see columnar, below) are viewed in cross section with several nuclei appearing at different heights, they can be confused with stratified epithelia. This kind of epithelium is therefore described as"pseudostratified" epithelium.[10]

[edit]Simple

epithelium

Simple epithelium is one cell thick, that is, every cell is in direct contact with the underlying basement membrane. It is generally found where absorption and filtration occur. The thinness of the epithelial barrier facilitates these processes.[3] Simple epithelial tissues are generally classified by the shape of their cells. The four major classes of simple epithelium are: (1) simple squamous; (2) simple cuboidal; (3) simple columnar; (4) pseudostratified.[3]

(1) simple squamous; which is found lining areas where passive diffusion of gases occur. e.g. walls of capillaries, linings of the pericardial, pleural,and peritoneal cavities, as well as the linings of the alveoli of the lungs. (2) simple cuboidal: these cells may have secretory, absorptive, or excretory functions. examples include small collecting ducts of kidney,pancreas and salivary gland. (3) simple columnar; found in areas with extremely high secretive (as in wall of the stomach), or absorptive (as in small intestine) areas. they possess cellular extensions (e.g. microvilli in the small intestine, or cilia found almost exclusively in the female reproductive tract). (4) pseudostratified epithelia; they are also called respiratory epithelium. this is due to their almost exclusive confinement to the larger respiratory airways i.e. the nasal cavity, trachea, bronchi e.t.c.

Type

Description

Squamous

Squamous cells have the appearance of thin, flat plates. They fit closely together in tissues; providing a smooth, low-friction surface over which fluids can move easily. The shape of the nucleus usually corresponds to the cell form and helps to identify the type of epithelium. Squamous cells tend to have horizontally flattened, elliptical (oval or shaped like an egg) nuclei because of the thin flattened form of the cell. Classically, squamous epithelia are found lining surfaces utilizing simple passive diffusion such as thealveolar epithelium in the lungs. Specialized squamous epithelia also form the lining of cavities such as the blood vessels (endothelium) and pericardium (mesothelium) and the major cavities found within the body.

Cuboidal

As their name implies, cuboidal cells are roughly cuboidal in shape, appearing square in cross section. Each cell has a spherical nucleus in the centre. Cuboidal epithelium is commonly found in secretive or absorptive tissue: for example the (secretive) exocrine gland the pancreas and the (absorptive) lining of the kidney tubules as well as in the ducts of the glands. They also constitute the germinal epithelium that covers the female ovary.

Columnar

Columnar epithelial cells are elongated and column-shaped. Their nuclei are elongated and are usually located near the base of the cells. Columnar epithelium forms the lining of the stomach and intestines. Some columnar cells are specialized for sensory reception such as in the nose, ears and the taste buds of the tongue. Goblet cells (unicellular glands) are found between the columnar epithelial cells of the duodenum. They secrete mucus, which acts as a lubricant.

These are simple columnar epithelial cells whose nuclei appear at different heights, giving the misleading (hence "pseudo") impression that the epithelium is stratified when the cells are viewed in cross section. Pseudostratified epithelium can also possess fine hair-like extensions of their apical (luminal) membrane called cilia. In this case, the epithelium is described as "ciliated" pseudostratified epithelium. Cilia are capable of energy dependent pulsatile beating Pseudostratified in a certain direction through interaction of cytoskeletal microtubules and connecting structural proteins and enzymes. The wafting effect produced causes mucus secreted locally by the goblet cells (to lubricate and to trap pathogens and particles) to flow in that direction (typically out of the body). Ciliated epithelium is found in the airways (nose, bronchi), but is also found in the uterus and Fallopian tubes of females, where the cilia propel the ovum to the uterus.

[edit]Stratified

epithelium

Stratified epithelium differs from simple epithelium in that it is multilayered. It is therefore found where body linings have to withstand mechanical or chemical insult such that layers can be abraded and lost without exposing subepithelial layers. Cells flatten as the layers become more apical, though in their most basal layers the cells can be squamous, cuboidal or columnar.[citation needed] Stratified epithelial tissue also differs from simple epithelial tissue in that stratified epithelial tissues do not contain junctional complexes, and have their cells bound together only by desmosomes.[9] Stratified epithelia (of columnar, cuboidal or squamous type) can have the following specializations:[citation
needed]

Specialization

Description

Keratinized

In this particular case, the most apical layers (exterior) of cells are dead and lose their nucleus and cytoplasm, instead contain a tough, resistant protein called keratin. This specialization makes the epithelium waterproof, so is found in the mammalian skin. The lining of the esophagus is an example of a non-keratinized or "moist" stratified epithelium.[citation needed]

Transitional

Transitional epithelia are found in tissues that stretch and it can appear to be stratified cuboidal when the tissue is not stretched or stratified squamous when the organ is distended and the tissue stretches. It is sometimes called the urothelium since it is almost exclusively found in the bladder, ureters and urethra.[citation needed]

[edit]Functions
The primary functions of epithelial tissues are: (1) to protect the tissues that lie beneath it from radiation, desiccation, toxins, and physical trauma; (2) the regulation and exchange of chemicals between the underlying tissues and a body cavity; (3) the secretion of hormones into the blood vascular system, and/or (3) the secretion of sweat, mucus, enzymes, and other products that are delivered by ducts glandular epithelium.[11]

[edit]Secretory

epithelia

As stated above, secretion is one major function of epithelial cells. Glands are formed from the invagination / infolding of epithelial cells and subsequent growth in the underlying connective tissue. There are two major classifications of glands: endocrine glands and exocrine glands. Endocrine glands secrete their product into the extracellular space where it is rapidly taken up by the blood vascular system. The exocrine glands secrete their products into a duct that then delivers the product to the lumen of an organ or onto the free surface of the epithelium.

[edit]Sensing

the extracellular environment

"Some epithelial cells are ciliated, and they commonly exist as a sheet of polarised cells forming a tube or tubule with cilia projecting into the lumen." Primary cilia on epithelial cells provide chemosensation,

thermosensation and mechanosensation of the extracellular environment by playing "a sensory role mediating specific signalling cues, including soluble factors in the external cell environment, a secretory role in which a soluble protein is released to have an effect downstream of the fluid flow, and mediation of fluid flow if the cilia are motile."[12]

[edit]Embryological

development

In general, there are epithelial tissues deriving from all of the embryological germ layers[citation needed]:

from ectoderm (e.g., the epidermis); from endoderm (e.g., the lining of the gastrointestinal tract); from mesoderm (e.g., the inner linings of body cavities).

However, it is important to note that pathologists do not consider endothelium and mesothelium (both derived from mesoderm) to be true epithelium. This is because such tissues present very different pathology. For that reason, pathologists label cancers in endothelium and mesothelium sarcomas, whereas true epithelial cancers are called carcinomas. Also, the filaments that support these mesoderm-derived tissues are very distinct. Outside of the field of pathology, it is, in general, accepted that the epithelium arises from all three germ layers.[citation needed]

[edit]Growing

in culture

When growing epithelium in culture, one can determine whether or not a particular cell is epithelial by examining its morphological characteristics. Epithelial cells tend to cluster together, and have a "characteristic tight pavementlike appearance". But this is not always the case, such as when the cells are derived from a tumor. In these cases, it is often necessary to use certain biochemical markers to make a positive identification. The intermediate filament proteins in the cytokeratin group are almost exclusively found in epithelial cells, and so are often used for this purpose.[13]

[edit]Location
Epithelium lines both the outside (skin) and the inside cavities and lumen of bodies. The outermost layer of our skin is composed of dead stratified squamous, keratinized epithelial cells.[citation needed] Tissues that line the inside of the mouth, the esophagus and part of the rectum are composed of nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Other surfaces that separate body cavities from the outside environment are lined by simple squamous, columnar, or pseudostratified epithelial cells. Other epithelial cells line the insides of the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, the reproductive and urinary tracts, and make up the exocrine and endocrine glands. The outer surface of the cornea is covered with fastgrowing, easily-regenerated epithelial cells. Endothelium (the inner lining ofblood vessels, the heart, and lymphatic vessels) is a specialized form of epithelium. Another type, mesothelium, forms the walls of the pericardium, pleurae, and peritoneum.[citation needed]

System

Tissue

Epithelium

Subtype

circulatory

blood vessels

Simple squamous

endothelium

digestive

ducts of submandibular glands

Stratified columnar

digestive

attached gingiva

Stratified squamous, keratinized

digestive

dorsum of tongue

Stratified squamous, keratinized

digestive

hard palate

Stratified squamous, keratinized

digestive

oesophagus

Stratified squamous, non-keratinized

digestive

stomach

Simple columnar, non-ciliated

gastric epithelium

digestive

small intestine

Simple columnar, non-ciliated

intestinal epithelium

digestive

large intestine

Simple columnar, non-ciliated

intestinal epithelium

digestive

rectum

Simple columnar, non-ciliated

digestive

anus

Stratified squamous, non-keratinized superior to Hilton's white line Stratified squamous, keratinized inferior to Hilton's white line

digestive

gallbladder

Simple columnar, non-ciliated

endocrine

thyroid follicles

Simple cuboidal

nervous

ependyma

Simple cuboidal

System

Tissue

Epithelium

Subtype

lymphatic

lymph vessel

Simple squamous

endothelium

integumentary

skin - dead superficial layer

Stratified squamous, keratinized

integumentary

sweat gland ducts

Stratified cuboidal

integumentary

mesothelium of body cavities

Simple squamous

mesothelium

reproductive female

ovaries

Simple cuboidal

germinal epithelium (female)

reproductive female

Fallopian tubes

Simple columnar, ciliated

reproductive female

endometrium (uterus)

Simple columnar, ciliated

reproductive female

cervix (endocervix)

Simple columnar

reproductive female

cervix (ectocervix)

Stratified squamous, non-keratinized

reproductive female

vagina

Stratified squamous, non-keratinized

reproductive female

labia majora

Stratified squamous, keratinized

reproductive - male tubuli recti

Simple cuboidal

germinal epithelium (male)

reproductive - male rete testis

Simple cuboidal

System

Tissue

Epithelium

Subtype

reproductive - male ductuli efferentes

Pseudostratified columnar

reproductive - male epididymis

Pseudostratified columnar, with stereocilia

reproductive - male vas deferens

Pseudostratified columnar

reproductive - male ejaculatory duct

Simple columnar

reproductive - male bulbourethral glands (gland)

Simple columnar

reproductive - male seminal vesicle (gland)

Pseudostratified columnar

respiratory

oropharynx

Stratified squamous, non-keratinized

respiratory

larynx

Pseudostratified columnar, ciliated

respiratory epithelium

respiratory

larynx - True vocal cords

Stratified squamous, non-keratinized

respiratory

trachea

Pseudostratified columnar, ciliated

respiratory epithelium

respiratory

respiratory bronchioles

Simple cuboidal

sensory

cornea

Stratified squamous, non-keratinized

corneal epithelium

sensory

nose

Pseudostratified columnar

olfactory epithelium

urinary

kidney - proximal convoluted tubule

Simple cuboidal, with microvilli

System

Tissue

Epithelium

Subtype

urinary

kidney - ascending thin limb Simple squamous

urinary

kidney - distal convoluted tubule

Simple cuboidal, without microvilli

urinary

kidney - collecting duct

Simple cuboidal

urinary

renal pelvis

Transitional

urothelium

urinary

ureter

Transitional

urothelium

urinary

urinary bladder

Transitional

urothelium

urinary

prostatic urethra

Transitional

urothelium

urinary

membranous urethra

Pseudostratified columnar, nonciliated

urinary

penile urethra

Pseudostratified columnar, nonciliated

urinary [edit]Additional

external urethral orifice

Stratified squamous

images