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Department Of Criminology

MSc/Postgraduate Diploma
Campus Based
Course Handbook 2011-2012
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
1
Contents
Welcome to the Department of Criminology 3
Aims of the Handbook 4
Department of Criminology 4
Members of Staff 5
Lecturing Staff 5
Administrative Staff 8
Research at the Department 11
Anti-Racism Guidance 13
Publications 14
Study Support 15
The University Library 15
IT Services 18
University Bookshop 19
Education Unit, Students Union 19
Learning and Career Development 20
Practical Matters 22
Counselling, Health and Wellbeing 22
Outline of the Programme 24
Course Modules: Detailed Descriptions 30
Student Support 48
Other Useful Information 53
Overseas Students 55
Assessment 57
Grading of the Courses 59
Essay Submission Guidelines 60
Important Diary Dates 61
Marking Procedures 62
Practice Essays 62
Dissertation Guidelines 62
Ethical Approval of Student Projects 63
Resubmission Procedures 64
Appeals Procedure 64
Criteria for Assessment 66
Department of Criminology
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How to Avoid Plagiarism 74
What is Plagiarism? 74
University Statement on Academic Dishonesty 75
How to Avoid Plagiarism 76
Frequently Asked Questions 77
MSc CB Timetable - Autumn Term 81
MSc CB Timetable - Spring Term 82
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WELCOME TO THE DEPARTMENT OF CRIMINOLOGY
The Department of Criminology was set up in 2004. While building on
the success of its previous incarnations as the Centre for the Study of
Public Order and the Scarman Centre, the new Departments research
activities have been broadened to cover a wider range of criminological
topics, with an emphasis on exciting new areas of study such as the
development of community policing in former Soviet Bloc, defining and
managing risk and security post 9-11, identifying and dealing with crime
in rural as well as urban settings, and understanding what works in
reducing reoffending among offenders in prison and in the community.
Since its inauguration the new Department has established itself as a centre for excellence
in research in these and other areas. We take pride in the fact that our research feeds
directly into our teaching on campus and by distance learning, ensuring that our students
become steeped not only criminological traditions but current, cutting-edge debates.
Our teaching is also informed by the links we foster with other academics in universities,
governments, security organisations and police services around the world. Perhaps
most importantly, we regularly review what we do and how we are doing it in the light of
the feedback we encourage our students to give to us. We are committed to offering an
excellent service to our students through our teaching and student support services.
It is a great pleasure to welcome you to the Department of Criminology. I hope that you
have a rewarding and productive time with us and that your studies are associated with
personal and professional development. This Handbook will help to answer some of your
questions but please do not hesitate to let our staff know if you have any queries.
Good luck with your studies!
Adrian Beck
Head of Department
Department of Criminology
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AIMS OF THE HANDBOOK
This Handbook has been written for students taking a Masters, Postgraduate Diploma or
Postgraduate Certificate course at the Department of Criminology. It is designed to give
you the basic information which you will need to get you through your degree course. It
aims to:
introduce the University, the Department and its staff;
explain the course structure and the approach adopted towards teaching
and learning;
confirm the assessment procedures;
advise on study skills and written work;
provide other information about being a student in the Department.
Every effort has been made to ensure that the information in this Handbook is accurate
at the time of going to press. Please check for specific information direct with the
Department of Criminology.
DEPARTMENT OF CRIMINOLOGY
The Department of Criminology was
first established in 1988 and undertakes
research, teaching and consultancy in the
study of crime and criminal justice, policing,
racism & ethnicity, crime prevention,
security, and security and risk management.
The Department has established itself as
a thriving centre of research excellence,
with interests ranging from the assessment
of crime and its prevention and detection,
together with the examination of policing
policies and methods, to the study of penal
policy and different forms of punishment.
This research work is at the forefront of the
developing international interest in these
issues.
In addition to a range of courses available
via distance learning, the Department also
offers taught courses at both undergraduate
and postgraduate level, including a BA
in Criminology and Masters courses in
Terrorism, Security and Policing, Applied
Criminology and Clinical Criminology. We
also have an active and growing community
of postgraduate research students in the
Department undertaking studies across a wide range of criminological areas including:
staff dishonesty; the role of the private security sector in the night-time economy; rural
racism in Scotland; the nature and scale of Islamophobic hate crime; and the role and
effect of yoga in prisons.
Department of Criminology: The Friars Building
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MEMBERS OF STAFF
LECTURING STAFF
Adrian Beck
Head of Department
Reader
Research Interests
Crime and policing in transitional societies; community policing;
retail crime; staff dishonesty; technologies and crime prevention;
shrinkage and loss prevention; the use of surveillance technologies.
Tammy Ayres
University Tutor
Research Interests
Link between drugs and crime, the publics perception of women
offenders and women as substance users; the prison system including
drugs in prison and its subsequent treatment; drug treatment
programmes specifically chemical detoxification; the perceived link
between substance misuse, self harm and suicide in the prison system.
Gill Cathles
Local Tutor
Research Interests
New Social Movements, particularly the anti-capitalist/anti-globalisation
movement; protest and public order policing; public order legislation;
civil liberties relating to protest; community campaigning.
Dr Neil Chakraborti
Senior Lecturer
Research Interests
Hate crime and targeted violence; rural racism; race, ethnicity and
identity; victimisation; policing diversity.
Mark Connor
University Tutor
Research Interests
The history of sexuality (with specific focus on the regulation of
homosexuality); the social construction of the deviant; the representation
of the outsider.
Tracey Dodman
Teaching Fellow
Research Interests
Intellectual property and copyright infringement, peer-to-peer file sharing
and internet piracy relating to music; pedagogic research into distance
learning and teaching, licensing laws and the night-time economy.
Department of Criminology
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Jon Garland
Senior Lecturer
Research Interests
Hate crime; ethnicity community and identity; cultural criminology;
policing of minority groups; and football hooliganism.
Dr Laure Guille
Lecturer
Research Interests
Intelligence led policing; cross-cultural and comparative studies;
transnational policing; organised crime; security; terrorism; Justice
and Home Affairs matters.
Stevie-Jade Hardy
Graduate Teaching Assistant
Research Interests
Hate crime; prejudice; social cohesion and young people.
Carol Hedderman
Professor
Research Interests
Treatment of female offenders at different points in the criminal
justice system; the effectiveness of sentencing; rational approaches
to sentencing; the comparative effectiveness of different approaches
to enforcing court penalties; what works in prison and probation;
reconviction studies and the development of alternative measures of
effectiveness; domestic violence; rural crime.

Dr Sarah Hodgkinson
Lecturer
Research Interests
Anti-social behaviour; night-time economy crime; violent and alcohol-
related crime; aggression and violence at work; modern policing
practices with a focus on problem-solving, community/neighbourhood
policing, and community engagement; environmental criminology
including journey-to-crime patterns.
Dr Matt Hopkins
Lecturer
Research Interests
The investigation and detection of crime; organised crime and homicide;
football violence; crimes against business; environmental criminology;
evaluation methodology; the evaluation of crime prevention programmes.
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Yvonne Jewkes
Professor
Research Interests
Ethics of indeterminate life sentencing; the impact of architecture
and design on the lives of the inmates and staff who occupy prison
spaces; the potential role of computer mediated technology on the
everyday lives and future prospects of prisoners; how masculinity is
performed in mens prisons; how lifers manage their identity through
a disrupted lifecourse; how new communication technologies permit
individuals to create, transform, play with, or steal identities.
Dr Darrick Jolliffe
Senior Lecturer
Research Interests
Individual differences and offending behaviour, school bullying,
developmental life-course criminology, systematic reviews and meta-
analyses; the impact of mentoring on re-offending; interventions for
use with violent offenders.
Dr Hillary Jones
Teaching Fellow
Research Interests
Pedagogic research into distance learning and teaching; criminal law
and justice; mentally disordered offenders.
Dr Rob Mawby
Senior Lecturer
Research Interests
Organisational aspects of policing including: police reform, civilian
oversight and accountability, anti-corruption strategies, workforce
modernisation, police strategies and processes; police corporate and
direct communications and the police media relationship, joint agency
offender management of prolific persistent offenders.
Nikki Shelton
Teaching Fellow
Research Interests
The aims, structure and effectiveness of community penalties; offenders
attitudes towards community penalties and custodial sentences;
womens motivaton to offend and their experiences within the criminal
justice process; desistance processes.
Dr Lisa Smith
Lecturer
Research Interests
Jury decision making; Interpretation of forensic evidence in the
Criminal Justice System (e.g. police investigations, courtroom);
Improving the recovery of forensic evidence, and interpretation and
processing of evidence by police agencies; Case linkage and profiling of
offender characteristics based on crime scene behaviours and evidence
recovered; The impact of stress on police personnel performance; The
use of victim services in critical incident response.
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Department of Criminology
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Dr Keith Spence
Lecturer
Research Interests
Contemporary social and political theory; the philosophy and
methodology of the social sciences; the sociology of risk, security and
terrorism.
Dr James Treadwell
Lecturer
Research Interests
Theoretical criminology; crime in the nighttime economy; violent
and alcohol-related crime; football violence; organized crime; youth
crime; probation and community sentences.
Samantha Weston
Teaching Fellow
Research interests
Substance misuse; treatment interventions and criminal justice
responses to drug misuse and mental disorder; the criminalisation
of drug policy; drug dependence and identity; the role of health
professionals as guardians of social control; social exclusion and
marinalisation of drug users.
Irene Zempi
University Tutor
Research Interests
The intersections between hate crime, victimisation and religion.
ADMINISTRATIVE STAFF
Claire Atkinson
Receptionist and Enquiries Administrator; module despatch
Russell Knifton
Marketing and Admissions Administrator
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Mita Chauhan
Course Administrator: Foundation Degree in Security and Risk
Management; BA in Security and Risk Management
Wilma Coleman
Receptionist and Enquiries Administrator

Rachel Hopkins
Departmental Manager

Satty Hullait
Course Administrator: BA Criminology

Jasmine Kilburn-Small
Course Administrator: Criminology and Criminal Justice:
Police Leadership and Management
Audrey Larrive
Finance and Department Administrator
Alison Lambert
Course Administrator: Criminology; Criminology (Applied);
Criminology (Clinical); Terrorism, Security and Policing
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Department of Criminology
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Isobel McEwen
Teaching Programmes
Administrator

Jo Oughton
Finance Administrator and PA to Head of Department
Hema Patel
Course Administrator: BA Criminology; Foundation Degree in
Security and Risk Management
Reshma Sudra
Course Administrator: Criminology; Criminology (Applied);
Criminology (Clinical); Terrorism, Security and Policing
Rebecca Taylor
Course Administrator: MSc in Security and Risk Management
Lorraine Wilson
Receptionist and Enquiries Administrator; module despatch
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RESEARCH AT THE DEPARTMENT
The Department of Criminology is committed to research and research-led teaching
and since 1990 has attracted over 6 million of research funding from a variety of
sources, including the Joseph Rowntree Charitable Trust, ESRC, Leverhulme Trust, local
authorities and the police, Home Office, European Commission, Equality and Human
Rights Commission, Nuffield Foundation, City Action Team, banks and building societies,
Safer Cities Initiative and private sector companies. Recent and ongoing research projects
include the following:
Family Intervention Projects
Family Intervention Projects were New Labours last major anti-social behaviour initiative
introduced in January 2006 as part of the Respect agenda, and rolled out nationwide in April
2009. This research explores whether FIPs offer a more sustainable solution to dealing with
the most hardcore anti-social behaviour that can blight communities and be an enormous
drain on local agency resources. They represent a significant development in anti-social
behaviour policy as they aim to tackle the root causes of the problem, and see a move
away from the enforcement-only approach of, for example, anti-social behaviour orders
(ASBOs). FIPs may therefore represent an important step forward in terms of providing a
more support-based approach that can potentially offer long-terms solutions to combating
anti-social behaviour, and breaking intergenerational cycles of criminality, poverty, poor
life opportunities, etc.
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Working alongside the Howard League for Penal Reform, this research is looking to find
out more information about why it is that former soldiers and military personnel are
the highest single former occupational group serving sentences in British prisons. This
involves helping the Howard League to devise a research strategy, undertake the fieldwork,
and produce findings on former soldiers in prison, forming part of their extensive Inquiry
into ex-military personnel in custody.
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This ongoing research examines a period of penal history that has been almost entirely
neglected within existing research; the English prison during the two World Wars 1914-1918
and 1939-1945. The aim is to examine the experience and administration of imprisonment
at these two critical moments in their history using detailed documentary analysis of a wide
range of archives and auto/biographical sources. The study explores the impact and effects
of war on the management of the prison population; on the buildings in which prisoners and
officers lived and worked; on the lives and careers of prison officers and governors; and on
everyday life for those in custody. The research will enable a more coherent and complete
narrative to be formed of both penal policy and the lived experience of prisons during the
two World Wars, making a unique and major contribution to our understanding of penal
history and of English social and cultural history.
Occupational Cultures of Probation Officers
The Economic and Social Research Council are funding researchers from the Department
and from Keele University to undertake a study of the occupational cultures of probation
officers. Much has been written about the historical and policy changes that have shaped
the role of the probation officer but there has been little research on the changes to
occupational cultures and the ways in which probation officers themselves view the impact
of changes to their role. Similarly there is little research on the relationships between
probation officers and other criminal justice agencies engaged in offender management.
The research will fill these gaps by interviewing samples of current and retired probation
officers and aims to make a contribution not only to the study of probation work but also to
the body of knowledge on the occupational cultures of criminal justice practitioners.
Department of Criminology
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Hate Crime
What is a hate crime? Which groups of
people are most likely to fall victim to these
types of crimes? What is their victimisation
actually like and do these crimes really hurt
more than other forms of crime? Who are the
perpetrators of hate crimes and how should the
criminal justice system deal with them?
These are the kinds of questions that are being
addressed by researchers in the Department whose pioneering
work has challenged commonly-held stereotypes about the nature
and impact of hate crime offending.
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Have you ever wondered how active the police are in spreading information
about their activities or how journalists select crime stories and cultivate police
sources? The media play an important role in projecting images of policing and recent
research has mapped the national context of police-media relations and examined the
communications dynamics between police forces and journalists at a local level. The
research involved a survey of police forces in England, Wales and Scotland, and interviews
with crime reporters and police communications managers.
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Under the umbrella of the Crime Reduction Programme a significant amount of money
was ploughed into the evaluation of crime reduction and prevention initiatives. This work
considers the impact of research funded by this programme on current UK offender
management policy development and delivery. It questions whether the nature of
evidence-based policy is ever that, looks at the offender management policy making
processes under New Labours managerialist government and what types of research
output are valued as evidence.
Together Women Project
A new action research study of the Together Women Project (TWP) is being set up in the
North West and Yorkshire and Humberside. TWP is an innovative approach for working
with women who have, or who are at risk of offending. The project was cited as an example
of good practice in the recent Corston Report.
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Researchers from the Department of Criminology and the School of Psychology have
begun to work with a company that provides databases to youth offending services around
England and Wales. The aim of the relationship is to develop the research skills of those
who are working with young offenders or those who are socially excluded. Practitioners
will be able to use these skills to analyse the data currently collected by them, to use this
to improve policy and practices and to consider the nature of additional data collection.
Scarman Lecture Series
This successful series has attracted a number of high-profile speakers who have
delivered papers on current issues in crime, criminal justice and policing, and security
risk management. Speakers have included such luminaries as Professors Nick Tilley,
Ron Clarke, Gordon Hughes, Hazel Kemshall, Ken Pease, Kevin Stenson and Paul Wiles.
The lectures are open to the public and offer students the opportunity to learn about new
research and policy from national and international experts.
Future lectures will be advertised via your course Blackboard site.
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ANTI-RACISM GUIDANCE
The Department of Criminology condemns racism in any form. In keeping with the
Universitys policy, the Department aims to create and maintain an environment free from
racist harassment and abuse and everyone connected with the Department has a duty and
a responsibility to achieve such an environment.
This guidance is intended to ensure that all members of staff are both aware of University
Policy and understand how much store the Department sets on all members of staff
complying with that policy.
Background
As a multi-ethnic Department we respect and value the linguistic, cultural and religious
diversity of the communities we work with.
We are committed to raising the attainment of all our staff and students with due
regard to their individual, social and personal circumstances.
We are committed to challenging racial discrimination and harassment, ensuring
race equality, promoting good race relations and preparing all students for life in a
culturally diverse society.
Aims
to make our Department a safe and welcoming place for all of its staff, students and
visitors;
to provide an environment in which racist assumptions, attitudes and behaviour are
continually challenged;
to provide a curriculum which reflects the importance of diversity issues;
to encourage all categories of staff at the Department to regard equal opportunities
considerations as a priority, and to integrate such considerations into their working
practice.
Our commitment will be demonstrated through:
proactively promoting issues relating to diversity and anti-racism;
dealing immediately with a racist incident and making the satisfactory resolution of the
incident a priority;
ensuring that all staff and students are familiar with how a racist incident will be dealt
with;
drawing on the diverse experiences and skills of all students, staff and the wider
communities;
ensuring that the Department proactively promotes anti-racism in compliance with the
Race Relations (Amendment) Act;
encouraging staff to regularly attend training courses on diversity and equal
opportunities issues;
encouraging staff to attend seminars and conferences on diversity and equal
opportunities issues;
ensuring, by issuing this guidance, that all staff members are aware that it is their
responsibility to ensure that challenging racism and promoting anti-racism is actively
and consistently reflected in the Departments practice;
supporting the Universitys commitment to ethnic monitoring of staff and students;
systematically assessing, evaluating and regularly reviewing the impact of our
Departmental policies on the achievements of all groups and individuals amongst our
students and staff. The results will be published as part of the annual review of the
Departments Equal Opportunities Plan.
Department of Criminology
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PUBLICATIONS
The Department places priority on the dissemination of ideas and research findings through
publications, conferences, short courses and work with specialist journals and the media.
Recent books by staff include Criminology; Rural Racism; Hate Crime: Impact, Causes and
Responses; Media and Crime; New Loss Prevention: Redefining Shrinkage Management;
Crime Online; Prison Readings: A Critical Introduction to Prisons and Imprisonment; Hate
Crime: Concepts, Policy, Future Directions and Handbook on Prisons.
Articles have been published in journals such as the British Journal of Criminology;
British Journal of Community Justice; Crime, Media, Culture: An International Journal;
Contemporary Political Theory; Crime Prevention and Community Safety: An International
Journal, Criminology (the journal of the American Society of Criminology); European Journal
of Criminology; Howard Journal of Criminal Justice; International Review of Victimology;
International Journal of Risk Assessment and Management; Journal of Crime, Law and
Social Change; Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies; Journal of Safety Research; Policing
and Society; Risk Management: An International Journal; Policing: A Journal of Policy and
Practice; Criminology and Criminal Justice and the Security Journal.
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STUDY SUPPORT
THE UNIVERSITY LIBRARY
Facilities
Using the University Library will make a key contribution to success in your studies. The
award winning David Wilson Library offers inspirational, state-of-the-art services and
facilities, comprising 1500 study spaces, 350 student PCs and Wi-Fi throughout. There
are also 13 group study rooms bookable only by students, and a Graduate School Reading
Room exclusive to postgraduate students. Self-service photocopiers are available at both
libraries and all students have an electronic Print & Copy Account which can be credited
to pay for photocopying and printing.
Essentials
You are automatically registered with the Library when you start your course. Once you
have the following three essentials, you should be able to access all the services and
resources available to you.
Your Library number is on your Library/student card under the barcode beginning
075.
Your PIN which will be sent to your University of Leicester email account. You can also
ask for it at any Enquiry point.
Your CFS username and password for which you are required to register with IT
Services.
Opening hours
During the Autumn and Spring terms the David Wilson Library is open 24/5 during the
week, 9am until midnight on weekends and during examination periods it opens 24/7.
Entrance to the library requires a Student ID/University Library card which is issued as
part of registration.
The Library Catalogue
The Librarys collections are significant, with over 1 million books and journals. The key
to the collections is therefore the Librarys online catalogue https://library.le.ac.uk which
enables you to search for books (both print and electronic) and printed journals.
Borrowing
The Library catalogue also allows you to manage your borrowing. If you log on using your
Library number and PIN you can check which books you have out on loan, renew your
loans, and reserve books that are on loan to another user.
Taught postgraduate students can borrow up to 25 items at a time, and issue them at the
self service machines. Normal loan books can be borrowed for up to four weeks.
You can renew things online using My Account on the Library Catalogue, over the
telephone (0116 252 2043), or in person. Please renew on time to avoid a fine.
Department of Criminology
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If your chosen book or journal is out on loan, you can place a hold using the Library
catalogue. We will recall the item and then contact you via your University of Leicester
e-mail to say its available for collection (from the Express Zone on the ground floor of the
David Wilson Library).
If an item on loan to you is required by someone else, you will be sent a recall notice. This
shortens the original loan period.
You can use the hold system to request items that are kept in the external store or in the
locked stack (e.g. PhD theses).
Short Loan Collection
Some of the books in heaviest demand are kept in the Short Loan Collection in the Express
Zone. Short Loan items are due back the following day at 23.59, except on Saturdays when
items are due at 23.59 on Monday.
Journals
For the most up-to-date research on a topic you will need to consult the Librarys journals
which can be borrowed for two days. Details of print journal titles can be found on the
Library catalogue, whilst electronic titles are available on the Journals A-Z tab which is
on the Library Homepage http://www.le.ac.uk/library
Theses / Dissertations
All Leicester theses completed by research are kept in the lock stack in the David
Wilson Library and have to be requested in advance by placing a hold on them. Some
undergraduate criminology dissertations are held in the Express Zone. All of these can
be found on the Library catalogue.
Leicester Digital Library
Available from the Library homepage, our digital library is tailored to help you through
your studies, offering both on and off campus access to electronic books, 18,000
journals, and databases through the internet.
The My Subject tab provides an ideal starting point for your studies, bringing together
the resources in your subject. This includes databases for finding journal articles, other
Library catalogues and key websites. The Library subscribes to specialist criminology
databases such as Criminal Justice Abstracts as well as more general databases such
as ISI Web of Science, which will include criminology.
The Journals A-Z tab lists our electronic journals.
Your CFS user name and password is needed to access the digital library off campus. You
will be prompted to log in at the appropriate point.
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Access to other libraries
The University of Leicester is part of various schemes which help you to gain access to
other libraries. Perhaps the most important scheme is SCONUL Access that enables
access to over 170 participating higher education libraries in the UK and Ireland. The level
of access depends on individual universities.
Before visiting another library, you need to complete a SCONUL Access form (found at
the website below) and post or fax it to the David Wilson Library. They will then send you
a SCONUL Access card. Information about this scheme can be found at http://www.le.ac.
uk/library/services/otherlibraries/
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Books and journal articles which are not available in the Library can be obtained on Inter-
Library Loan (ILL). Postgraduate students are entitled to up to 15 free ILLs per academic
year. Requests can be made through the Library catalogue or by asking at the Help Zone.
Support
For help with using the Library, visit our web pages which include opening times,
services, introductory vodcasts, online tutorials
In the David Wilson Library visit the Help Zone on the ground floor for both Library and IT
enquiries
The Help Team are there to offer advice; look out for their blue or purple shirts
Pick up one of our printed guides in the Library
Many departments organise introductory sessions to the Library during the first term
Ask the Information Librarian who specialises in your subject area tel: 0116 252 2055.
They can provide guidance on finding information for your study by helping you to:
o build a search strategy
o decide which resources to use
o use the resources to their full potential
o reference the information youve found
E-mail or phone our Enquiry Service (see contact details below)
Students with dyslexia and other specific learning difficulties, disabilities and long term
conditions can make use of additional services and facilities. See http://www.le.ac.uk/
library/for/disabilities for details.
The Library welcomes feedback from students, and a comment form is available at http://
www.le.ac.uk/library/about/comments/ or in the Libraries.
Contact Details
Web site: www.le.ac.uk/library
David Wilson Library:
email: libdesk@le.ac.uk
Tel: (0116) 252 2043
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IT SERVICES
The computing service on campus is referred to as the CFS service and this provides
Windows and Microsoft Office 2007 as well as many other programs that will help you with
your studies.
Computer Accounts: When you complete your online University registration you will be
issued with an email address and a username for accessing the CFS service.
Regulations of Use: Students must abide by Senates Regulations Concerning the Use of
Computing Services as well as the other policies located at http://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/
itservices/about/regulations
Access to Computers: There are many PC areas across campus where there are PCs you
can use and some of these rooms provide overnight and week-end access. There are also
several Student PC Areas in the David Wilson Library.
Printing on Campus: Most PC areas on campus have a printer and printouts can be paid
for using a bank card. The costs of printing are automatically debited from your Print and
Copy account which is created when you register for a computer account. See go.le.ac.uk/
studentprinting.
Wi-Fi: The eduroam wi-fi service provides free wi-fi access across campus, allowing web
browsing, access to your University email and filestore. See go.le.ac.uk/wifi NOTE: Your
laptop or smartphone must be suitably configured to use the wi-fi service.
Off-campus Access to University Email: Outlook Web Access provides access to your
University email from anywhere in the world via http://webmail.le.ac.uk/
Blackboard: the University of Leicesters virtual learning environment (VLE). Here you
can access support and information for all your courses of study at the University. See
blackboard.le.ac.uk
Online Resources: The University subscribes to a number of online resources that can be
accessed through the Leicester Digital Library from the library home page library.le.ac.uk.
NOTE: Support for these services is provided by staff in the David Wilson Library.
Halls of Residence Network: All of the study rooms in University accommodation include
internet access. This residential network is provided by a commercial company.
IT Support: IT help on campus is provided through the combined Library and IT Services
Help Zone in the David Wilson Library. Alternatively, email: ithelp@le.ac.uk or phone
+44(0)116 252 2253, or your department may have computer support staff who can offer
you help.
ITS Website: For more information about the services see: http://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/
itservices
Contact Details
IT Service Desk
Open: Monday to Friday, 9:00 - 17:00
Tel: 0116-252-2253
Email: ithelp@le.ac.uk
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UNIVERSITY BOOKSHOP
The Bookshop is owned and managed by the University. Established in 1958 the bookshop
moved to new premises on the ground floor of the David Wilson Library in April 2008.
All prescribed and recommended texts are kept in stock, so that students can rely on the
Bookshop to supply all the books that they are encouraged to buy in the course of their
studies. A wide range of paperbacks and books of general interest are also kept in stock.
Any book not in stock can be quickly provided to order.
Maps, greeting cards, and a wide range of stationery items are stocked as well as
University of Leicester branded merchandise including an ever changing range of clothing.
The opening hours are as follows:
Monday to Friday 9.00 a.m. - 5.30 p.m. (during term-time)
Monday to Friday 9.00 a.m. - 5.00 p.m. (during vacation)
Saturdays 9.00 a.m. - 12.30 p.m. (all year)
The Bookshop is open to the general public as well as to all students. In addition to accepting
payment in cash, by cheque, Visa, Mastercard and Maestro, there is a mechanism by which
money may be deposited with the bookshop by parents or friends and later used to purchase
books and stationery. Money can also be depositied via the website https://shop.le.ac.uk.
6%,7587+')75(&$
Telephone: 0116 229 7440
E-mail: bookshop@le.ac.uk
EDUCATION UNIT, STUDENTS UNION
The Education Unit(ED) is one of the crucial services that the Students Union offers to
students. The Unit provides a friendly, impartial and confidential service to help and advise
students about the options available to them on a wide range of topics such as academic
appeals, changing courses and examinations. If a student wishes to come and talk to us
about their personal circumstances or problems they have encountered on their course
we will offer guidance about where to go and what to do.
The Education Unit(ED) is based within the redeveloped Students Union on the West Wing.
Opening hours are weekdays 10.00 a.m. till 4.00 p.m. and you can either pop in or book an
appointment in advance by contacting us on the details below. The service is available for
all students and you can be assured that the Education Unit(ED) has a policy of treating all
casework in the strictest of confidence.
6%,7587+')75(&$
Phone: 0116 223 1132/1228
E-mail: educationunit@le.ac.uk
Website: http://leicesterunion.com/yourunion/ed_the_education_unit
Department of Criminology
20
LEARNING AND CAREER DEVELOPMENT
Careers Service
Whether its developing the skills you need to succeed on your course, or in your life
beyond university, the Careers Serviceis here to support and facilitate your academic,
professional and personal development.
Visit the Careers Service in the David Wilson Library to access our extensive range of
resources: we have over 50 different study guide titles and 20 career development guides, so
whether its writing better essays or building a CV, instant advice is available to take away.
You can also access these resources from our website along with a range of online resources
such as interactive study skills tutorials and videos on developing your career prospects.
One-to-one advice is available via study consultations, research consultations, maths help
and careers consultations. You can see our advisors face-to-face in the Careers Service
or use our website to find out how to access our services remotely. Every term, we have a
busy programme of interactive workshops covering a diverse range of topics. Our learning
development titles range from avoiding plagiarism to improving your essay writing, to
giving effective presentations. Career development titles cover all the essential areas such
as CV writing, job searching, application forms and interview skills.
The Careers Service provides lots of opportunities for you to develop your employability
skills whilst at University. We maintain strong links with employers and advertise their
vacancies and work experience opportunities through JOBSonline (on our website).
We have a busy programme of employer-led events, from skills workshops to careers
fairs, and we organise numerous opportunities for you to make the most of your time
at University. Choose from a wide range of volunteering opportunities, work placement
schemes and enterprise activities, or take an accredited programme and gain a Leicester
Award in Employability skills.
Research postgraduates are catered for with resources, events and training specific to
their needs: from Starting your PhD workshops to University-wide events such as the
Annual Festival of Postgraduate Research.
To find out more about how the Careers Service can enhance your success at university
and beyond, visit their website.
Contact: Careers Service, Student Development Zone, Second Floor, David Wilson Library
Tel: 0116 252 5090
Email: sdzhelpdesk@le.ac.uk
Website: www.le.ac.uk/careers
Personal Development Planning (PDP)
Students of the Criminology Department now have the opportunity to participate in
Personal Development Planning (PDP). Personal Development Planning (PDP) is a
structured and supported process designed to give students the opportunity to reflect
on their progress and plan for their future development. In doing so, it is hoped that PDP
will better enable students to improve and enhance both their academic performance and
their prospects for professional and career success after graduation.
As a vocationally and practically focused subject, PDP is interwoven through the
programmes that the department operates, but there are also opportunities provided for
students with sessions delivered through the careers department and student support.
Personal development planning is something which students have to undertake on their
own behalf, but it must be actively supported by departments; this support should be
provided by collaboration between the departmental PDP co-ordinators, departmental
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
21
careers tutors, module conveners and personal tutors, and should be undertaken, where
possible, by combining existing opportunities in the curriculum for reflection and self-
awareness with some group and individual meetings.
Ten ways a student can develop their employability:
Applicants lack the right combination of academic and soft skills - this is something
many employers say about graduates. Ensure that you are not in this category by
developing your employability skills:
1. Research and talk through your ideas with an adviser from the Careers Service and
with your departmental Careers Tutor. The department also provides all students
with access to a departmental careers guide that gives advice on careers and PDP.
This can be found on your course Blackboard site at https://blackboard.le.ac.uk/
webapps/portal/frameset.jsp?tab_tab_group_id=_2_1&url=%2Fwebapps%2Fblackb
oard%2Fexecute%2Flauncher%3Ftype%3DCourse%26id%3D_5091_1%26url%3D
2. Link what you learn within your modules to how you could use it in the wider world
(e.g. specific subject knowledge and skills you use such as problem-solving and
team-work). To this end you may also want to examine the student development
section of the blackboard site
3. Undertake a work placement or internship during vacations and think through what
you have gained from the experience.
4. Do some voluntary work. The Careers Service collaborates with the Students
Union to organise volunteering opportunities, ranging from marketing to counselling
www.le.ac.uk/volunteering
5. Speak to employers about what they expect from you (many employers hold
workshops and presentations on campus or attend careers fairs, all arranged by the
Careers Service).
6. Get some work experience or work shadow somebody in the type of job or organisation
you find interesting. This will help you decide if its really for you.
7. Take an active role in Students Union activities and within your own department to
develop your communication, organisation, interpersonal and related skills.
8. Develop study skills, such as presentation and numeracy skills with help from the
Careers Service Development Team: http://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/ssds/sd/ld
9. Participate in one of the Leicester Award for Employability programmes organised by
the Careers Service.
10. Attend any talks, workshops and careers events organised within your department
and the wider University.
Disabled students who are studying on campus can attend Access to Employability sessions
which take place across the year with a session for finalists in the Autumn Term; Year 2 and
Year 1 students in the Spring Term. Information is distributed to all students known to the
AccessAbility Centre and disabled students should be encouraged to make themselves
known to the Centre and look out for publicity materials in the Autumn and Spring.
Further details are available at: www.le.ac.uk/careers
AccessAbility Centre
The Centre offers a range of services to all University of Leicester students who have
specific learning difficulties, such as dyslexia, disabilities or long-term conditions.
Staff offer one-to-one support, assessment of dyslexia, the co-ordination of alternative
examination arrangements and assistance with applications for the Disabled Students
Allowance. The open access Centre acts as a resource base for students and staff and is a
relaxed place for students to work. Some of its computers have specialised software such
Department of Criminology
22
as screen enlargement (Zoomtext) and scanning and speech output software (ZoomEx).
Essay planning software (Inspiration) and speech output software (Texthelp Read and
Write) are on the University wide CFS network. The Centre also has some specialised
equipment (CCTV, enlarged keyboard, and chairs) and some for loan (chairs, laptops and
digital recorders). Its computers are equipped with specialised software for speech output
(essay planning software and basic speech output software are on the University wide CFS
network). Low-level photocopying, printing and scanning facilities are also available. The
Centre welcomes self-referrals as well as referrals from academic staff.
Contact: AccessAbility Centre, AccessAbility Zone, David Wilson Library.
Tel/minicom: 0116 252 5002
Fax: 0116 252 5513
Email: accessable@le.ac.uk
Website: http://www.le.ac.uk/accessability/
PRACTICAL MATTERS
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The Student Welfare Centre offers wide ranging support for students. Practical advice and
information is available on a wide range of issues.
Financial advice is offered, with information on budgeting and State benefits. Students
can apply for hardship grants and loans through the Service; Welfare staff can assist with
applications to charities and trusts.
For international students, the Student Welfare Service runs various Welcome programmes
throughout the year. Information is provided on specific hardship funds, advice is given
on immigration Students are advised to renew their visas through the scheme provided
by Student Welfare. The service also co-ordinates HOST visits to British families and
hospitality visits to local families in Leicester. International students with children may be
eligible for help with childcare costs, which are claimed through the Service.
The Student Welfare Service works closely with Residential and Commercial Services
in providing pastoral care for students living in University residences. Postgraduate and
mature students are invited to apply for Resident Advisor positions; information and
application forms are available on the University website. The Service also works closely
with the local community to intervene in disputes with neighbours and to improve living
conditions for those students who choose private rented accommodation.
A legal advice clinic is held in conjunction with the School of Law.
Contact: Student Welfare Service, 1st Floor Percy Gee Building.
Telephone: 0116 223 1185
Fax: 0116 223 1196
Email: welfare@le.ac.uk
Website: http://www.le.ac.uk/welfare
COUNSELLING, HEALTH AND WELLBEING
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The staff of this Service offer a range of expertise and support for both the physical and
psychological aspects of health and wellbeing in the context of your academic journey.
The Service is available, at no cost, to all students of the University. The Service can
also provide advice and information to all members of the University community who
have general concerns about supporting students with needs relating to their physical or
mental health. Services on offer include:
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
23
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Offers confidential counselling sessions on a one-to-one or group basis, as appropriate.
Students may seek counselling for a variety of reasons both academic and/or personal;
some just want to come once to talk over something that is troubling them, others may
wish to see a counsellor regularly for a period of time, or explore issues together with
others in a group. For initial appointment and explanatory leaflet, please ring or email the
Service or visit the website
Contact: Student Counselling Service, 161 Welford Road (behind the Freemens Common
Health Centre)
Office hours: 10.00 a.m. to 8.00 p.m. Monday and Thursday; 10.00 a.m. to 5.00 p.m.
Tuesday, Wednesday and Friday. Appointments can be made by telephone, email, or call
in and speak to a receptionist in person.
Telephone: 0116 223 1780.
E-mail: counselling@le.ac.uk
Website: www.le.ac.uk/counselling
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Offers discreet and confidential support on a one-to-one basis to students managing
mental health issues at university. The aim of this support is to assist students to
lessen the impact these issues might have on their studies. If required, the service can
co-ordinate a network of support from those available both at the University and in the
wider community. Related group activities and educational workshops are offered for all
students from time to time. The service will also, with the students permission, liaise on
their behalf with their Departments or other parts of the University.
Students are welcome to make contact with the service at any point in their course. Pre-
entry contact is also encouraged, from prospective students who wish to discuss any
support they may require on course. An appointment to meet with an adviser can be made
by telephone, letter or email.
Contact: Student Support (mental wellbeing), 161 Welford Road (behind the Freemens
Common Health Centre)
Telephone: 0116 252 2283
Email: mentalhealth@le.ac.uk
Website: www.le.ac.uk/mentalhealth
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Student Healthy Living strives to help students enjoy a balanced life; the service helps
individuals to identify an approach to life which can improve their wellbeing, enhance
study and reach their full potential. The service is committed to the delivery of health and
wellbeing activities that support students in developing life skills. As well as supporting
academic achievement, these skills are transferable and should prove beneficial through
the transition from University to the demands of employment and graduate careers. The
Student Healthy Living Service works closely with the Freemens Common Health Centre
and also provides direction to appropriate health care services. More information can be
found on the Healthy Living Service website.
Contact: The Student Healthy Living Service, 161 Welford Road (above Freemans Common
Health Centre)
Telephone: 0116 223 1268
Email: healthyliving@le.ac.uk
Website: http://go.le.ac.uk/healthyliving
Department of Criminology
24
OUTLINE OF THE PROGRAMME
MSc/PgD Criminology
MSc/PgD Applied Criminology
MSc/PgD Clinical Criminology
MSc/PgD Terrorism, Security and Policing
Course Convenor: Dr Darrick Jolliffe
Deputy Course Convenor: Dr Lisa Smith
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The campus-based MSc Programme provides an exciting opportunity to follow one of the
four Diploma and/or Degree streams in either Criminology, Applied Criminology, Clinical
Criminology, or Terrorism, Security and Policing within the Department of Criminology
(formerly Scarman Centre). Building on the core elements of criminology and criminal
justice, the programme further incorporates specialist areas informed by its research
active teaching staff. The Programme is offered over one year of full-time study or two
years of part-time study. It is committed to student centred learning that can accommodate
the diversity of experience our students bring.
Criminology explores the nature of crime, its form and distribution, and explanations of
its occurrence and incidence. It also examines how the state designates some actions
as crimes and how the many agencies making up the criminal justice system respond to
those behaviours labelled criminal. As a rapidly developing discipline, criminology offers
considerable scope for variety and specialisation. This is reflected in the diversity of its
students who range from new graduates to lawyers, judges and other professionals within
the public sector and private agencies.
The Departments campus-based MSc programme aims to develop students familiarity
with the literature in criminology; to design and implement original research projects to
enhance existing knowledge; to build on empirical study to advance criminological theory;
and to provide opportunities to work across disciplines by drawing on the related fields of
law, sociology, psychology, politics and organisational behaviour and management.
Learning Outcomes
The course provides students with a range of skills which are both subject-specific and
general. These include the ability:
to understand and apply different theoretical perspectives on crime, criminal
justice, policing, security and risk, forensic psychology and psychiatry, etc. This
includes the ability to undertake conceptual analysis, to assess critically various
theoretical perspectives and to develop testable propositions;
to interpret and critically assess research on crime, criminal justice, policing,
security and risk, forensic psychology and psychiatry, etc. This includes the
ability to synthesize and evaluate research findings and relate them to alternate
theoretical propositions and policies;
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
25
to effectively use local and international research resources, including primary
and secondary documentary sources such as specialized libraries and archives,
databases, survey results, ethnographic files and other information held in
libraries or on computers;
to develop verbal speaking and argumentation skills, including the presentation of
research findings through seminar papers, using visual aids as appropriate, and
participation in student work groups; and
to plan, design and implement research, including the choice of an appropriate
research strategy and methods, analysis of data and the written communication of
findings.
!#F!K;:B:L
Your course is supported by Blackboard, which will greatly enhance your studies.
Blackboard is a Virtual Learning Environment (VLE) that supports online learning and
teaching. It can be accessed by registered users from anywhere in the world using the
Internet and standard web browsers.
Once you have enrolled on the Blackboard site, and details of how to do this are explained
below, then you will benefit from a range of features otherwise unavailable to students.
Among these are:
An on-line discussion group giving you the chance to swap ideas and discuss issues
covered in the course with other students;
Electronic versions of course-related materials, allowing you to easily search and
retrieve key information needed for assignments and your dissertation;
Searchable on-line versions of course handbooks and regulations;
An assignment feature for the electronic submission of assignments, and providing an
instant receipt showing safe arrival;
Links to recent publications and on-line resources relevant to your studies.
Since the site is only available to current students it is necessary for you to be individually
registered. If you applied for your course on-line your course administrator will be able
to access the information required to register you on your course Blackboard site. If you
completed a paper application, all that is needed for us to do this is for you to let us know
your University computer username, which, additionally, provides you with a University
email account. Details of how to obtain this cfs username by registering yourself on-line
are contained in a leaflet included in this pack. In order to submit your coursework you
will have to be registered on the Blackboard site, and so you must let us have your
username as an urgent priority. Please send your username via email to your course
administrator without delay (course administrator contact details are in this Handbook).
As soon as we have enrolled you, you should visit the Blackboard site, by visiting https://
blackboard.le.ac.uk/. This contains background information and details of how to use the
Blackboard system. Once you have clicked on the login button and entered your username
and password you will see that you are registered on the site for your MSc course. Click
on the title to get started. The navigation menu can be found on the left hand side of your
course site. You should firstly read the section entitled Blackboard Guide and Support.
Department of Criminology
26
The Blackboard course site offers useful study skills materials on many aspects of studying
for a degree as well as module related material and useful links to other resources that
may assist your studies. We strongly recommend that you spend a little time early on in
your studies becoming familiar with the site and making the most of the facilities that it
offers.
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As you will know the Department of Criminology requires all pieces of assessed course
work to be submitted via Blackboard and Turnitin.
When you submit your essay or report via Turnitin, not only is your assessment compared
with internet sources and all the other essays on file, but it is also logged by Turnitin
for future comparison with other work. Your email address, course code and institution
(University of Leicester) is held by the company (iParadigms) that processes the data for
Turnitin as an internal identifier. None of this information is sent to third parties and
iParadigms is bound by the Data Protection Act 1998, meaning that they cannot use your
personal information for any reasons, other than identifying your work within their system,
without your express permission. For example, if it turned out that another student had
copied your work and your essay was highlighted in the Originality Report (the report
which is generated by Turnitin to check for plagiarism and similarity to other sources) sent
to the academic marker, they would not be able to see your email address.
Each year when you register with the University, you agree to your personal data being
used by us in an acceptable manner, and only in relation to your studies. The registration
document does not fully cover an agreement to submit your personal data to a third
source, which is what you are doing when handing in your essays via Blackboard. If
you feel that the processing of your personal data in this way is likely to cause you
substantial or unwarranted damage or distress you can ask for your personal data not
to be processed in this way, by emailing the Department Data Protection/Freedom of
Information Co-ordinator. Your work will still be submitted to Turnitin for comparison
to other sources, but this will be done by a Department staff member so that your email
address and information is not recorded.
If you would like more information on this you should read the downloadable file
(Turnitin Documentation for Students) at http://www2.le.ac.uk/institution/lts/bb/
features/information%20for%20students.doc/view and the downloadable file (Fact
sheet on Turnitn data process) at http://www2.le.ac.uk/institution/lts/bb/features/
TurnitinDataProtectionDoc/view. Both of these documents can be found by clicking
the link in the Blackboard Tips and Issues box on the Blackboard welcome page and
navigating via the Features button.
Structure of the Programme
Students take six modules during the programme (which is spread over two years for
part-time students), consisting of a combination of core modules and optional modules,
depending on the course stream being followed. Optional modules can be chosen from a
comprehensive list of available modules, set out below. Academic staff can help you select
the most relevant modules for your programme, and guidance will be given during the
Induction Programme.
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
27
Criminology Applied Clinical Terrorism, Security
Criminology Criminology and Policing
Term 1
Understanding Understanding Understanding Terrorism I
Crime Crime Crime
Penology Option 1 Current Issues in Global Security
Clinical Criminology and Policing
Criminological Criminological Criminological Criminological
Research Methods Research Methods Research Methods Research Methods
Term 2
Practice Crime, Justice
Option 1 Placement and Psychology Core Choice 1
Option 2 Option 2 Option 1 Core Choice 2
Option 3 Option 3 Option 2 Option 1
Term 3
Dissertation Dissertation Dissertation Dissertation
The modules marked in bold are the core modules, these differ for each course.
The available core and optional modules available across the four courses for 2011 to 2012
are as follows:
Criminological Research Methods is core for all streams of criminology. Understanding
Crime is core for Criminology, Applied Criminology and Clinical Criminology.
The options available for the four degree streams are as follows:
Criminology
Options 1, 2 and 3 from a choice of: Drugs and Crime, Media and Crime, Crime, Justice and
Psychology, Crime Prevention & Community Safety, Current Issues in Forensic Science
& Justice, Terrorism II, Surveillance and Society, Transnational Policing, Sexual Violence
Applied Criminology
Option 1 from a choice of: Penology, Current Issues in Clinical Criminology, Terrorism I,
Global Security and Policing.
Options 2 and 3 from a choice of: Drugs and Crime, Media and Crime, Crime Prevention
& Community Safety, Current Issues in Forensic Science & Justice, Crime, Justice and
Psychology, Terrorism II, Surveillance and Society, Transnational Policing, Sexual Violence.
Clinical Criminology
Options 1 and 2 from a choice of: Drugs and Crime, Media and Crime, Crime Prevention
& Community Safety, Current Issues in Forensic Science & Justice, Crime, Justice and
Psychology, Terrorism II, Surveillance and Society, Transnational Policing, Sexual Violence.
Terrorism, Security and Policing
Choice of two out of the four core modules of: Terrorism II, Surveillance and Society,
Transnational Policing, Risk Management.
Department of Criminology
28
Plus an additional option from: Drugs and Crime, Media and Crime, Crime Prevention
& Community Safety, Current Issues in Forensic Science & Justice, Crime, Justice and
Psychology, Terrorism II, Surveillance and Society, Transnational Policing, Sexual Violence.
Course Information
Students who pass the core and option modules are eligible for the Postgraduate Diploma.
Those who also submit a dissertation of the required standard will be awarded the MSc.
Students who have passed 60 credits will be eligible for a Postgraduate Certificate should
they be unable to continue with the Postgraduate Diploma or MSc.
Lecture and seminar sessions will take place during the first two (Autumn and Spring)
Terms of the year. Dissertation preparation begins during the Autumn Term and continues
into the Spring Term, to enable students to work on their dissertation in the Summer Term.
Part-time students typically take four modules during the first year of study and two
in the second year, along with their dissertation. In their first year, part-time students
on Criminology, Applied Criminology, and Clinical Criminology are advised to take
Understanding Crime along with their other course-specific core modules.
For Applied Criminology students the Practice placement is usually taken during the
Spring Term of the first year, but this can be varied in consultation with the Practice
Placement Module Tutor.
University Regulations
The University of Leicester specifies its requirements for the campus-based MSc and
Postgraduate Diploma in the Postgraduate Regulations, which are published annually, and
students are advised to read them.
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Attendance is an essential requirement for a postgraduate degree. Full-time students
must reside in Leicester or within easy commuting distance of the city for the duration
of each term, and all students are normally required to attend such lectures, seminars,
workshops and other formal classes as are specified in their course timetables.
Attendance is carefully monitored by the MSc Course Team, and there is a minimum 70%
attendance requirement on every module. Failure to meet this requirement is seen as a
neglect of academic obligations, and could lead to the termination of your course.
A register will be kept for every module and students should sign this on each occasion
they attend. If they do not sign, they will be counted as having been absent for the session.
Students should not sign this register on behalf of any other person. Absences must be
accounted for bv completing a Notification of Absence form and submitting this to the
Course Administrator.
In addition to existing attendance monitoring practices, departments will monitor
international student attendance at two checkpoints during each academic year and
report any absences to the University Registry. Where possible, checkpoints will be
lectures, seminars, practical or other formal classes as specified in student course and
examination timetables, or the submission of coursework, where this is made in person by
the student to the department. As such, students will NOT normally be notified of specific
checkpoint dates. Where the department cannot utilise either of these mechanisms, they
will determine a suitable alternative interaction and notify students of the time and date.
Departments are empowered to authorise short absences for personal reasons, but
requests for absences of more than one week must be explicitly approved by the University,
and will only be granted if the department is in agreement with the proposal, and if the
student concerned takes full responsibility for the completion of outstanding academic
work. This procedure also applies if the absence is required for religious reasons, but as
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
29
students are required to notify the Registry at the beginning of each academic year if there
are likely to be religious reasons for any absence during that year, academic departments
and administrative offices are expected to utilise this information pro-actively, so that any
specific religious needs can be anticipated, and where practicable, met. Authorisation of
short absences will also apply to attendance checkpoints for international students.
-)*$%,5&+6%,'287
The University expects students to conduct themselves with propriety, both in and around
the University buildings and also in public places.
.)*9#7(9)+!9C&%@9),7+M<2&&#7(9)+$72'),7$N
Paid employment during term-time should not exceed 15 hours per week. Such part-time
work will not be accepted as a mitigating circumstance to excuse absence from classes,
late submission of work, or examination failure.
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Unsatisfactory attendance, work and progress may lead to termination of your course.
Students are advised to take note of the attendance and submission requirements for their
individual course as provided by the department.
Students who are neglectful of their academic obligations by failing to attend teaching
sessions and/or submit the required assessments will be warned by their department
and, if their performance does not improve, may be issued with a formal warning by the
University. Unsatisfactory attendance, work and progress may result in a student losing
their right to re-sit failed assessments, or in some circumstances, termination of course.
In addition to this, any international students failure to meet attendance and/or checkpoint
requirements could lead to the termination of your course and the reporting of this to the
UK Border Agency, in line with the University sponsor obligations.
4(7/'*535&
Students who wish to withdraw from the University, either temporarily or permanently,
should consult their personal tutor and/or other members of the academic staff, and
where applicable, seek advice from the Careers Service and/or Student Welfare Service. A
guidance leaflet on withdrawal and an application form are obtainable from the Reception
Desk in the Fielding Johnson Building. Requests for temporary withdrawal and associated
conditions of re-entry require the approval of the University.
Course Requirements
Students are required to attend the modules regularly and undertake any requirements for
the submission of coursework or presentation of seminar papers. Students who fail to attend
two or more successive sessions of a module (whether these sessions are weekly seminars,
lectures or tutorials), or who fail to comply with course requirements for the submission or
presentation of written work or seminars, without showing evidence of good cause, may be
dropped from the rolls of those registered and their registration thereby ended.
A register will be kept and students should sign this on each occasion they attend. If they
do not sign, they will be counted as having been absent for the session. Students should not
sign this register on behalf of any other person.
Any query about the requirements of the course should be raised with the Course Convenor
or Deputy Course Convenor. Inability to attend a lecture or seminar should be communicated
(in advance if possible) to Reshma Sudra or Alison Lambert by telephone on 0116 252 2489,
by fax at 0116 252 5788, or by email at crimmsc@le.ac.uk
Department of Criminology
30
COURSE MODULES: DETAILED DESCRIPTIONS
Criminological Research Methods (CR7135)
Term 1
Module Leader: Dr Darrick Jolliffe (dj39@le.ac.uk)
and Samantha Weston (sw204@le.ac.uk)
?%'2&)+>GO)87(=)$
The module aims to provide students with a range of skills and knowledge required at Masters
level in social sciences subjects for quantitative and qualitative research design, data collection,
management and analysis.
?%'2&)+>27&(,)
This module involves a series of lectures introducing students to the concepts and theories behind
research. This includes the ethical issues they may encounter whilst conducting research and how
to go about researching sensitive subjects. The module critically examines the various approaches
to research, providing guidance as to the appropriateness of certain methodologies in different
research scenarios. By the end of the module, and in preparation for their Masters dissertation,
students should be able to understand the main quantitative and qualitative research methods
employed in the social sciences for data collection, and be able to input and analyse quantitative
data using SPSS and qualitative text.
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, typical students should be able to:
1. Understand the advantages and disadvantages of using different research designs and data
collection techniques.
2. Apply this knowledge in critically evaluating existing research as well as proposing a piece of
research.
3. Apply course knowledge to produce creative research that builds on gaps in the literature to
produce theoretically relevant findings.
4. Sensitively conduct research with vulnerable populations and within hard to access research
environments.
5. Research independently, identify and retrieve relevant information, and identify primary and
secondary sources for obtaining data.
.)58/(,0+?)7/%'$
Lectures, computer workshops and seminars.
Assessment
Students are expected to produce a research design report (50%), answer a qualitative data analysis
problem (25%) and quantitative data analysis problem (25%).
-*)&(9(,5*@+;)5'(,0
Bentz, V. and Shapiro, J. (1998) Mindful Inquiry in Social Research, London: Sage.
Field, A. (2009) Discovering Statistics using SPSS (3rd ed). London: Sage.
Gilbert, N. (Ed) (2001) Researching Social Life, London: Sage.
Hagan, F. E. (2004). Essentials of Research Methods in Criminal Justice and Criminology (7th Edition).
London: Allyn & Bacon.
Jupp, V., Davies, P. and Francis, P. (2000) Doing Criminological Research, London: Sage.
King, R. and Wincup, E. (2007) Doing Research on Crime and Justice, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Maxfield, M. and Babbie, E. (2001) Research Methods for Criminal Justice and Criminology, Belmont,
CA: Wadsworth.
Neuman, W. L. (1997) Social Research Methods: Qualitative and Quantitative Approaches, Boston:
Allyn and Bacon.
Robson, C. (2002) Real World Research, Oxford: Blackwell (2nd Edition).
Seale, C., Gobo, G., Gubrim, J. and Silverman, D. (eds) (2007) Qualitative Research Practice, London: Sage.
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
31
Current Issues in Clinical Criminology (CR7005)
Term I
Module Leader: Samantha Weston (sw204@le.ac.uk)
?%'2&)+%GO)87(=)$
This module examines the relationship between mental disorders and criminality, explores the
methods of disposal for mentally-disordered offenders, and undertakes an examination of one or
two selected groups of offenders in more detail. It aims to familiarise students with some of the
issues arising out of the somewhat contentious relationships between mental disorder and crime
and between the penal and mental health care systems.
?%'2&)+>27&(,)
The module consists of nine two-hour lecture/discussion sessions in which group participation is
encouraged. Handouts and articles are provided to facilitate this involvement.
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, typical students should be able to:
1. Demonstrate the problems of identifying responsibility and crime
2. Demonstrate the equivocal relationship between mental disordersand crime.
3. Demonstrate aknowledge of the problems involved in the relationship between the penal and
mental health care systems.
4. Have a working knowledge of some key offences (such as sexual offences, homicide etc).
.)58/(,0+?)7/%'$
Lectures, seminars and informal discussions.
Assessment
100% coursework; one essay not exceeding 4,000 words.
-*)&(9(,5*@+;)5'(,0
Bean, P. (2008) Madness and Crime, Cullompton: Willan.
Oyebode, F. (2008) Sims Symptoms in the Mind (4th ed), London: Saunders.
Peay, J. (2010) Mental health and crime, London: Routledge
Prins, H. (2010) Offenders, Deviants or Patients? Explorations in Clinical Criminology (4th ed), Hove:
Routledge.
Soothill, K., Rogers, P. and Dolan, M. (Eds) (2008) Handbook of Forensic Mental Health, Cullumpton:
Willan.
Towl, G. T. and Crighton, D. A. (Eds) (2010) Forensic Psychology, Oxford: Blackwell and BPS.
Department of Criminology
32
Global Security and Policing (CR7126)
Term I
Module Leaders: Dr Keith Spence (kgs3@le.ac.uk)
?%'2&)+>GO)87(=)$
This module explores the effects of globalisation upon concepts, practices and institutions associated
with security and policing. Emphasising the development of transnational models agencies and
systems, responses to the challenges posed to conventional understandings and norms surrounding
law enforcement within the nation-state are critically explored and evaluated.
?%'2&)+>27&(,)
This module involves a series of lectures and discussions addressing developments within security
and policing in response to the unprecedented and ongoing processes associated with globalisation
that are characteristic of the present era. Rather than being a singular phenomenon, globalisation
is considered as a set of political, economic, cultural and social developments open to critical
interpretation in diverse and divergent ways. In particular, globalisation challenges the national
and territorial boundaries that define conventional law enforcement agencies, and so calls into
question their capacity both to embody the monopoly of legitimate force that is the hallmark of the
nation state, and to discharge their defining responsibilities of protection and law-enforcement. The
module explores the response to this complexity of security and policing in both conceptual and
practical terms. Topics covered include the development of transnational policing and approaches
to its analysis, the increasing trend towards the privatisation of security on a global scale, human
trafficking in a transnational criminal context, and the nature of terrorism and developments in
counter-terrorism in the wake of September 11, 2001.
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, typical students should be able to:
1. Discuss the key sociological and criminological interpretations of globalisation and their
relationships to security, risk and policing.
2. Understand and evaluate the development of trans-national and global approaches to policing,
security and law enforcement.
3. Critically discuss prominent issues within and categories of transnational crime and policing.
4. Evaluate, with reference to particular cases and evidence, the impact and effectiveness of global
and transnational initiatives on the constitution and reproduction of production of conditions of
security and insecurity
.)58/(,0+?)7/%'$
Formal lectures, informal seminar discussions and student presentations.
Assessment
100% Coursework.
-*)&(9(,5*@+;)5'(,0
Beck, U. (1999) World Risk Society, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Beck, U. (2009) World at Risk, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Edwards, A. and Gill, P. (eds) (2003) Transnational Organised Crime: Perspectives on Global
Security, London: Routledge.
Glenny, M. (2008) McMafia: Crime Without Frontiers. London: The Bodley Head.
Held, D. (ed) (2005) The Global Transformations Reader. Cambridge: Polity Press.
Scheptycki, J (ed) (2000) Issues in Transnational Policing, London: Routledge.
Wardack, A. & Sheptycki, J (eds) (2005). Transnational and comparative criminology, London: Glass
House Press.
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
33
Penology (CR7004)
Term I
Module Leader: Professor Carol Hedderman ch140@le.ac.uk)
?%'2&)+>GO)87(=)$
Punishment and related themes of rehabilitation, retribution and restoration will be discussed
from the standpoint of sociological, political and psychological theories. The aim of this module is
to investigate the way in which punishments are socially constructed and consider their impact on
offenders and victims.
?%'2&)+>27&(,)
This module involves a series of lectures, discussions and debates, which explore penal theories,
policies and practices. The various justifications for punishment and the ways in which they inform
sentencing practices in the courts are examined. The various explanations for the emergence of
disciplinary institutions during the 18th and 19th centuries and the subsequent expansion of the
networks of social control are discussed and provide a foundation for both a consideration of the
punishment/treatment dichotomy within penal policy and of issues of control and order within the
penal establishment. The module concludes with a look to the possible penal futures and brings
together aspects of punitive aims, sentencing policies and human rights.
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, typical students should be able to:
Compare the key theoretical approaches to punishment
1. Critically analyse the differences between community and institutional forms of punishment
2. Assess some of the practical manifestations of differing approaches to punishment, rehabilitation,
restoration and retribution
3. Critically explain the key historical developments of punishment in the UK and around the world
4. Demonstrate a critical understanding of the key criminological debates around punishment and
rehabilitation
5. Demonstrate an understanding of the political context and influences around the development of
punishment in the UK
.)58/(,0+?)7/%'$
Formal lectures and informal class discussions and presentations.
Assessment
100% coursework.
-*)&(9(,5*@+;)5'(,0
Cavadino, M. & Dignan, J. (2007) The Penal System: An Introduction, London: Sage (4th edition).
Gelsthorpe, L. and Morgan, R. (eds) (2007) Handbook of Probation, Cullompton: Willan.
Hudson, B A. (2003) Understanding Justice: An Introduction to ideas, perspectives and controversies
in modern penal theory, Buckingham, Open University Press.
Jewkes, Y. (ed) (2007) Handbook on Prisons, Cullompton: Willan.
Jewkes, Y. & Johnston, H. Prison Readings: A Critical Introduction to Prisons and Imprisonment,
Cullompton, Willan.
Jewkes, Y. & Bennett, J. (eds) (2008) Dictionary of Prisons and Punishment, Cullompton, Willan.
Maguire, M., Morgan, R. and Reiner, R. (eds) (2007) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, Oxford:
Oxford University Press, (4th edition).
Department of Criminology
34
Terrorism I: Understanding Terrorism (CR7131)
Term I
Module Leader: Dr Keith Spence (kgs3@le.ac.uk)
?%'2&)+>GO)87(=)$
This module explores the emergence and manifestation of terror and terrorism from a range of historical,
political, sociological and cultural perspectives. Emphasising the diverse and contested nature of concept
of terror as both concept and practice, a number of case studies are highlighted in order to explore the
complex and opaque connections between order, power, authority, security and terror.
?%'2&)+>27&(,)
This module involves a series of lectures and discussions addressing aspects of terror and terrorism
through consideration of a series of themes and contexts. The contemporary conjunction of terrorism
and globalisation encourages the viewpoint that terrorism is a singular and unitary phenomenon. This
module seeks to emphasise the diversity and disparity of movements, institutions and agents that are
typically associated with the label, exploring differences of history, culture and geography that are
critical to an appropriately nuanced understanding of how terrorism is a global and universal concept
that is made manifest in distinctly local and specific forms. The module proceeds by considering
prominent historical cases, including the periods of great terror associated with the Jacobins in
France (1793-4), in Russia with Stalin (1937-8), and in Cambodia with the Khmer Rouge (1975-9). These
forms of State Terror facilitate a comparison with non-state actors, notably in the form of post-WW2
movements in Western Europe and the Middle East, which are commonly treated as defining in the
modern usage of the expression terrorist. Comparing and contrasting state and non-state forms
encourages consideration of issues of power and language in relation to the ascription of terror and
terrorist as labels. In addition, terrorism cannot be understood separately from the responses that it
engenders. This is considered within the module in terms of popular culture, literary and cinematic
representations of - and responses to terrorism as a phenomenon, as well as in more conventional
sociological, political and criminological rejoinders.
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, typical students should be able to:
1. Demonstrate understanding of the historical background and variety of forms associated with
the development and manifestation of terror and terrorism.
2. Evaluate concepts and criteria employed in debates surrounding the definition and analytical
breakdown of terrorism.
3. Debate the representation, mediation and significance of terror and terrorism within political,
social, cultural and aesthetic formations and processes.
4. Demonstrate the ability to think critically about established knowledge, and the capacity to
deconstruct accepted conceptions of terror and terrorism.
.)58/(,0+?)7/%'$
Formal lectures, informal student presentations and seminar discussions.
Assessment
100% coursework.
-*)&(9(,5*@+;)5'(,0
Art, R. J. and Richardson, L. (eds.) (2006) Democracy and counterterrorism: Lessons from the past.
Washington, DC: United States Institute of Peace.
Booth, K (ed.) (2004) Critical Security Studies and World Politics. London: Lynne Reiner.
Hoge, J. F. and Rose, G. (eds) (2005) Understanding the war on terror. London: W. W. Norton.
Hoffman, G. (2006) Inside Terrorism (revised edition).New York: Columbia University Press.
Martin, G. (ed) (2004) The New Era of Terrorism: Selected Readings. London: Sage.
Richardson, L. (ed.) (2006) The roots of terrorism. New York: Routledge.
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
35
Understanding Crime (PO7004)
Term I
Module Leaders: Dr Darrick Jolliffe (dj39@le.ac.uk)
and Mark Connor (mec19@le.ac.uk)
?%'2&)+>GO)87(=)$
This module provides students with a critical overview of the different theoretical perspectives that
have been and are used to understand and explain criminal behaviour.
?%'2&)+>27&(,)
Students will be introduced to the challenges of defining and measuring crime and required to
consider how these challenges might impact on the interpretation of a diversity of theories. Theories
derived from a number of philosophical paradigms will be introduced and critically evaluated based
on their implications for the prevention or criminal behaviour and their proposals for dealing with
offenders. The two hour lecture and seminar programme runs over nine weeks. The lectures offer
a general introduction to the main theoretical and empirical issues and provide a framework for
analysing more specific case studies. In addition, seminars provide a forum for discussion of key
issues and interactive formulation of student research agendas.
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, typical students should be able to:
1. To provide an overview of the different theoretical orientations that have been developed to
explain criminal behaviour.
2. To locate criminological thought within a historic continuam and trace its development in
response to specific historic events.
3. To articulate how the definition and measurement of crime impact on these theoretical
oreintations.
4. To assess the benefits and limitations of these theoretical orientations through a critical
appraisal of their assumptions and implications.
.)58/(,0+?)7/%'$
One hour formal lecture and one hour seminar discussion per week.
Assessment
100% coursework in the form of a 4000 word essay.
-*)&(9(,5*@+;)5'(,0
Maguire, M., Morgan, R. and Reiner, R. (2007) (Eds) The Oxford Handbook of Criminology, Oxford:
Clarendon Press (4
th
Edition).
Akers, R. L. & Sellers, C. A. (2004) Criminological Theories: Introduction, Evaluation and Application,
Los Angeles: Roxbury (4
th
Edition).
Cullen, F. T. & Agnew, R. (1999) Criminological Theory: Past to Present, Los Angeles: Roxbury.
Vold, G and Bernard, T, & Snipes, J. B. (2002) Theoretical Criminology 5
th
Edition, New York: Oxford
University.
Muncie, J. McLaughlin, E. and Hughes, G. (2003) (Eds) Criminological Perspectives, Buckingham:
Open University Press (2nd Edition).
Department of Criminology
36
Crime, Justice & Psychology (CR7124)
Term II
Module Leader: Dr Lisa Smith (ls149@le.ac.uk)
?%'2&)+>GO)87(=)$
Psychology is having more and more of an impact on the working practices of the Criminal Justice
System. This module aims to provide an introduction and overview of the role of psychological theory
and the work of psychologists within the Criminal Justice System. It explores the overlap between
psychology, law, and criminology focusing on a range of specialist topics.
?%'2&)+>27&(,)
This module involves a series of lectures and discussions focusing on the overlap between psychology,
criminology and the law. This includes topics from forensic psychology and psychiatry, the study of
crime and the criminal justice system, and from legal and investigative psychology. The lectures and
associated readings will provide a focal point for your own individual private study, and cover a range
of topics and issues focusing on human behaviour in the criminal justice process. In the lectures we
will proceed through the different stages of the CJS and look at how psychology contributes to our
understanding in these areas. This included discussions of psychological explanations for criminal
behaviour, and the contributions of psychology to the investigation and prosecution of crime and the
rehabilitation of offenders and prison behaviour.
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, students should be able to:
1. Demonstrate knowledge about the overlap between psychology, law and crime
2. Think critically about the compatibility of the disciples of law, psychology and criminology
3. Demonstrate theoretical understanding of psychology as applied in this setting
4. Explain and evaluate the impact that psychological theory and research has had on working
practices in the CJS from investigation and offender apprehension, to rehabilitation of offenders
and courtroom behaviour.
.)58/(,0+?)7/%'$
Formal lectures with informal group discussions.
Assessment
100% coursework.
-*)&(9(,5*@+;)5'(,0
Bartol, C. R. & Bartol, A. M. (Eds) (2005) Current perspectives in forensic psychology and criminal
justice, London: Sage.
Blackburn, R. (2001). The psychology of criminal conduct: Theory, research, and practice. New York:
Wiley.
Hayward, K. (2005) Psychology and crime: Understanding the interface, in C. Hale, K. Hayward, A.
Wahidin & E. Wincup (Eds) Criminology, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Howitt, D. (2011). Introduction to forensic and criminal psychology (4th ed), Essex: Pearson
Education Limited.
Jackson, J. L. and Bekerian, D. A. (eds) (1997) Offender profiling: Theory, research and practice,
Chichester: Wiley.
Kapardis, A. (2010) Psychology and law: A critical introduction (3rd ed), Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press.
McGuire, J. (2004). Understanding psychology and crime. Maidenhead: Open University Press.
Ogloff, J. R. P. (2002) Taking psychology and law into the 21st century, New York: Kluwer/Plenum.
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
37
Crime Prevention, and Community Safety
(SC7300)
Term II
Module Leader: Samantha Weston (sw204@le.ac.uk)
?%'2&)+>GO)87(=)$
This module aims to familiarise students with different approaches to crime prevention and the
theoretical and ideological premises underlying each of them.
?%'2&)+>27&(,)
This module involves a series of lectures and discussions focusing on crime prevention. As an
introduction, the module will examine the history of crime prevention and explore the various
techniques that have been used to measure the success of crime prevention programmes. The
module will introduce the main theories of prevention and reduction. These theories will range from
the early preventative understanding of classicist and positivist approaches, including situational,
social and community theories of prevention through to partnership approaches. The module will also
examine how such theories relate to and inform practice.
Learning Outcomes
By the end of the module typical students should be able to demonstrate that they can:
1. Compare the key theoretical approaches to crime prevention and crime reduction
2. Recognise the differences between crime prevention and crime reduction
3. Understand the strong relationship between ideology, theory and practice
4. Assess the strengths and limitations of the differing approaches to prevention and reduction
5. Approach the evaluation and crime prevention literature with an informed and critical perspective
6. Identify some of the political context and influences around the development of prevention and
reduction in the UK.
.)58/(,0+?)7/%'$
Formal lectures with informal group discussions
Assessment
80% coursework and 20% presentation
-*)&(9(,5*@+;)5'(,0
Tilley, N. (2010) Crime Prevention, Devon: Willan Publishing
Hughes, G., McLaughlin, E., and Muncie, J. (2001) Crime prevention and community safety: New
directions, London: Sage.
Crawford, A. (1998) Crime Prevention and Community Safety: Politics, policies, & Practices, Essex:
Longman.
Gilling, D. (1997) Crime Prevention: Theory, policy and politics, London: UCL
Hope, T. (Ed) (2000) Perspectives on Crime Reduction, Aldershot: Ashgate
Department of Criminology
38
Current Issues in Forensic Science and Justice
Term II
Module Leader: Dr Lisa Smith (ls149@le.ac.uk)
?%'2&)+>GO)87(=)$
The aims of this module are to provide students with the theoretical and conceptual framework
necessary to understand how forensic science contributes to the criminal justice system and
requires students to think critically about the application of science to the law, and the legal and
ethical implications of recent technological advances in forensic science practice.
?%'2&)+>27&(,)
The module consists of nine two-hour lecture/discussion sessions in which active participation is
encouraged.
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, students should be able to:
1. Understand the theoretical principles underlying forensic science practices, and how these
theories have developed historically
2. Understand the application of some common forensic science techniques in the context of
criminal investigations
3. Critically consider the most recent advances in forensic evidence technology, and the impact
these developments have had on the interpretation of forensic evidence
4. Critically consider legal and ethical issues associated with advances in forensic science (e.g.
DNA databases)
5. Critically consider how forensic evidence is presented in the courtroom, and the impact this has
on jury decision making and the potential for miscarriages of justice
6. Appreciate the impact of recent case law on the future of forensic science practice, both in the
UK and North America
7. Critically consider media portrayals of forensic science, and how this may be affecting the
publics perception of police investigations and courtroom outcomes
.)58/(,0+?)7/%'$
Lectures, interactive activities, and group discussions
Assessment
100% coursework; one essay not exceeding 4,000 words
-*)&(9(,5*@+;)5'(,0
Fraser, J. and Williams, R. (2009) Handbook of Forensic Science, Cullompton: Willan.
McCartney, C. (2006) Forensic Identification and Criminal Justice: Forensic Science, Justice, and
Risk, Cullompton: Willan.
Williams, R. and Johnson, P. (2008) Genetic Policing: The use of DNA in Criminal Investigations,
Cullompton: Willan.
White, P.C. (2004) Crime Scene to Court: The Essentials of Forensic Science, 2nd ed., Cambridge:
The Royal Society of Chemistry.
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
39
Drugs and Crime (CR7045)
Term II
Module Leader: Tammy Ayres (tca2@le.ac.uk)
?%'2&)+>GO)87(=)$
Drug use is now a vast and extremely complicated area and, clearly, not everything can be covered
in the module. The focus is, therefore, on a number of fundamental issues aimed at providing a
comprehensive overview of the subject.
?%'2&)+>27&(,)
The module Drugs and Crime, focuses on the key issues that arise when attempting to deal with the
problem of drug use, particularly in a criminal justice context. The module takes a multi-disciplined
approach to the issues discussed. It focuses on demand reduction, not supply reduction. More
specifically, it will examine why certain drugs have been historically constructed and defined as illicit,
and certain drug users vilified.
The module will begin by deconstructing the stereotypical perceptions people have regarding drugs.
It will detail the physical and psychological effects of both licit and illicit substances, providing a
general background for subsequent lectures. The rest of the module will examine contemporary
issues surrounding drugs and drug users, including intravenous drug use, the normalisation debate
and illicit drug use during pregnancy. Despite extensive coverage in the public arena on the subject
of drugs, the rhetoric does not match the reality. Instead the debate surrounding drugs is premised
on mythology and the demonization of certain drugs and dug users, which has been historically
used to underpin government policy and treatment. Therefore, the aim of this module is to provide
a pragmatic overview of drugs, drug users and the relationship that exists between drugs and
criminality. Emphasis will be placed throughout the module on the evidence base underpinning
drug policy and the use of the criminal justice system to coerce drug users into treatment, through
the Drug Intervention Programme. The lectures on managing drugs in prison and the problems
associated with drug use in a secure setting, including the provision of sterile injecting equipment,
will draw the module to a close.
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, typical students should be able to:
1. Deconstruct and question the stereotypical perception of illicit drugs and illicit drug users.
2. Discuss the key theoretical concepts applicable to the discussion of drug use and treatment.
3. Critically explain the key historical developments in UK drug policy, and its twin-track approach.
4. Critically appraise the relationship that exists between drugs and crime, and apply the relevant
theories to its discussion.
5. Demonstrate a critical understanding of the fundamental issues surrounding drugs and crime
and leave with a comprehensive overview of the subject.
.)58/(,0+?)7/%'$
Formal lectures and seminars.
Assessment
100% coursework A portfolio of work.
-*)&(9(,5*@+;)5'(,0
Barton, A. (2003) Illicit Drugs: Use and Control, London: Routledge.
Bean, P. (2008) Drugs and Crime (3
rd
Edition), Cullompton: Willan Publishing.
Bennett, T. and Holloway, K. (2005) Understanding Drugs, Alcohol and Crime, Maidenhead:
Open University Press.
Hammersley, R. (2008) Drugs and Crime: Theories and Practices, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Robson, P. (2009) Forbidden Drugs (3
rd
Edition), Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Shewan, D. and Davies, J. B. (2000) Drug Use and Prisons, Amsterdam: Harwood.
Department of Criminology
40
Media and Crime (CR7470)
Term II
Module Leader: Samantha Weston (sw204@le.ac.uk)
?%'2&)+>GO)87(=)$
This module examines media constructions of crime and criminal justice. It considers how audiences
use media to make sense of the world, including the various social problems which characterise
contemporary life, and how media in all its forms can be said to inform individuals ideas about
offenders, victims and criminal justice professionals.
?%'2&)+>27&(,)
This module involves a series of lectures and discussions focusing on the overlap between criminology
and the media. This includes theories and topics from the study of crime and the criminal justice
system, and from media and cultural studies. The module will explore a wide range of important social
issues and specific recent case studies within a framework of the main theoretical perspectives which
have characterised the history and development of both media research and criminology over the
last fifty years. The lectures will provide a focal point for your own individual private study, and cover
a range of topics and issues ranging across both traditional and new media, including cybercrime.
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, typical students should be able to:
1. Demonstrate knowledge about the overlap between media, culture and crime;
2. Think critically about the compatibility of media/cultural studies and criminology;
3. Demonstrate understanding of the theoretical perspectives that have shaped the fields of
criminology and media studies;
4. Explain and evaluate the impact that media theory and research has had on public understandings
of crime, victimization and the CJS;
5. Demonstrate understanding of the significance of new and emerging media technologies,
including surveillance and cyber technologies.
.)58/(,0+?)7/%'$
Formal lectures with informal group discussions.
Assessment
100% coursework.
6%*)+;)5'(,0
Jewkes, Y. (2010) Media and Crime 2nd edition, London: Sage.
Crime, Media, Culture: an international journal.
>7/)*+;)8%99),')'+;)5'(,0
Barak, G. (1995) Media, Process and the Social Construction of Crime: studies in newsmaking
criminology, London: Routledge.
Brown, S. (2003) Crime and Law in Media Culture, Buckingham: Open University Press.
Carrabine, E. (2008) Crime, Culture and the Media, Cambridge: Polity.
Greer, C. (2009) Crime and Media: A Reader, London: Routledge.
Greer, C. (2005) Crime and Media: understanding the connections in C. Hale, K. Hayward, A.
Wahidin and E. Wincup (eds.) Criminology, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Jewkes, Y. (2009) Crime and Media: Three Volume Set (Sage).
Jewkes, Y. (ed.) (2007) Crime Online, Cullompton: Willan.
Jewkes, Y. and Yar, M. (eds) (2010) Handbook of Internet Crime, Cullompton: Willan.
Kidd-Hewitt, D. and Osborne, R. (1996) Crime and the Media: the postmodern spectacle, London:
Pluto Press.
Mason, P. (2003) Criminal Visions: Media Representations of Crime and Justice, Cullompton: Willan.
Newburn, T. (2007) Crime and the media in Criminology, Cullompton: Willan
Yar, M. (2006) Cybercrime and Society, London: Sage.
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
41
Practice Placement (CR7104)
Term II (Applied Criminology only)
Module Leader: Professor Yvonne Jewkes (yj25@le.ac.uk)
?%'2&)+>GO)87(=)$
This module is primarily designed explicitly to offer MSc Applied Criminology students the
opportunity to gain practical experience of working within a criminal justice setting.
?%'2&)+>27&(,)
The placement module is rather unconventional when compared to other campus-based postgraduate
modules in that it relies less upon directed teaching and more upon independent thought and action
on the part of the student. The purpose of the module is to prepare students for a 28-day work
placement which is to be undertaken in a criminal justice setting of their choosing, usually at the
end of Semester Two.
The placement is designed essentially to be a student-led experience in that the students
themselves will be expected to establish contact with an organisation of their choosing with a view
to organising a placement. In conjunction with the module leader students will decide upon their
areas of interest and draw up a list of potential placement organisations, and early supervisions and
tutorials will be geared towards identifying possible placement sites that would allow the students
to demonstrate their application of criminological theory and knowledge in a practitioner-based
criminal justice setting. Setting up a suitable placement will inevitably require some degree of
negotiation and proactivity on the part of the student in terms of establishing access, demonstrating
an understanding of the work undertaken by a particular organisation and taking account of other
key ethical and methodological considerations that might apply to their placement experience.
Having secured their placement with an organisation of their choosing, students will then be
required to identify the aims and objectives of their placement experience, and these will need to be
approved by both the module leader and the placement organisation. A contract will also be drawn
up and approved by the module leader and the placement organisation as a way of ensuring that all
parties are wholly clear on the purpose of the placement and the responsibilites of the student and
organisation. In addition, and under the guidance of the module leader, students will develop a more
enhanced understanding of the more practical and theoretical apsects of the work to be conducted
during their placement experience in advance of the actual placement itself.
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, typical students should be able to:
1. Critically analyse their experience of working within in a practitioner-based criminal justice
environment
2. Demonstrate an understanding of how academic research can be used by criminal justice
pratitioners to inform policy and practice
3. Demonstrate their application of criminological theory and knowledge in a practitioner-based
criminal justice setting
4. Display an enhanced understanding of the working policies and practices of criminal justice
pratitioners
.)58/(,0+?)7/%'$
Seminars and one-to-one tutorials.
Assessment
85% final placement report (to be submitted at the end of Semester Two) and 15% preliminary
placement progress report (to be submitted at the end of Semester One).
Department of Criminology
42
Racism, Crime and Disorder (CR7028)
Term II
Module Leader: Jon Garland (jgd@le.ac.uk)
?%'2&)+>GO)87(=)$
The aim of this module is to investigate how theories of race, racism and identity can explain
racialised ideas of criminal and disorderly behaviour. The module also examines debates
surrounding the politics of race relations and the policing of multicultural Britain.
?%'2&)+>27&(,)
This module explores key issues surrounding racist harassment, crime and disorder. It introduces
a range of theoretical perspectives on racism and identity, and relates these to the context of
British society in the post 9/11 and 7/7 climates. It examines the way that ideas of race are
socially constructed within our society, taking a critical criminological stance. The nature of
multiculturalism, ethnicity and community are debated and assessed. Central topics include
theories of racism; racism in British society; racist violence and harassment; the far-right including
the English Defence League; policing minority ethnic communities; racism and rurality; hate crime;
anti-Semitism; racism and identity in Europe; racism and the criminal justice system, and the future
of multicultural Britain. The riots of 2011 will be examined in depth.
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, typical students should be able to:
1. Discuss the key sociological and criminological theories of how ideas of race and identity are
socially constructed and defined.
2. Be able to think critically about established knowledge regarding racism and ethnicity and be
able to deconstruct accepted notions of race.
3. Apply theories of identity and community to contemporary debates about multiculturalism.
4. Discuss relevant examples of racist violence and harassment and broader ideas of hate crime.
5. Debate the factors that influence the relationship between minority ethnic communities and
various criminal justice agencies.
.)58/(,0+?)7/%'$
Formal lectures and informal class discussions.
Assessment
80% coursework 20% presentation.
-*)&(9(,5*@+;)5'(,0
Bragg, B. (2006) The Progressive Patriot: A Search for Belonging, London: Bantam Press.
Chakraborti, N. and Garland, J. (2009) Hate Crime: Issues, Causes and Responses, London: Sage.
Eatwell, R. and Goodwin, M.J. (eds) (2010) The New Extremism in 21
st
Century Britain, London:
Routledge.
Fekete, L. (2009) A Suitable Enemy: Racism, Migration and Islamophobia in Europe, London: Pluto
Press.
Finney, N. and Simpson, L. (2009) Sleepwalking to Segregation? Challenging Myths about Race and
Migration. Bristol: Policy Press.
Rowe, M. (ed.) (2007) Policing Beyond Macpherson: Issues in Policing, Race and Society, Cullompton:
Willan.
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
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Sexual Violence (CR7099)
Term II
Module Leader: Samantha Weston (sw204@le.ac.uk)
?%'2&)+>GO)87(=)$
Criminology and victimology inform many applied areas affecting policy making decisions, public
perceptions of individuals as victims or offenders, victim services and treatment perspectives.
This module aims to provide an introduction to victimology, and an overview of the influence of
criminology and related disciplines on issues pertaining to victims and perpetrators of sexual
violence. It explores a multi-disciplinary approach incorporating criminology, victimology, sociology,
and psychology when examining a range of specialist topics in relation to sexual violence.
?%'2&)+>27&(,)
This module involves a series of lectures and discussions focusing on the multidisciplinary approach
to the extensive topic of sexual violence. It draws on the subject areas of sociology, psychology,
criminology, victimology and law. This module explores key issues relating to sexual violence and
provides an introduction to victimology and gender-based perspectives on violent and sex crimes.
The broad spectrum of acts which are encompassed by the term of sexual violence are discussed,
such as: rape, prostitution, sex trafficking, domestic violence and transphobic hate crimes (with
sexually violent characteristics). In addition, there is an applied aspect whereby victim services
politics and policies in the United States and United Kingdom are compared and contrasted;
treatment programs for domestic and sexual violence perpetrators are also examined. Thus, the
focus of this module alternates between the victim and the perpetrator to provide a holistic view of
sexually violent criminal behaviour, its perpetration and impact.
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, typical students should be able to:
1. Demonstrate knowledge of sociological, criminological, victimological and psychological
theories and how a multidisciplinary approach can be beneficial in explaining criminal behaviour
2. Think critically about the impact of government policies and legislation on victims and offenders
3. Demonstrate theoretical understanding particularly of criminological and victimological theories
and their application to sexually violent behaviour
4. Explain and evaluate the impact of criminological and victimological theories in their application
to real world contexts
.)58/(,0+?)7/%'$
Formal lectures with informal group discussions.
Assessment
100% coursework.
-*)&(9(,5*@+;)5'(,0
Brown, J.M. and Walklate, S. (due to be published Oct 2011). Handbook on Sexual Violence,
London:Routledge
Kelly, L. (1989). Surviving Sexual Violence. Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Stanko, E.A. (2002). (ed.) The Meanings of Violence. London: Routledge.
Walklate, S. (2007). Handbook of Victims and Victimology. Cullompton: Willan.
Newburn, T. & Stanko, E. (1994). When Men are Victims: The Failure of Victimology, in T. Newburn
and E. A. Stanko (eds.). Just Boys Doing Business: Men, Masculinities and Crime, 153-165.
London: Routledge.
Dobash, R. E. & Dobash, R. P. (1998) (eds.). Rethinking Violence Against Women. London: Sage.
Department of Criminology
44
Surveillance and Society (CR7133)
Term II
Module Leader: Adrian Beck (bna@le.ac.uk)
?%'2&)+>GO)87(=)$
This module provides students with a critical overview of the nature of surveillance in modern societies
and how State and non state organisations use technologies to collect, analyse and disseminate
information.
?%'2&)+>27&(,)
This module will look in detail at the nature, scale and extent of surveillance in modern societies
and how academic theories are evolving to understand its impact. It will look in particular at the
way in which surveillance technologies are being used by governments and private organisations,
their impact upon theories of social control and security, and the protection of civil liberties and
human rights. The two hour lecture and seminar programme runs over nine weeks. The lectures
offer a general introduction to the main theoretical and empirical issues and provide a framework
for analysing more specific case studies. In addition, seminars provide a forum for discussion of
key issues and interactive formulation of student research agendas. They may involve student
presentations and group work.
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, typical students should be able to:
1. Provide an overview of the different theoretical orientations that have been developed to explain
the nature of surveillance in modern societies.
2. Articulate how different organisations collect, analyse and use data to interact with, and monitor
and control, citizens.
3. Understand the way in which surveillance is becoming enmeshed in the lives of citizens
4. Assess the benefits and limitations in the use of a wide range of technologies to gather, access
and distribute information.
5. Critically reflect on whether modern societies are increasingly becoming surveillance states.
.)58/(,0+?)7/%'$
Formal lectures and informal class discussions.
Assessment
100% coursework.
-*)&(9(,5*@+;)5'(,0
Garland, D. (2001) The Culture of Control: Crime and Social Order in Contemporary Society, Oxford:
Oxford University Press.
Huxley, A. (1973) Brave New World, London: Longman.
Lyon D. (2006) (ed) Theorizing Surveillance: The Panopticon and Beyond, Cullompton: Willan Publishing.
Lyon D. (2007) Surveillance Studies: An Overview, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Lyon. D. (2003) Surveillance After September 11, Cambridge: Polity Press.
Orwell, G. (1949) Nineteen Eighty Four, London: Secker and Warburg.
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
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Terrorism II: Responding to Terrorism (CR7132)
Term II
Module Leader: Dr Keith Spence (kgs3@le.ac.uk)
?%'2&)+>GO)87(=)$
This module explores the interpretation of, and response to, contemporary manifestations of terror
and terrorism. Exploring similarities and differences between the new terrorism and predecessor
forms using examples and case studies, the module considers the organisational form and socio-
political objectives of terrorist organisations, and the range of strategies and responses available in
potential response to the demands and challenges posed by terror in an era of intensive globalisation.
?%'2&)+>27&(,)
This module involves a series of lectures and discussions addressing aspects of recent formations
of terror and terrorism. The module pays due attention to relatively recent developments including
al-Qaeda and suicide terrorism but aims to do so within an expansive framework that reflects
the intractable complexity and highly contested nature of terror and terrorism - both of which are
enduring and irreducible aspects of human experience. To this end continuity as well as change
is accorded due significance within the materials covered, and a range of potential responses to
terror are considered, including legal, diplomatic, military, policing, development and humanitarian
initiatives. In evaluating the range of available strategies students are encouraged to reflect upon
the presuppositions and outcomes of current practices, most notably in the construction and pursuit
of global war against terror, and in so doing to consider anew the assumptions and consequences
attending the deployment of the terms terror, terrorism and terrorist.
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, typical students should be able to:
1. Demonstrate critical understanding of the connections and dependencies between contemporary
forms of terrorist activity and their historical antecedents.
2. Understand and assess the structure of terrorist organisations, and the relationship between
these structures and the social and political forms that they ostensibly target.
3. Identify and evaluate models of response employed in order to counter perceived threats from
terror and terrorism.
4. Discuss relevant examples and case studies of terrorism, terrorists and counter-terrorist
strategies.
5. Demonstrate the ability to think critically about established knowledge concerning terror and
terrorism, and the forms of understanding and response that such assumptions provoke and
justify.
.)58/(,0+?)7/%'$
Formal lectures, informal student presentations and seminar discussions.
Assessment
100% coursework.
-*)&(9(,5*@+;)5'(,0
Bobbitt, P (2008) !"##$#%&'(%)$'*"'+,%!-"%.&#*%/$#%+-"%+."'+01/2#*+%3"'+4#0. London: Allwn Lane.
Booth, K (ed.) (2004) Critical Security Studies and World Politics. London: Lynne Reiner.
Hoffman, B (2006) Inside Terrorism (revised edition). New York: Columbia University Press.
Martin, G. (ed.) (2004) The New Era of Terrorism: A Critical Reader, London: Sage.
Richardson, L. (2006) What terrorists want: understanding the enemy, containing the threat. New
York: Random House.
Silke, A. (ed.) (2004) Research on terror: trends, achievements and failures. London: Frank Cass.
Department of Criminology
46
Transnational Policing (CR7134)
Term II
Module Leader: Dr Laure Guille (lg110@le.ac.uk)
?%'2&)+>GO)87(=)$
Combating the many forms of organised crime needs an efficient policing response at European and
international levels. The aim of this module is therefore to consider the theoretical and practical
operation of the many existing structures of police (and judicial) cooperation that currently exist
between state and non-state sponsored organisations and agencies.
?%'2&)+>27&(,)
Since the terrorist attacks of 7/7, 9/11 and 11/3 the governments have prioritised the development of
police and judicial cooperation. As a result, new agencies, networks and structures (such as Europol,
Eurojust, Centres for Police and Customs Cooperation) have appeared within the European Union
with the aim of facilitating and improving cooperation between the member states.
This module will start by giving a comprehensive overview, with historical background, of the different
mechanisms that are available for law enforcement agencies to exchange information. Then it will
examine the links these instruments of cooperation have or can have between each other, their roles
and how they actually operate. The relationship between international police structures and national
police organisations will be addressed and the meso level will be taken into account (Interpol and
Europol) seeing the impact and/or influence it has on the micro level (practitioners in the field).
The module will also involve key issues related to cooperation (cultural elements, accountability,
etc.) and explore the various levels at which cooperation is involved, including an in-depth study of
bilateral and multilateral levels of cooperation. This topic will allow for further discussions, such
as whether one model provides more flexibility and adaptability for the police officers working
practices than the other and whether they are appropriate to trans-national criminality. Case studies
will be used to give a good insight of practical police cooperation methods.
Learning Outcomes
At the end of this module, typical students should be able to:
1. Be familiar with the historical development of the different structures, networks and agencies
that are available for law enforcement agencies at national, regional and European level.
2. Demonstrate a critical understanding of the roles of the instruments of cooperation and assess
whether they fulfil their objectives.
3. Discuss the challenges in transnational cooperation work.
4. Demonstrate a critical understanding of the fundamental issues surrounding police and judicial
cooperation.
5. Analyse whether the current situation of cooperation is appropriate to fight transnational
organised crime.
6. Be able to think critically about future developments in cooperation.
.)58/(,0+?)7/%'$
This module involves a weekly 2-hour lecture and seminar session and informal class discussions.
Assessment
Assessment is by one 4,000 word essay which constitutes 100% of the module mark.
-*)&(9(,5*@+;)5'(,0
Anderson, M. and Den Boer, M. (1994) Policing Across National Boundaries. London: Pinter.
Anderson, M. et al. (1995) Policing the European Union. Theory, Law and Practice. Oxford: Clarendon
Press.
Deflem, M. (2002) Policing World Society. Historical Foundations of International Police Cooperation.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Gerspacher, N. (2005) Beyond mandates, toward unintended Roles: International police cooperation
organizations do their part in the fight against transnational crime. European Journal of Crime,
Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, Vol. 13 (3), pp. 413-434.
Occhipinti, J. D. (2003) The Politics of EU Police Cooperation: Towards a European FBI? London:
Lynne Rienner Publishers.
Sheptycki, J. W. E. (2002) In Search of Transnational Policing. Towards a Sociology of Global Policing.
Aldershot: Ashgate publishing.
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
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Dissertation (CR7021)
Term III
Module Leaders: Dr Darrick Jolliffe (dj39@le.ac.uk)
& Dr Lisa Smith (ls149@le.ac.uk)
?%'2&)+>GO)87(=)$
The aims of the dissertation are to assess students research and personal study skills. In addition,
the dissertation provides the students with an opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge and
understanding of a chosen research topic. The dissertation (20,000 words) should build upon the
knowledge, skills and understanding that have been gained in the previous six modules.
?%'2&)+>27&(,)
Students will be able to identify their own topic for investigation. This will involve a careful
consideration of the extant literature on a topic, the identification of where useful contributions can
be made within this area of research and an assessment of the most appropriate methodologies
to accomplish this task. Students will be supported through this process by a supervisor. The
dissertation will allow the student to research a topic that they are interested in, facilitate a greater
depth of knowledge and provide an opportunity to demonstrate analytical skills.
Learning Outcomes
1. Demonstrate understanding of theory and analysis in a research context.
2. Identify planning issues integral to the research problem including aims, objectives and
methodology.
3. Explore the existing literature on a subject and integrate background reading from th eliterature
with other information.
4. Demonstrate the knowledge and appropraite use of research methodology (theory and practice).
5. Collect, collate and analyse information and data.
6. Discuss the implications of research findings.
.)58/(,0+?)7/%'$
Two dissertation workshops and one-to-one meetings with their allocated supervisor.
Assessment
100% coursework.
-*)&(9(,5*@+;)5'(,0
There are a number of texts on writing dissertations and completing research. Most of them will give
students an idea of the common issues and problems to be considered.
Rudestam, K. E. & Newton, R. R. (2007). Surviving your dissertation: a comprehensive guide to content
and process, London: Sage.
Swetnam, D. (2000). Writing your dissertation: How to plan, prepare and present successful work.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Department of Criminology
48
STUDENT SUPPORT
Pastoral Care
You will be given a pastoral tutor on your arrival here who will act as your personal tutor
for the duration of your programme. Personal tutors are the first point of contact if you
need help or advice of a non-academic nature. Your tutor can put you in touch with all
Student Support and Welfare Services in the University, and can provide you with help and
guidance throughout your time in the Department. You should only contact the Course
Convenor or Deputy Course Convenor about non-academic issues if you have already
made contact with your personal tutor.
E72'),7+F)5*,(,0+6),7*)
The Student Learning Centre provides practical advice and information to all students on any
aspect of study.
Individual consultations are available through appointments, and give students an
opportunity to discuss study skills queries. Maths Help provides individual consultations for
the development of maths and statistics at any level. Research skills consultations provide
individual advice on how to most effectively undertake a research degree. There are also
programmes of central study workshops for undergraduate ad postgraduate students each
semester. A wide range of study groups are freely available from the Student Development
Zone in the David Wilson Library or from our website. Contact the Centre or check the
website for further details of any of our services.
Contact: Student Learning Centre, Student Development Zone, David Wilson Library.
Telephone: 0116 252 5090, e-mail: studentlearning@le.ac.uk, web: http://www.le.ac.uk/slc/
Careers Service
Whether its developing the skills you need to succeed on your course, or in your life
beyond university, the Careers Serviceis here to support and facilitate your academic,
professional and personal development.
Visit the Careers Service in the David Wilson Library to access our extensive range of
resources: we have over 50 different study guide titles and 20 career development guides, so
whether its writing better essays or building a CV, instant advice is available to take away.
You can also access these resources from our website along with a range of online resources
such as interactive study skills tutorials and videos on developing your career prospects.
One-to-one advice is available via study consultations, research consultations, maths help
and careers consultations. You can see our advisors face-to-face in the Careers Service
or use our website to find out how to access our services remotely. Every term, we have a
busy programme of interactive workshops covering a diverse range of topics. Our learning
development titles range from avoiding plagiarism to improving your essay writing, to
giving effective presentations. Career development titles cover all the essential areas such
as CV writing, job searching, application forms and interview skills.
The Careers Service provides lots of opportunities for you to develop your employability
skills whilst at University. We maintain strong links with employers and advertise their
vacancies and work experience opportunities through JOBSonline (on our website).
We have a busy programme of employer-led events, from skills workshops to careers
fairs, and we organise numerous opportunities for you to make the most of your time
at University. Choose from a wide range of volunteering opportunities, work placement
schemes and enterprise activities, or take an accredited programme and gain a Leicester
Award in Employability skills.
Research postgraduates are catered for with resources, events and training specific to
their needs: from Starting your PhD workshops to University-wide events such as the
Annual Festival of Postgraduate Research.
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
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To find out more about how the Careers Service can enhance your success at university
and beyond, visit their website.
Contact: Careers Service, Student Development Zone, Second Floor, David Wilson Library
Tel: 0116 252 5090
Email: sdzhelpdesk@le.ac.uk
Website: www.le.ac.uk/careers
L2('5,8)+<%*+E72'),7$+3(7/+1@$&)"(5
The Department is keen to support dyslexic students in an attempt to lessen the stress
and anxiety they may experience when undertaking academic work. This section of the
handbook constitutes a step-by-step guide on Departmental policy on dyslexia based on
the University of Leicesters good practice guidelines, and outlines your options if you are,
or think you are, dyslexic.
Definition
Dyslexia is generally defined as an imbalance of skills where intellectual ability is
accompanied by unexpected specific learning difficulties that may be displayed in spelling,
reading, verbal/written expression of ideas and/or memory.
-*%8)'2*)
The Department of Criminology is happy to help students who are dyslexic, but it is
always the students choice whether they inform the Department or wish to proceed
with any assistance or advice we offer.
Any student who is dyslexic or experiences some or all of the above difficulties is
encouraged to inform their course administrator in writing as soon as possible (this is
separate from the application process and will not affect your application).
If an educational psychologist has formally identified your dyslexia, you should enclose
a copy of the report with your letter.
This letter will then be put on your file and copies sent to your course director and the
accessibility tutor.
We will not disclose this information to any other organisations or institutions outside
of the university (including future employers) unless you ask us to.
The course administrator can then alert you to the Universitys AccessAbility Centre.
The AccessAbility Centre will discuss with you your options and the support they can
offer. This can range from helping you develop coping strategies for managing your
study time, through to assisting you with proof-reading work for spelling mistakes,
grammar and errors in sentence structure.
They will also arrange for further assessment of difficulties and/or of needs if
necessary.
UK students may be entitled to a Disabled Students Allowance from their Local
Education Authority or the Economic and Social Research Council (if they are funding
their studies). Contact your LEA for details. Overseas students should consult their
local authority or funding body to find out if there is equivalent support available.
You should then send a copy of any further documentation of your needs to the course
administrator who will place it on your file and forward a copy to the accessibility tutor.
Department of Criminology
50
We will then offer you the option of putting a sticker on your assessed work that will
alert the marker that you are dyslexic.
All our markers have received the University guidelines and Department of Criminology/
AccessAbility Centre training on marking work by dyslexic students
You can contact the AccessAbility Centre independently of the Department of Criminology.
?5*A(,0+7/)+4%*A+%<+1@$&)"(8+E72'),7$
The degree of dyslexia experienced and the exact manifestations will differ from individual
to individual, the following act as guidelines for marking dyslexic students essays
(indicated through the sticker system):
The marker will focus on the content of the essay, and where possible will ignore minor
errors in spelling, punctuation, and errors in grammar.
The markers will also read parts of an essay twice if the meaning of a sentence/
paragraph is not obvious when it is read for the first time.
However, though the sticker system alerts the markers to allow for minor spelling,
punctuation and grammatical mistakes, it is the students responsibility to ensure that
the essay is adequately proof-read and edited to pass at masters level. For advice
about proof-reading you should contact the AccessAbility Centre.
We also encourage all students to ask a friend or interested party to read through the
essay before they hand it in to check that it flows well, that the sentence construction
is appropriate, and to screen for typing errors.
If you wish to discuss this further you should talk to the AccessAbility Centre, your Course
Convenor or the accessibility tutor Keith Spence (+44 [0]116 252 5768, email: kgs3@le.ac.
uk) at the Department of Criminology.
Chaplaincy
The University also has a Chaplaincy Centre on University Road, opposite Mayors Walk.
The University has a full-time Church of England Chaplain and a full-time Roman Catholic
Chaplain. There are also part-time Chaplains or honorary representatives covering most
faiths and denominations. The Chaplaincy Centre is a base for their work on campus and
is a place for worship, prayer and counselling. All students, with or without a declared
faith, are welcome.
E72'),7PE75<<+6%99(77))
The University recognises the benefits of a vigorous system of Student/Staff Committees.
This view is endorsed by the Course Convenor and staff of the Department of Criminology.
Each year a Student/Staff Committee functions within the Department on behalf of staff
and students involved in all taught postgraduate courses as well as postgraduate research
students.
The Committee enjoys no formal decision-making role it is purely consultative in
character. It is, however, an important forum for formal communication between staff and
students and for discussing matters of mutual concern.
Membership of the Committee consists of staff and students. Staff are represented by: the
Course Convenor and Deputy Course Convenor; the Course Administrator, and the Library
Information Specialist.
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
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Students are represented by one student from each of the following courses/groups:
MSc Criminology; MSc Criminology (Applied); MSc Criminology (Clinical); MSc Terrorism
Security and Policing; APG/PhD.
Election of student members will take place during the Induction Programme.
The Education Unit, based in the Students Union, can provide training and support for
student members. The Chair of the Student/Staff Committee is responsible for ensuring
that elections take place at the appropriate time and that student members are made
aware of the training/support available to them.
The Student/Staff Committee meets three times in each academic session. The Chair of
the Committee will arrange the first meeting and the Committee agrees the dates of the
next two meetings. It is important that all Student/Staff members are fully engaged with
the work of the Committee and attend regularly. Reasons for absence should be conveyed
to the Chair of the Committee in advance of the meeting.
Written agendas and minutes are prepared for all meetings. Student/staff members are
invited by the Chair of the Committee to submit items for the agenda in writing some two
weeks prior to the meeting. Agreed agendas are posted on the student notice boards prior
to the meeting and circulated to all members.
The taking of minutes is a staff responsibility and the Chair of the Committee is responsible
for organising this. Minutes are circulated to all members of the Committee as soon as is
practicable after a meeting.
A set of agendas/minutes is kept in the Course Administrators office for consultation by
members of the Committee, and will be posted on Blackboard. Minutes are forwarded to
the next staff meeting for discussion and action as necessary. The Chair of the Student/
Staff Committee is responsible for ensuring that the outcome of such discussion is
conveyed back.
Space is reserved on the student notice board for publicity of membership, agendas, and
minutes of staff/student committees. A nominated student member is responsible for
ensuring that this is kept up-to-date. A copy of agendas/minutes is sent to the Academic
Registrar who will arrange for one copy to be forwarded to the Education Unit in the
Students Union. Matters of general concern can, through this mechanism, be referred to
the Staff/Student Council.
Course Appraisal
The Department values the comments that students make on different aspects of their
courses and modules. Students complete a module and course evaluation form as part of
the assignment submission process on Blackboard. All appraisal forms are confidential
and anonymous.
COMPLAINTS PROCEDURE
If you are dissatisfied with any aspect of your studies at the Department of Criminology, you
may wish to make a formal complaint. Initially, attempts should be made to resolve any
outstanding issues by the convening of a meeting between yourself and the relevant Course
Convenor. If this fails to resolve the matter, then you can put your concerns in writing to the
Departmental Manager, Rachel Hopkins (tel. +44[0]116 252 3547, email: reh10@le.ac.uk).
The Departmental Manager will acknowledge receipt of the complaint and will, so far as is
reasonably practicable, respond in full within ten working days. If you are dissatisfied with
the response of the Departmental Manager, you have recourse to the Head of Department.
The Head of Department will acknowledge receipt of the complaint and will, so far as is
reasonably practicable, respond in full within ten working days.
Department of Criminology
52
If matters cannot be resolved at Departmental level, students should address any formal
complaint in writing to the senior officer responsible for the relevant area of activity.
Senior officers comprise:
The Heads of the Colleges (in relation to academic and other College matters) in such
cases, assistance to the Heads in the consideration of the complaint will be provided by
the Heads of College Administration.
The Librarian (in relation to the Library)
The Director of the IT Services (in relation to IT Services)
The Director of Residential and Catering Services (in relation to student accommodation,
and the Universitys catering and conference services)
The Registrar and Secretary (in relation to any aspect of the Universitys administration
and the operation of its administrative offices)
The Academic Affairs Officer of the Students Union (in relation to the Students Union;
a complaint to the Academic Affairs Officer will initiate proceedings under the Unions
own complaints procedure, as set out in the Regulations of the Union).
At this formal stage, the complaint must include full details of the unresolved issue,
the attempts made to secure a resolution, and the identification of the desired remedy.
The complaint must be accompanied by a complaints form which can be found on
CWIS http://www.le.ac.uk/academic/registry/AppealsComplaints/ComplaintsForm.doc.
The form requires complainants to provide their personal details (name, address, etc),
and a short summary of their complaint and the way in which it has been pursued to date,
including the names of those to whom their concerns have been addressed to date. The
senior officers have the right to refuse to consider complaints where students have made
no attempt to find a negotiated solution.
Students must complain on their own behalf; senior officers will not discuss or correspond
about such matters with third parties, including family members, other than in the
most exceptional circumstances, and then only with the students written permission.
Anonymous complaints are disallowed. Complaints submitted by e-mail will be accepted
by senior officers and will trigger the initiation of formal procedures. Complainants will,
however, be contacted by letter and asked to submit a signed complaints form in order to
ensure that the submission is genuinely their own.
Senior officers will immediately acknowledge in writing the receipt of any complaint, and will
initiate a review by seeking a written report from the head of the department/section/unit
against which the complaint is being issued. So far as is practicable the senior officer will
respond to the complainant in full within twenty eight days. The complainant will normally,
unless there is a significant practical impediment (for example, because the student is
overseas or is for some other reason unable to attend the University), be called for interview
during the period of investigation.
The University will respect a complainants desire for confidentiality unless this impedes
the course of the investigation, in which case the complainant will be given the options of
pursuing the complaint with a reduced level of confidentiality or accepting the status quo.
Appeals
Appeals against the responses of senior officers to formal complaints must be submitted
in writing to the Academic Registrar, Fielding Johnson Building, who will immediately
acknowledge the receipt of any such appeal and assign a member of the administrative
staff of the Academic and Research Services to manage the appeal process. The appeal
will be heard by a panel comprising of either the Vice-Chancellor or the Senior Pro-Vice-
Chancellor (in the Chair) and one other Pro-Vice-Chancellor. Unless the complaint relates
to the activities of the Students Union, the Academic Affairs Officer, will be invited to attend
the appeal as an observer. The panel will interview the student, who may be accompanied
by a member of the University of his/her choosing, the senior officer responsible for
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
53
considering the complaint, and such other parties to the complaint as it feels necessary,
and it will review all the relevant paperwork. The panel is also authorised to request further
informal discussion between the parties. So far as is practicable, the appeal process will be
conducted, and the outcome announced, within twenty five working days of the receipt of
the appeal request, and dates in the Universitys calendar of meetings will be set aside to
facilitate this. The decision of the appeals panel shall be regarded as final.
At the conclusion of the appeal, the student will be sent a completion of procedures letter
and details about the Office of the Independent Adjudicator.
Advice on the operation of the complaints procedure can be obtained from the Academic
Registrar, Fielding Johnson Building (tel: 0116 252 2419), or from the Education Unit,
Students Union (tel: 0116 223 1132, e-mail: educationunit@le.ac.uk). The latter can also
provide assistance in formulating complaints, and in supporting students throughout the
formal stages of the complaints procedure.
OTHER USEFUL INFORMATION
Communication
It is important that you inform your Course Administrator of any change of address,
telephone number or email throughout the year to enable us to keep our records up-to-
date. This is especially important during the summer term. The best way of doing this to
email the administrator or leave a message in the administrators post box. Please take
note of Office hours for both Lecturers and the Administrator which will be displayed on
their office doors, on the MSc Student Notice Board, and on Blackboard. These are the
times they are available to see you. You can also contact lecturers by email. Messages can
be left in their pigeonholes or on their answer phones when they are not available.
Health Care
Full-time students living in University accommodation or near the University should
register with the University Health Centre situated on Freemans Common on Welford
Road, which is a few minutes walk from the main campus. Part-time students may attend
in an emergency.
1)C5*79),7+K88)$$+5,'+E)82*(7@
The Department operates a security policy that everyone is required to observe. This
includes some access control procedures, although the Department tries to remain
as open and welcoming as possible. The aim is to keep staff, students, equipment and
resources safe and secure, whilst allowing maximum legitimate access to the building.
Precise access times and other aspects will be discussed at the time of induction.
However, a few general points should be mentioned here:
Arrangements will be made during induction for students to be issued with a swipe card
enabling them to access the front door of 154 Upper New Walk between 9.00am and 5.00pm
Monday to Fridays. If you are unable to pick up a card at induction, you can obtain one from
the Security Lodge, Entrance 1 at the main campus, between 3.00pm and 4.00pm. Please
note that these cards are for personal use only and must not be loaned to anyone else. You
must also be careful not to allow other people to enter the building who do not have a swipe
card. Note also that there is a 10 deposit required before a card can be issued.
Visitors wishing to enter the building at the same time as those who work or study in
the Department should be politely directed to the Reception Office.
It is hoped that these simple measures are reasonable and practical. However, to ensure
their effectiveness, occupants must remember that security at the Department is the
responsibility of everyone.
Department of Criminology
54
If you experience any problems with the swipe cards please contact the relevant
administrator, Room 003, Ground Floor, Security Lodge, Entrance 1 at the main campus,
between 3.00pm and 4.00pm.
The University does not accept responsibility for personal belongings, books or equipment
of students, which is either damaged or stolen on University premises. It does have
third-party insurance, which provides it with indemnity in respect of its legal liability
to compensate students who suffer injury, damage to property etc., where proof of
negligence on the part of the University can be established. In any event, do not leave
money or possessions lying around. All sites within the Department and the University are
vulnerable to theft. We ask all members of the Department to be security conscious and
to look out for suspicious people in the buildings. Doors should be kept secure after 5pm.
A lost property service operates from the Security Lodge, which is situated on the junction
of the driveway leading to the main entrance of the Fielding Johnson Building.
The Department operates a burglar alarm system and the building should not be entered
once the alarm set notice is displayed in the window of the side door.
J(*)+K&5*9+5,'+!$85C)+;%27)$
Students should read carefully the notices displayed on each floor of The Friars and 6
Salisbury Road regarding nearest escape routes. On hearing the fire alarm, all occupants
of the building should vacate the premises via the nearest exit and wait outside the front
of the building for the all-clear.
65*+-5*A(,0
Unfortunately, there are limited car parking facilities at the Department and these are
reserved strictly for staff and visitors to the Department . The nearest parking is at Victoria
Park car park. Please do not park on the few spaces we have as the Department does have
a constant flow of visitors. Please note that the University operates a policy of clamping
any unauthorised vehicles parked on its property and regular patrols are made of the
Departments car parks. Your co-operation is greatly appreciated.
Q(8@8&)+-5*A(,0
There is bicycle parking space in the outhouses at the rear of The Friars. If you would like to
park your bicycle there, please see Administrators in the Reception Office. Arrangements
can be made for you to have a key to the outhouse on payment of a refundable deposit of
5. Please do not park your bicycle by the railings at the side or front of The Friars.
Photocopying
Students may use the photocopier at the Department situated on the ground floor. See
Reception staff. Cost is 6p per page.
6%<<))+5,'+.)5
Staff run a coffee fund and contribute 6 a month. If you would like to use the kitchen
facilities, this is located in the small kitchen on the first floor of the Friars. Please put 40p
per drink in the jar provided. You may need to provide your own mugs.
Kitchen
Please leave the kitchen clean and tidy. The cleaner is not responsible for washing
students cups and cutlery. Each person is requested to help keep this area clean.
If drinks are taken into seminar rooms or the Resource Centre please ensure that cups
are returned to the kitchen and washed. Please ensure that seminar rooms are left in a
suitably tidy state, ready for use by others. It would be useful if students could volunteer
to tidy seminar rooms and wash-up after meetings.
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
55
E9%A(,0
Smoking is not permitted in the communal areas in any of the buildings. Your co-operation
is appreciated for the comfort of all.
OVERSEAS STUDENTS
In recent years overseas students have come to study at the Department from Africa,
Asia, the Caribbean, Europe, the Indian subcontinent, North America and the Far East.
They have joined students registered in other departments at the University from over 70
different countries.
It is, of course, not easy to travel many miles to the UK and then settle down quickly
to begin ones studies. The University offers international students various types of
accommodation, including self-catering houses for those who wish to cook their own food,
and living in student residences gives overseas students the opportunity to adapt to life at
the University and to make new friends. There are also many social, cultural and sports
clubs and societies to join.
We pride ourselves on the warm welcome that we offer to our overseas students in the
Department and in the wider University. There is an extensive network of welfare and
advisory services in the University and in the Students Union and students from abroad
should not hesitate to contact them about any concerns.
In the Department, we are anxious to ensure that the stay of all our overseas visitors and
students is as pleasant and trouble-free as possible. Please speak to your tutor, or any
other member of staff, about any problems that you experience. In the past we have been
able to help students with various difficulties but we cannot do this if you do not approach
us. If we cannot solve the problem, we should at least be able to point you in the direction
of someone who can!
Of course, we hope that your time at the University of Leicester and your studies proceed
smoothly, without any problems, and we hope you have a happy and satisfying stay and
that your studies may flourish.
English Language Teaching Unit
The English Language Teaching Unit has excellent, modern language learning
facilities and is to be found at 96-98 Regent Road, Leicester LE1 7DF . The Unit can
offer assistance both for academic and social purposes if you are concerned about
your ability to communicate in English. The Unit offers a large collection of English
language learning materials books, audio and video tapes and Computer Aided
Learning (CAL) in the Self Access Centre. Advice on their use is available on request.
This facility is open from 9.00am to 5.00pm most weekdays. A fee of 15 per year is
payable for this facility. The English Language Teaching Unit secretary, (Telephone
(0116) 229 7857), will register you on request. Further information can be found on
the English Language Teaching Unit web pages at http://www2.le.ac.uk/offices/eltu.
The English Language Teaching Unit offers a range of classes in areas such as
pronunciation, academic writing, seminars skills, listening and note-taking, study and
writing/speaking skills. Contact the English Language Teaching Unit at the start of the
new term if you wish to enrol, or if you want further information.
Whatever your concern, whether it is understanding lectures or writing dissertations,
the English Language Teaching Unit can help.
Department of Criminology
56
R,(=)*$(7@+*)S2(*)9),7$+<%*+,)3+%=)*$)5$+$72'),7$
If the University provides you with a CAS (Confirmation of Acceptance for Studies) and you
use this to obtain a visa to enter or remain in the UK, the University will be your sponsor
for the duration of your visa. As part of the Tier 4 immigration system both the student and
the sponsor are obliged to meet certain requirements.
At the point of registration and throughout the duration of your study, you will be required
to:
Provide a valid Tier 4 visa with the Universitys sponsor number, and your passport (or
other travel document)
You must provide these during central registration for international students. See http://
www.le.ac.uk/academic/registry/Registration/index.html for more information.
If you are unable to provide these for any reason you will be expected provide a letter
from the Home Office or evidence to show your visa application is still being processed
or has been successful.
If at any point during your studies at the University these documents are renewed, you
must provide a copy of your new documents as soon as you receive them by bringing
them to the Registry.
If you fail to provide these documents as requested the University may advise the UK
Border Agency(UKBA) that your sponsorship has been withdrawn.
Provide your up-to-date personal contact details
This includes your permanent home address, your term-time (local) address and your
UK telephone numbers.
These must be provided by you during online registration. If any of these contact details
change after you have registered, you must advise the University of the change by
completing and returning to the Registry a Change of Address form (http://www.le.ac.
uk/academic/registry/studentforms.html).
Attendance Requirements
The University is required by UKBA to undertake two checkpoints during the academic
year that indicate your continued attendance on your programme of study. Further
details of these checkpoints will be notified to you by the Registry.
You must ensure that you follow departmental procedure and provide appropriate
medical certificates for periods of absence. A notification of absence form must be
completed upon your return and be supported by substantiating evidence such as
medical documentation.
Notify the University if you decide to withdraw
If you decide to withdraw permanently temporarily or from your studies at any time
before completing your course, you must advise the University immediately by completing
and returning to the Registry the relevant withdrawal form (http://www.le.ac.uk/academic/
registry/studentforms.html).
University of Leicester Sponsor Requirements
As your immigration sponsor the University is legally obliged to fulfil a number of duties.
This includes the requirement to keep records of your personal contact details and keep
copies of your passport and visa document (see above).
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
57
The University is also required to report information to UKBA about any student who:
1. Defers the start date (commencement) of their course after using a CAS, issued by the
University, to gain entry to the UK
2. Does not start their course for any other reason after using a CAS, issued by the
University, to gain entry to the UK
3. Does not complete registration (online and central registration)
4. Does not meet attendance requirements
5. Withdraws temporarily from their studies for any reason
6. Withdraws permanently from their studies without completing their course
7. Changes to a shorter course, changes to a course that does not meet Tier 4
requirements (for example a part-time course), or who finish their studies early
8. Has had their course of study terminated
9. Has had their registration lapsed or cancelled for nonattendance or the non payment
of tuition fees.
The UKBA can bring your immigration permission to an end early if it is notified of any of
the above circumstances.
It is therefore very important to ensure that if any difficulties arise which will affect your
ability to attend your course you keep in contact with your department to keep them
updated on your situation. You may also wish to take advice from the International Welfare
Office about your immigration status.
Queries
If you have any queries about any of the above requirements please contact the Registry
on registry@le.ac.uk or by on telephone 0116 252 2448/3919.
If you require immigration advice or further information on submitting your Tier 4 visa
application please contact the International Welfare Office on intwelfare@le.ac.uk or by
telephone on 0 116 223 1185.
ASSESSMENT
Your progress on the course is assessed by coursework for each of the six modules and a
dissertation. Most modules are assessed by a single essay at the end of the module, although
some modules have multiple coursework and/or presentation assessment components. All
assignments are marked by academic assessors and are then reviewed by the external
examiner. You will not be notified of your results until they have been confirmed by the
exam boards in February (Term I assessments), July (Term II assessments) and November
(Dissertation and the award of your degree).
Submission Dates
The submission dates for the all coursework will be confirmed at the start of the module
when you are given your essay titles and details of any other assessments required. All
submission dates are shown on the timetable included in this Handbook, and it is very
important that your work reaches us by the specified date.
Department of Criminology
58
!"7),$(%,$+5,'+F57)+E2G9($$(%,$
Extensions are only granted in exceptional circumstances, must be applied for in advance
of the assessment hand in time and must be supported by medical or other written
evidence (for example, a note from a qualified counsellor, a social worker, solicitor, the
University Welfare or Accommodation staff). Exceptional circumstances are unforeseen or
unavoidable, are not within your control, can be corroborated by independent evidence and
must take place before the hand-in date. Minor ailments such as colds, sprains, tiredness
and headaches, foreseeable personal events, computer problems, misreading course
materials, transport problems and appointments are not considered exceptional. In order
to apply for an extension, first complete the Extension Request form (found on Blackboard
under the Course Materials button) and approach the Course Administrator who will discuss
the reasons for the extension. You may be granted an extension up to ten working days.
If you have not successfully applied for an extension before the hand-in date, the
Department will penalise you marks for every day the work is late. A late piece of work
is penalised 10% of the marks upon expiry of the deadline, and is penalised a further 5%
for every subsequent day it is late. Work that is submitted more than one week late will
not be marked and will be awarded a mark of zero. You will then be asked to resubmit.
Any resubmission can be awarded a mark no higher than 50%. Only one resubmission is
allowed for each piece of assessment, so if you fail a resubmission you will not be offered
another resubmission.
A submission is only considered to be complete when you have submitted your work in
both electronic and hard copies. You should make sure to safely keep any receipts for
submitted work.
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All assessed essays must be up to 3,000-4,000 words (you will be given a word limit for
each piece of work) excluding the list of references and any appendices. Dissertations must
be up to 20,000 words excluding the list of references and appendices. It is imperative that
students are aware of the importance of keeping within assessment word limits. There is no
fixed penalty for going under a word limit, although overly short assessments may indicate
insufficient academic content that brings its own punishment. Any pieces of work that go
over the word limit are at risk of having marks deducted from the final mark awarded for
the assessment. Word counts only apply to the main body of assessments: cover sheets, title
pages, essay titles, reference lists and any appendices are excluded from the total.
L*5'(,0+%<+(,'(=('25&+5$$)$$9),7$
For each piece of assessment you submit your work will be graded as below. You will be
told in advance the weighting of multiple assessments, and will be given an overall module
grade also in line with this grading
Distinction 70-100%
Merit 60-69%
Pass 50-59%
Fail 0-49%
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
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GRADING OF THE COURSES
Masters
To be awarded a masters degree a candidate must:
(i) obtain at least 90 credits at 50% or above in the taught modules and no more than
15 credits below 40%;
(ii) have satisfactorily completed all coursework requirements in the taught modules;
and
(iii) achieved a mark of 50% or above in the dissertation.
To be awarded a masters degree with merit a candidate must:
(i) obtain at least 60 credits at 60% or more in the taught modules;
(ii) achieve a mark of 60% or above for the dissertation; and
(iii) have no fail marks
To be awarded a masters degree with distinction a candidate must:
(i) obtain at least 90 credits at 70% or above in the taught modules and a mark of 60%
or above in the dissertation; or
(ii) obtain at least 60 credits at 70% or above in the taught modules and a mark of at
least 70% in the dissertation; and
(iii) have no fail marks.
Postgraduate Diploma
To be awarded a Postgraduate Diploma a candidate must:
(i) obtain at least 90 credits at 50% or above with no more than 15 credits below 40%;
and
(ii) have satisfactorily completed all coursework requirements.
To be awarded a Postgraduate Diploma with merit a candidate must:
(i) obtain at least 60 credits or more at 60% or above; and
(ii) have no fail marks.
To be awarded a Postgraduate Diploma with distinction a candidate must:
(i) obtain at least 90 credits or more at 70% or above; and
(ii) have no fail marks.
Postgraduate Certificate
To be awarded a Postgraduate Certificate a candidate must:
(i) obtain at least 45 credits at 50% or more in the taught modules and no marks less
than 40%; and
(ii) have satisfactorily completed all coursework requirements.
Students who satisfactorily complete the module assignments from all six modules
(achieving at least 50 per cent for each assignment) but who fail to submit a dissertation,
or whose dissertation is judged not to be of the required standard, or who withdraw their
registration for the MSc, may be awarded the Postgraduate Diploma. Students who fail
to pass all of the required six modules may be awarded a Postgraduate Certificate if they
have satisfactorily completed the module assignments from three modules.
Department of Criminology
60
ESSAY SUBMISSION GUIDELINES
The following guidelines have been introduced to prevent delays in the marking procedure.
If your piece of work does not meet all the Departments requirements, it will not be
accepted as examinable material.
All work must be typed or word-processed with one-and-a-half or double line spacing,
in at least font size 10.
All pages must be numbered.
The first page must take the form of a title sheet and contain only the following
information:
course, intake, and module name;
date of submission; and
title of the essay you have chosen.
You must give a full list of references of all books and articles used; and references
must be in the format specified by the Department. You will all be provided with the
Departments Referencing Your Work guide and must follow this in the referencing of
all work. You must ensure that it is a References Section and NOT a bibliography.
By formally submitting your work on the Blackboard site, you are confirming that you
are complying with the Universitys rules on plagiarism.
When an essay is submitted via the Assignments feature, it is automatically sent first
to TurnitinUK, JISC plagiarism software to be electronically checked.
It is essential that you keep a copy of your assessment.
We will contact you if we do not receive your essay within a week of the submission date.
Two copies of all assignments and a completed cover sheet should be submitted in the
boxes provided in the Criminology Department, 152 Upper New Walk. When submitting in
the box you will also be required to sign to confirm that you have submitted your assignment
both in the box and on Blackboard. This must be only on the given submission date during
the stated time on the MSc student notice board and on the Blackboard site. They must not
be handed in prior to this date. Please note that no assessment can be passed back to a
student nor can any additions or amendments be made once it has been submitted to the
Course Administrator. Although the greatest care is taken with written work submitted for
marking, texts may become mislaid or lost. You are, therefore, required to keep a copy of
every piece of written work, (essays, dissertation, chapters etc.) which you submit.
As well as submitting two hard copies on the submission date, you must also submit an
electronic copy via the Blackboard site. Full instructions are provided for this on the site,
and on your first submission of the Practice Essay. This must be done on the submission
date and by carefully following the submission instructions. All work is then automatically
processed through the plagiarism detection software Turn It In via Blackboard. Please
see the section on plagiarism below for penalties on any plagiarised work submitted.
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
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IMPORTANT DIARY DATES
Semester 1
University
Weeks Week Beginning Activity
1 3 October 2011 Induction days: 4, 5 and 6 October 2011
2 10 October 2011 Teaching
3 17 October 2011 Teaching
4 24 October 2011 Teaching Practice essay submission: Monday 31 October 2011
5 31 October 2011 Teaching
6 7 November 2011 Reading Week
7 14 November 2011 Teaching
8 21 November 2011 Teaching
Essay Writing Workshop Tues 22 Nov 15:00 17:00, Venue TBC
9 28 November 2011 Teaching
10 5 December 2011 Teaching
Dissertation Workshop I Thurs 9 Dec 14:00-16:00, Venue TBC
11 12 December 2011 Teaching
19 December 2011 13 January 2012: Christmas Break
Semester 2
12 16 January 2012 Dissertation Registration deadline Monday 16 January
13 23 January 2012 Teaching
First submission due: Monday 23 January
14 30 January 2012 Teaching Second submissions due: Monday 30 January
Third submissions due: Monday 6 Feb 2012 (2 CRM comp
assignments)
15 6 February 2012 Teaching
16 13 February 2012 Teaching
17 20 February 2012 Teaching
Dissertation Proposal and Ethics Form deadline

Mon 20 Feb 2012
18 27 February 2012 Reading Week
19 5 March 2012 Teaching
20 12 March 2012 Teaching
Dissertation Workshop II Wed 15 March, 15:00 17:00
Venue: TBC
21 19 March 2012 Teaching
22 26 March 2012 Teaching
12 April 4 May 2012: Easter break
7 May 2012 Fourth submission
3 September 2012 Dissertation Submission
Department of Criminology
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MARKING PROCEDURES
All assessed work is double marked and a selection of work is referred to the External
Examiner. All marks awarded are subject to review by the External Examiner and
confirmation by the Examination Board.
All essays (excluding the Placement report for MSc Applied Criminology) are blind double-
marked. Students may be asked to submit other types of assessment. For example,
several modules involve student presentations. Some of these are not formally assessed,
others are formally assessed and do contribute to the overall module mark. For formally
assessed presentations these will usually be marked independently by two members of
staff, and consensus reached on the final mark.
PRACTICE ESSAYS
During Term I all students must submit a Practice Essay. This is NOT OPTIONAL. Although
the mark does not contribute to your overall degree it is used to give you the chance to
get detailed feedback before your first submission. It also highlights overall strengths and
weaknesses in ability so that support can be targeted accordingly. For example, it allows
us to tailor the Basic Skills Workshop to pick up on general common weaknesses. Practice
essays are marked by one academic assessor, and are not anonymous. Feedback will
usually be provided within two weeks of submission. Students failing the Practice Essay
should contact the marker to make an appointment to discuss the feedback in greater
depth. The Practice Essay title and some guidance for completion and submission will be
provided during Induction.
Criteria for Assessment
Full details of the criteria are included in the Criteria for Assessment section below.
The criteria for assessed presentations will be provided separately by the module leader
during the module.
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The markers will provide you with written comments on each essay. We advise you to read
these carefully as they will help you to develop your writing skills as you progress through
the course. In cases of failed submissions please ensure you make an appointment with
the module leader to discuss your feedback. If you need clarification on feedback you can
also contact the module leader.
Notification of Results
You will be notified of your results after the appropriate examination board as all marks
have to be confirmed by the External Examiner and by the Board of Examiners. Term
I results will therefore be available after the February board, Term II results after the
June board, and dissertation results after the November board. Members of staff will not
release provisional marks prior to exam board confirmation.
Should your work fail to reach the required standard, you will find details of the
re-submission procedure in this Handbook.
DISSERTATION GUIDELINES
Students who successfully complete all six modules will normally be asked to submit
a dissertation. In the event of a student failing three or more Modules and having to
re-submit, even if they subsequently pass the Module(s), the Exam Board will reserve the
right to prevent progression to dissertation.
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
63
Full details about the dissertation will be supplied to all students in Term I, and will include
all you need to know about the process, including: choosing your topic for investigation;
undertaking a library search; doing the research itself; writing the dissertation, including
the required format; binding the finished product; and submitting it to the Department. You
will be allocated a supervisor to assist and advise you during the time you spend preparing
your dissertation. Aspects of successfully completing a dissertation will also be covered in
the Criminological Research Methods module.
ETHICAL APPROVAL OF STUDENT PROJECTS
All students- whether undergraduate or postgraduate- who undertake non-clinical projects
concerning human subjects, using human material or data must obtain ethical approval for
the conduct of their projects from 1st October 2007.
(i) Submission of proposal for research ethics review
At a reasonable period before data collection begins the student must complete an online
ethics approval form which should be submitted to the Departmental Ethics Officer for
review. No primary research involving research subjects should be undertaken prior to
the granting of approval via the online system.
The review of student projects should be undertaken not more than four weeks after
submission of the form.
The basic process for review of student projects is as set out in the University Research
Ethics Code of Practice. The initial review of projects will be undertaken by a Departmental
Research Ethics Officer.
(ii) Application of criteria
The criteria for assessing the ethics of student research projects are defined in the
University Of Leicester Research Ethics Code of Practice.
Departmental Research Ethics Officers may determine that a project should be referred
back to a student to amend and resubmit at this stage. Where relevant a Departmental
Research Ethics Officer may wish to refer a project proposal to the College Research Ethics
Committee for further consideration.
M(((N+1)8($(%,$+*)05*'(,0+$72'),7+C*%O)87$
The decision made by the College Committee as to whether to approve a project will be in
accordance with the existing University of Leicester Research Ethics Code of Practice.
(iv) Appeal Structure
Students will have a right of appeal to the Cross-college Committee for Research Ethics.
Where such appeals are heard the procedure will be in accordance with that set out in the
University of Leicester Research Ethics Code of Practice. A student has the right to have the
support of a friend at the appeal.
The University Research Ethics Code of Practice can be accessed via the following link:
http://www2.le.ac.uk/institution/committees/research-ethics/code-of-practice
Further information can be obtained at:
http://www.britsoccrim.org/ethical.htm
Department of Criminology
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RESUBMISSION PROCEDURES
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If you fail to achieve a mark of 50 per cent for any of the module assessments you will
be given ONE opportunity to resubmit that assessment by a date agreed by the Course
Convenor. The resubmitted essay may have the same title as the original or may be one of
the other original essay questions, as indicated by the Module Leader. The highest mark
which can be awarded for a resubmitted essay is 50 per cent. If you fail a resubmission you
will not be permitted a second resubmission unless there are very exceptional mitigating
circumstances, which must be thoroughly documented beforehand.
Although you may continue with a subsequent module while also working on a resubmission
you must remember that you will not be able to submit a dissertation or be awarded the
PgD unless you have successfully completed all six modules. Students who fail successive
modules may be advised by academic staff to stop working on other modules until such
time as they have successfully completed their resubmission(s).
If you are awarded a mark of less than 50 per cent for your dissertation, you will have
one opportunity to resubmit. The date for the resubmission is decided by the Examination
Board. If, you opt not to resubmit the dissertation, then the Examination Board would
normally award a Postgraduate Diploma.
Extenuating Circumstances
All decisions relating to changes in registration, including discontinuation can be made only
by the Board of Examiners, and are subject to approval by the College Board and Senate.
If you think that there are extenuating circumstances which you consider to have affected
your performance, you may present your case, via the Course Convenor, to the Board of
Examiners. Mitigation for extenuating circumstances will not be accepted retrospectively.
That is, your completed form (available from Blackboard) and the supporting detail needs
to be received by the Department before the assessment. Generic issues, such as pressure
of work, going on holiday or getting married, will not usually be accepted. It is at the
discretion of the Board of Examiners whether or not your case is deemed relevant and
whether it had any effect on your performance.
It is worth noting again here that if you have any difficulties in completing your course work
it is very important that you tell us straight away. We will do all we can to enable you to
successfully complete your course.
APPEALS PROCEDURE
For Postgraduate Taught Students there are two appeals procedures one relating to
course termination and one relating to the award of a lower qualification. The full procedure
for appeals against termination of course or the award of a lesser qualification are set out
in the General Regulations. A short description of these procedures is given below:
Review of Decision to recommend termination of course:
Students whose course has been terminated, for whatever reason, including neglect of
academic obligations will be notified of their position by Academic and Research Services.
They will at the same time be informed of their entitlement to appeal against this decision
by submitting evidence of mitigating circumstances or procedural irregularity on the
relevant form. They will also be supplied with details of the way in which the appeal will
be conducted. Students will be required to lodge their appeal within eight weeks of the
date that their termination was confirmed to them in writing by the University. Where
no eligible grounds have been given or where no evidence is submitted to substantiate
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claims, the student will be advised accordingly and the appeal will either be turned down
or the student will be offered the opportunity to submit additional documentary evidence.
Where sufficient evidence has been provided students will subsequently be notified of
the date of the hearing and of their right to attend. The appeal hearing is conducted by a
panel comprising three members of academic staff drawn from outside the appellants
own department. Panels will normally be chaired by the Graduate Dean. The Appeal Form
which the student must complete can be found at:
http://www.le.ac.uk/ua/ac/gradoff/campus/Forms/pgappealform.pdf
Appeal against the award of a lesser qualification:
If a Board of Examiners recommends that a student registered on a Masters programme
be transferred to Postgraduate Diploma during the course of their studies, or be awarded
a Postgraduate Diploma or Postgraduate Certificate on completion of their studies, a
student will have the right to appeal. Students may appeal against this decision if:
They are in possession of evidence about the reasons for their academic performance
which, for good reason, was not available to the Board of Examiners or which was
only partially available (for example if additional medical evidence has been obtained
subsequent to the meeting of the Board of Examiners)
There appears to have been a procedural irregularity in the conduct of the examining
or assessment process
There appears to be evidence of prejudice or bias in the conduct of the assessment
process
Appeals which simply challenge the academic judgement of the examiners will not be
considered.
Students will be notified of the decision of the Board of Examiners by Academic and
Research Services. They will at the same time be informed of their entitlement to appeal
against this decision by submitting evidence of mitigating circumstances on the relevant
form and be provided with deadlines for the submission of this, which will be within
eight weeks of the date that their lesser award was confirmed in writing to them by the
University. Where no eligible grounds have been given or where no evidence is submitted
to substantiate claims, the student will be advised accordingly and the appeal will either
be turned down or the student will be offered the opportunity to submit additional
documentary evidence.
Where sufficient evidence has been provided students will subsequently be supplied with
details of the way in which the appeal will be conducted. Students will be required to lodge
their appeal within two months of the date that their termination was confirmed to them
in writing by the University. They will subsequently be notified of the date of the hearing
and of their right to attend. The appeal hearing is conducted by a panel comprising three
members of academic staff drawn from outside the appellants own department. Panels
will normally be chaired by the Graduate Dean. The Appeal Form which the student must
complete can be found at:
http://www.le.ac.uk/ua/ac/gradoff/campus/Forms/pgappealform.pdf
The Education Unit in the Students Union can provide advice to students submitting
appeals in either category.
The University reserves the right to refuse to continue with the operation of appeals
procedures if the appeal is conducted in a way which is abusive, offensive, defamatory,
aggressive or intimidating, or pursued in an unreasonably persistent or vexatious manner.
In such cases the final decision rests with the Senior Pro-Vice-Chancellor.
Students should be advised that the full appeals process is laid out in the General
Regulations for Undergraduate and Taught Postgraduate students, and can be viewed via:
http://www.le.ac.uk/ua/ac/Regs/index.html
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CRITERIA FOR ASSESSMENT
Essays
Essays submitted to the Department of Criminology in fulfilment of the requirements of an
MSc, Postgraduate Diploma or Postgraduate Certificate are assessed using the following
criteria. We would advise that you keep these criteria close to hand when preparing
assignments and try and ensure that you address these when planning and writing your work.
Essay Construction
The essay should have an introduction that:
opens the main issues of the question;
indicates the way in which the question will be addressed;
outlines how the essay is structured;
offers a statement of the types of conclusion that will be drawn; and
suggests why the question is important.
The essay should have a structure that:
is logical and flowing; and
contains points that are well formed into paragraphs that flow logically.
The essay structure should not:
be repetitious;
leap from one issue to another without appropriate linkage;
include bullet/numbered points; and
include tables or figures (other than in absolutely exceptional and well-justified
circumstances.
The conclusion should:
provide a summary of the essays main points;
offer a final position, viewpoint or argument; and
successfully draw the essay to a close.
The conclusion should not:
introduce material that has not been covered in the main body of the essay.
Demonstration of Knowledge and Understanding
The essay should demonstrate that the student has:
grasped the main points related to the question;
chosen appropriate theories to answer the question;
appreciated the theoretical issues underpinning the question;
illustrated an adequate breadth and depth of knowledge; and
covered the points necessary for a thorough examination of the question.
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The essay should not:
contain every single piece of knowledge associated with the question.
Clarity of Argument and Level of Analysis
The essay should demonstrate that:
a sound argument exists;
theory is used sensibly in order to support the argument;
arguments are presented in an academic manner;
the student supports his/her position presented with legitimate evidence;
the student appreciates alternative to his/her position;
the student is analytical; and
the student is not overly descriptive.
Use of Sources and References
Correct use of sources and references will be shown by:
the student supporting appropriately arguments and making best use of available
literature;
using house style for referencing (see Referencing Your Work guide); and
ensuring all materials used in the body of the text are cited in the references section of
the essay.
Grammar and Use of Language
The essay should:
be written clearly and fluently;
be preferably written in the third person (the essay will show rather than I (or we)
will show);
contain correct spelling;
use appropriate grammar;
be academic in tone; and
be thoroughly proofed for errors.
The essay should not:
read like a technical or business report; and
contain overly long or short sentences and paragraphs.
Overall
This section will include an overall summary of the students effort in the piece of coursework,
which makes:
explanations of why a particular mark was awarded;
recommendations for future improvement; and
constructive and supportive comments.
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Research proposals
Research proposals submitted to the Department of Criminology in fulfilment of the
requirements of an MSc or Postgraduate Diploma are assessed using the following criteria:
The Research Problem
The research proposal should have an introduction that:
gives a brief background to the area of research (a mini-literature review);
justifies why the proposed research is important; and
explains clearly the aims and objectives of the proposed research.
Theoretical Testing
This section of the research proposal should show that the student has:
researched, selected and justified applicable theories;
considered the relationship between theory and the research method;
developed a coherent and reasoned theoretical framework for the proposed research;
and
operationalised concepts.
Application of Research Methods
This section of the research proposal should show that the student has:
understood general social science research design;
applied appropriate methodological skills to a specific problem in accordance to the
aims and objectives specified in the first section;
considered feasibility issues, such as access to subjects and other aspects of field
research;
considered sampling, measurement, validity and reliability issues;
discussed the advantages and disadvantages of various data gathering techniques; and
considered investments of time and effort in the research project.
Ethical Considerations
This section should demonstrate that the student has:
considered ethical principles of research generally;
considered the ethical implications of their chosen research method, and method of
sample selection; and
considered ethical concerns surrounding their specific research topic.
Anticipated Problems
The research proposal should demonstrate that the student:
has anticipated problems in conducting the research, such as whether there are
ethical, access or other limitations; and
has considered ways to resolve these problems, or is conscious that the results may
have limitations.
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Use of Sources and References
Correct use of sources and references will be shown by:
the student supporting appropriately arguments and making best use of available
literature;
using house style for referencing (see Referencing Your Work guide); and
ensuring all materials used in the body of the text are cited in the references section of
the essay.
Grammar and Use of Language
The essay should:
be written clearly and fluently;
be preferably written in the third person (the essay will show rather than I (or we) will
show);
contain correct spelling;
use appropriate grammar;
be academic in tone; and
be thoroughly proofed for errors.
The essay should not:
read like a technical or business report; and
contain unduly long or short sentences or paragraphs.
Overall
This section will include an overall summary of the students effort in the piece of
coursework, which makes:
explanations of why a particular mark was awarded;
recommendations for future improvement; and
constructive and supportive comments.
Dissertation
Scope and Significance of the Research
The dissertation should be a contribution to the existing literature on the topic.
Dissertation Structure
The dissertation usually should include an abstract, table of contents, introductory chapter,
literature review, methodology chapter, findings chapters with appropriate discussion and
interpretation, and conclusions. The dissertation should have a full references section and
may have appendices.
Thoroughness of Literature Review
The literature review should be up-to-date and cover the areas included in the dissertation.
It should critically synthesise the literature and serve as a springboard for the dissertation
research.
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Quality of Theoretical Debate
The dissertation should demonstrate how it relates to wider theoretical debates. Theory
or theories should be chosen appropriately, reviewed, critiqued and made applicable to
the study.
Quality of Research Methodology & Ethical Awareness
The chosen methodology should be appropriate for the aims of the research and for the
theory or theories selected. Additionally, the methods used should allow the student to
answer the identified research questions. The research process should be detailed fully,
including aims and objectives, research design, design of measurement instrument,
sampling, fieldwork and analysis, and appraisal of reliability and validity. Problems
encountered should be detailed, as well as how they were resolved. Particular attention
should be paid to research ethics. Any ethical problems posed by the research should be
detailed as well as the steps taken in order to address these identified problems.
Analysis and Interpretation of Findings
The findings should be analysed thoroughly, not just described, whether they are
qualitative or quantitative in nature. They should be interpreted according to the theory or
theories selected at the outset and relate back to the aims and objectives. In some cases,
policy implications and recommendations are appropriate.
Style Expression and Presentation
The writing style should be fluid. There should be few proofing errors. The dissertation
should be fully referenced. The document should be soft bound.
General Comments
The conclusion should reflect on the results as well as on the process of conducting the
piece of research. Overall, dissertations are expected to hold together well and reflect
the skills learned on the course: critical thinking, knowledge of the literature and key
issues in the discipline, research and writing skills, and organisational skills.
The following material has been adapted from resources produced by Student Development
at the University of Leicester and their assistance in this respect is gratefully acknowledged.
Planning
A good essay plan makes the most of your material by helping you to organise the content
of the essay before you begin writing. The following information shows you the key steps
in preparing and planning an essay effectively.
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Choose your essay title as soon as possible because the availability of books and other
reference material, which you may wish to consult, may affect your choice. Make an action
plan for:
finding additional relevant reference sources that you may wish to consult;
reading and making notes from reference sources; and
using computer facilities.
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Analysing the question
Before you can begin to select material for your essay, you need to make sure that you
understand the exact requirements of the question. The following method of title analysis
encourages you to break the question down into identifiable elements so that you can clearly
see what the question requires. For example, consider the following as an essay title:
Examine and compare the development of police leadership with wider
trends in leadership in industry.
From this title, it can be seen that:
examine and compare shows what you are being asked to do;
the development of police leadership explains what is the key issue to be covered by
the essay; and
leadership in industry defines the context of the essay.
Selecting the material
Use your analysis of the question as a focus for the selection of information sources for
your essay. Begin with basic reading of:
course notes; and
relevant chapters in core texts.
When you understand the basics of the subject, you may choose to read more detailed and
specific texts, although this is not essential. These may be in the form of journal articles
or texts that are referred to in your course material in which case:
use the essay question as a focus for selecting this material; and
record only information that is directly relevant to the essay question in order to save
time and make your notes easier to organise into an essay plan.
Organising the material
All essays need a structure that is logical and coherent; essay plans provide a quick way
of trying out different structures. One way of making an essay plan is to list your points
in keywords and phrases and then to organise them under main headings. This will give
you a framework for the points and issues you intend to cover so that you can then decide
which specific points you will include together with the most logical sequence for them to
appear in the essay. Make as many essay plans as you need in order to satisfy yourself that
you have found the best sequence for the presentation of your material. By separating the
planning stage from the writing stage, you will be better able to write an essay that is well
organised and clearly expressed.
Writing
Essays are a particular form of writing, with their own structure and conventions. The
following information explains the conventions of the essay and shows you how to write
clear, well-structured essays that communicate effectively with the reader.
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Drafting the essay
Planning your material before you begin writing should reduce the need for an excessive
number of draft issues of the essay. It also enables you to make amendments and changes
to your work without the need to rewrite whole parts of the essay. If you find it necessary
to make a first draft by hand, then write each section on a separate piece of paper, so
that changes can be made easily. Do not try to make significant changes to the sequence
of your material through redrafting. Go right back to the planning stage and revise your
original essay plan or make a new one. Remember that just as the essay question should
be your focus in the planning stages, you should also regularly refer to the question during
the writing stage of your essay. Use the essay question to check that you are keeping to the
point and that all your material is relevant to answering the question.
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A good essay takes the reader into account by clearly presenting material in a way that
is logical, coherent and easy to follow. Before you begin to write your essay, you need to
select and order your material in the form of an essay plan (see above). When you have
an effective essay plan you are free to concentrate on the expression of your ideas and
information. You can learn to guide your reader by being aware of how to use the key
elements of an essay. The following information shows you how to make the best use of
the essays introduction, individual paragraphs, evidence presented and the conclusion.
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The introduction provides a signpost for your reader, showing how you intend to answer
the question. You will need to show your understanding of the key issues and indicate the
main areas your essay will cover. One possible structure for an introduction could be:
begin with a general point about the central issue, for example:
Leadership techniques in the police service have come under increasing scrutiny in
recent years.
use the words of the title to show your understanding of the question, for example:
When comparing the way in which the police utilise approaches to leadership, parallels
and contrasts can be found with other industries.
outline what your essay structure will be, for example:
In the first section of the essay, the issue of ... The second section of the essay will
examine the ... Finally, the development of the leadership system...
make a link to the first point, for example:
In examining the issues of leadership in policing, the importance of the issue of broader
changes in the structure of policing has developed ...
Use of paragraphs
Your essay plan should show clearly what the main sections of your essay will be and which
points will be included in each section. Ordering your points within each of these sections
should also take place at the planning stage. You should use paragraphs to take your reader
step by step through each section. Each paragraph you write should express clearly one point
or one aspect of a point. Your paragraphs should link together in order to provide the reader
with a sense of logical progression; a paragraph may have its own internal structure which:
introduces the paragraphs point;
presents and comments on evidence; and
makes a link to the next paragraph.
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You should use evidence to illustrate and support your points. Evidence may be the results
of a study or experiment or opinion of an expert. It may be written or in a table or diagram
format. Use the evidence to add:
authority to your point;
credibility to your argument; and
interest to your discussion.
Conclusion
The conclusion is another signpost to your reader and gives you the opportunity to:
use the words of the title to show you have answered the question;
remind the reader of what you have covered;
show the overall significance of the material;
provide an overall assessment of theories or arguments; and
summarise your own view point.
Here is an example of an effective structure for a concluding paragraph.
Brief recap:
Psychological research has produced a number of findings which can be very useful to
police officers who need to interview eye-witnesses.
Reference to the larger issue:
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prosecution of cases in court. Police failure to elicit full and accurate accounts
from witnesses can be a significant factor leading to prolonged investigations,
unsolved cases and even miscarriages of justice.
Evaluation of the main arguments:
It has been shown that memory can be very susceptible to error for a wide range
of reasons. Psychological research has provided ways which not simply increase
the amount of information that witnesses can provide, but which also improves
the accuracy and reliability of this information.
Highlighting of the most important aspects:
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are in terms of increasing the amount of detail the witnesses can provide, and of
improving the reliability of the information which is provided.
References
When you are writing an essay or dissertation, your own thoughts and ideas inevitably build
on those of other writers, researchers or teachers. It is essential that you acknowledge
your debt to the sources of data, research and ideas on which you have drawn by including
references to, and full details of, these sources in your work. Referencing does not weaken
an essay; rather it strengthens the arguments presented by using supporting or contrasting
views from other authors. Referencing other peoples work also allows the reader:
Department of Criminology
74
to distinguish your ideas and findings from those you have drawn from the work of
others; and
to follow up in more detail the ideas or facts that you have referred to.
Whenever you read or research material for your writing, make sure that you include in
your notes, or on any photocopied material, the full publication details of each relevant text
that you read. The list of references attached to the end of an essay should not be labelled
Bibliography but References as the list includes only texts which have been referred to
- not all books on a given topic.
For particularly important points, or for parts of texts that you might wish to quote word
for word, also include in your notes the specific page reference. Your source should be
acknowledged every time a point, data or other information that you use is substantially
that of another writer. As a very rough guide, while the introduction and the conclusions to
your writing might be largely based on your own ideas, within the main body of your essay
or dissertation, you would expect to be drawing on, and thus referencing your debt to, the
work of others in each main section or paragraph.
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It is often difficult to edit your own writing. Read your work carefully adhering to the
pauses of the punctuation that you have used. This will help you to identify problems with
clarity of expression or sentence structure. Spell checks on computers are useful, but be
aware that they do not identify an inappropriate use of a correctly spelt word. Have a break
from your essay (preferably overnight) to make the final check more effective.
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The feedback and comments you receive from your marked essay are an invaluable aid to
identifying the strengths and weaknesses in your written work. By re-reading your essay in
the light of this feedback you should be able to identify the areas where you can improve.
HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM
WHAT IS PLAGIARISM?
Plagiarism is essentially the passing off of someone elses work as your own. There
are different degrees of plagiarism, from the deliberate attempt to deceive to the more
accidental plagiarism, also known as poor academic practice or scholarship, whereby
students forget that something they find in their notes is not their own ideas or words, but
in fact copied from another source, either word-for-word or paraphrased. In using such
ideas but not attributing them to their original source, it may be the case that students
are not deliberately trying to deceive the readers, but they are still guilty of plagiarism,
however inadvertent! This is why is it very important that you get into the habit of keeping
accurate records when preparing essays and other written work. Plagiarism can include:
Deliberately passing off another persons work as your own (this can be an academic,
organisation, fellow student, or a student from another University);
Copying ideas or words from someone else without citing them;
Failing (even if you merely forget) to put a direct quote in quotation marks;
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Paraphrasing or rearranging the words, or using the ideas from another source, but
failing to cite them;
Using the words, ideas, sentence structure etc. to the extent that, even though you
provide references, very little of the work is in fact your own. Such cases are more
likely to be treated as poor academic practice or poor scholarship, but the mark given
will be very low.
Both the Department and the University take plagiarism very seriously. Where plagiarism
in written work is suspected, the piece of work will be submitted to a thorough check.
Where evidence of plagiarism is found, any student whose work is suspected will be
interviewed by the Head of Department and at least one other member of staff. Before this
happens, all assessed work submitted by the student will be checked for plagiarism. If the
plagiarism is confirmed, the penalty imposed may be any one of the following:
A mark of zero for the piece of work in question: where this is the first instance of
plagiarism a resit is usually allowed, but the maximum mark awarded will be 40% for
undergraduates and 50% for masters students (in keeping with resit regulations);
A mark of zero for the piece of work in question, with no resit allowed:
A mark of zero for the module as a whole;
The downgrading of degree class by one division (e.g. from a 2.1 to a 2.2) for
undergraduate students or the award of a postgraduate certificate rather than an MSc
for masters students.
In serious or repeat cases: expulsion from the University.
Please be aware that both undergraduate and postgraduate students in the Department
of Criminology have received such sanctions in recent years and at least one student has
had their course terminated for deliberate and repeated plagiarism.
UNIVERSITY STATEMENT ON ACADEMIC DISHONESTY
The Universitys primary functions of teaching and research involve a search for
knowledge and the truthful recording of the findings of that search. Any action knowingly
taken by a student which involves misrepresentation of the truth is an offence which the
University believes should merit the application of very severe penalties. Offences in
this category include, but are not confined to, cheating in written examinations, copying
work from another person, making work available to another person for copying, copying
from published authorities, including the Internet, without acknowledgement, pretending
ownership of anothers ideas, and falsifying results. Any student who knowingly allows any
of his or her academic work to be acquired by another person for presentation as if it were
that persons own work is party to plagiarism.
Plagiarism is used as a general term to describe taking and using anothers thoughts and
writings as ones own. Plagiarism can occur not only in essays and dissertations, but also
in scientific experimentation, diagrams, maps, fieldwork, computer programmes, and all
other forms of study where students are expected to work independently and produce
original material.
Where plagiarism is identified, departments are authorised to apply through the relevant
Board of Examiners the following penalties:
- First offence: Failure of the module, resit allowed, severe written
warning
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- Second and third offences: A mark of 0 for the module
Resubmission required for the purposes of progression
Possible downgrading of degree class if the offences
are for modules which contribute to the final
classification, and if the normal application of the
standard scheme of assessment incorporating marks
of 0 does not automatically lead to a downgrading.
In applying this penalty, Boards of Examiners will
have due regard to the significance the plagiarised
work in the overall scheme of assessment
- Fourth offence or multiple* Termination of course
simultaneous offences
after the second offence:
[*In this context multiple means plagiarism in more than one separate module and
plagiarism applying to double modules of 30 or 40 credits.
Where a student is found to have been cheating in written examinations or falsifying
results, the case will be referred to the Academic Registrar and the Deans of the Faculties
for consideration under the Code of Student Discipline. The Academic Registrar and Deans
are authorised to recommend to the Vice-Chancellor that he should invoke the powers he
holds under Statute 5 of the University Statutes to recommend to Council the temporary
or permanent exclusion from the University of the student concerned and the case will be
referred to the Registrar for consideration under the Code of Student Discipline. Penalties
applied in relation to plagiarism or cheating in written examinations will be recorded on
the students official transcript, and a record of the offence will be held in the department.
Cases of academic dishonesty may where relevant be reported to professional bodies.
HOW TO AVOID PLAGIARISM
The best way to avoid plagiarism is to follow the referencing guidelines in Referencing
your Work and in the Study Skills section on your Blackboard site. and make sure all the
sources you cite in your written work are included in the reference list you provide at the
end. Remember that you can never over-reference, so when in doubt cite the source!
More advice that should help you to avoid plagiarism is given below:
Try to use your own words as far as possible. You will have to read the work of others
when planning and drafting essays and other written work, but aim to reflect upon
what they are saying, try to write down your own version of this and draw your own
conclusion about the logic of their findings/opinions etc.
Remember when you make notes from sources that, when you copy verbatim, you
record such quotes in inverted commas so that when you come to write up your essay,
you know these are not your thoughts and ideas, but those of someone else, whose
details you should record alongside the quote (author, title of work, page number).
Where you paraphrase, you should try to summarise the points being made as concisely
as possible and again keep records of the author, title and page number.
If you are unsure about putting other peoples ideas into your own words, or think
this will not do justice to the original idea, you may use direct quotes, but take care to
ensure your essay does not turn into a string of direct quotes devoid of your own ideas
and evaluation.
You should aim to develop your own ideas and structure in your written work, rather
than rely on those of others. The Department is looking for your views on the topic as it
has developed by reading the available evidence and theories. To obtain a good mark,
your essay must present a reflection of your thinking and not merely regurgitate the
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work of others. Please remember there is very rarely a model answer to the questions
set: rather essay questions present an opportunity for you to show that you understand
various topics, can engage with relevant literature, and evaluate different points of view
and evidence.
When you access Internet sources, make a note of the date you do so as the webpage
may no longer exist when you or someone else wants to check the details.
You should treat any material you find on the Internet with caution. Official websites
may contain useful information, but many of the web pages you may find by doing a web
search are not appropriate for academic work. The information contained in many of
them (such as WIKIPEDIA) has not been refereed or vetted by academics, in contrast to
most scholarly books and journals, to which you should primarily refer in your written
work. Whilst such sites may be used to access information and references, they must
not be relied upon. Conducting a web search is not the same as doing research:
the latter requires you to consult academic references (books and journals, many of
which are also available electronically via the library web site) rather than just cutting
and pasting from dubious websites and that includes WIKIPEDIA! If in doubt about
a particular site or source, contact your tutor, module leader or another member of
academic staff for guidance.
As stated above, you are strongly advised to familiarise yourself with the information
contained within the Department of Criminologys referencing guide Referencing your
Work and in the Study Skills section on your Blackboard site. This guide and your course
Blackboard site contain all the information you need to ensure that your assessed work is
fully and accurately referenced.
FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS
1. Where is the Friars or FSR?
The Department building at 154 Upper New Walk, is called The Friars. FSR is the Friars
Seminar Room within.
2. How can I contact the Course Convenor / Deputy Course Convenor / Course
Administrator?
Course Convenor: Dr Darrick Jolliffe
Email: dj39@le.ac.uk
Room 1.01 Tel: (0116) 252 5729
Office Hours: By appointment only
Deputy Course Convenor: Dr Lisa Smith
Email: ls149@le.ac.uk
Room 2.04 Tel: (0116) 252 5708
Office Hours: By appointment only
Course Administrator: Reshma Sudra
Email: crimmsc@le.ac.uk
Room 1.07 Tel: (0116) 252 2489
Office Hours: Mon Fri 14:00-16:00
Course Administrator: Alison Lambert
Email: crimmsc@le.ac.uk
Room 1.07 Tel: (0116) 252 2489
Office Hours: Mon Thurs 10:00-12:00
Reception/front office: Tel: (0116) 252 2458/3946
Department of Criminology
78
All University staff e-mail addresses and telephone numbers are available on the
University website and on Blackboard. Please try and use e-mail rather than the phone
calls as not all staff are available throughout the week. The Department will also contact
students by their Leicester University e-mail addresses. It is important that students
access the Leicester University e-mails on a regular basis.
3. When can I see the Course Convenor / Deputy Course Convenor / Module Leader/
Lecturer / Course Administrator?
Lecturers will have allocated Office Hours when students may visit their offices.
These Office Hours and room locations will be posted on Blackboard in due course.
Course Administrators Office hours are between 10.00 and 12.00 Monday to Thursday
and 14.00 and 16.00 Monday to Friday. Please keep to these times as the Course
Administrator also has other duties.
4. Who should I contact if I have any problems or queries?
For any questions about the course you should always check your course handbook
and the Blackboard site before contacting a member of staff. If you still need to contact
someone make sure you contact the correct person. Your Course Administrator can give
you guidance on any procedural or administrative issues. Any questions about individual
lectures, seminars/workshops, modules, assessments etc. should be directed at the
relevant lecturer / seminar leader / module leader. If you have any general academic
queries, need additional support in your studies, or are experiencing any difficulties that
are affecting your studies please see your personal tutor in the first instance. If they
cannot help you they can refer you onto someone who can or will advise you to see the
Course Convenor (for students on the MSc Criminology and MSc Clinical Criminology)
or Deputy Course Convenor (for students on the MSc Applied Criminology and MSc
Terrorism, Security and Policing).
5. How do I gain entry to the Department?
Students can access the Department with a swipe card (obtained with a refundable
deposit) from the Security Lodge (next to Fielding Johnson). This swipe card will give
you entry to the Department from 9am to 5pm. You will also be able to use this card for
24 hour access the Postgraduate Common Room, Ken Edwards Building.
6. Where do I collect my post and messages?
Students may leave/pick up post and messages from their Course Post Boxes situated
in the Photocopying Room (Room 0.04) at the Department. Please remember to check
the post box regularly.
7. Where is the Masters Notice Board?
The Masters notice board is situated opposite the Photocopying Room (Room 0.04).
Students are welcome to use this to put notices etc for fellow students.
8. Who do I contact if I cannot attend lectures/seminars?
Students must inform the Module Leader/Seminar Leader or the Course Administrator.
Registers are taken at each lecture/seminar to monitor attendance. 70% attendance is
required on each module for students to be permitted to submit assessments. If you miss
a session you must submit a Notification of Absence form (available on Blackboard).
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
79
9. Can I have access to a study room at the Department?
Students can use the Resource Room for private study which houses some books and
documents not available in the main library. Keys to the Resource Room are available
from the Department front Office/Reception.
10. Can I have access to a computer at the Department?
There are three computers available for student access in the Resource Room. Keys
to the Resource are room available from the Department Reception/front office.
11. Do I need to inform anyone if I change my term or permanent address:
Yes, students should inform the Course Administrator and also The Registry. Otherwise,
any notifications or even certificates will be sent to previously provided addresses.
12. Does the word count on the assessments include references and appendices?
No, word count excludes references and appendices.
13. How do I submit my assessments?
A guide to assessment submissions will be posted on Blackboard and the MSc Notice
Board nearer to submission date, but generally, students are required to:
ensure that their names are NOT on any assessments other than Placement
Reports and Dissertations as the Department runs an anonymous marking policy,
submit via Blackboard for plagiarism detection purposes on submission day before
midnight,
submit two hard copies and a completed cover sheet in the box provided in the
Department, during allocated times, on submission date.
14. If I submit late, will I be penalised?
Yes. See Course Handbook for penalties.
15. When will I have the marks for my assessments?
Students will be informed of their marks after the Examination Board Meetings. These
take place in February (for Term I assessments), June/July (for Term II modules) and
November (for Term III modules).
16. How will I be informed of my marks?
Students will be informed of their marks and sent feedback via their Leicester
University e-mail addresses. Essays with markers comments are also available for
you on request from the Course Administrator. She will let you look at any additional
comments on the essay and/or let you have a photocopy of the marked essay.
17. Who do I contact if I have queries on my feedback?
Students should, in the first instance, contact Module Leaders with any queries
regarding assessment marks or feedback. If this is not possible, then contact the
Course Convenor.
Department of Criminology
80
18. Can I see a past dissertation?
Yes, past dissertations which have received good marks are available from the
Resource Room. Keys to the Resource room are available from the Department
Reception/front office. Copies of dissertations are also available in the David Wilson
Library.
19. Can I park my car at the Department/University?
Unfortunately, there is no parking available for students at the Department or on the
main campus. Staff have to pay to park on University premises and the University runs
a clamping policy for unauthorised parking on University premises. You may find road
parking on the other side of Victoria Park, by Queens Road, or in the Pay and Display
at Victoria Park.
20. Can I leave my bicycle tied to the railings at the Department?
Please dont. Cars parked there have had paintwork scratched by bicycles left by
the railings. If you require bicycle storage, see the Reception/front office at the
Department. You can be provided with a key to a rear storeroom for a refundable
deposit.
21. Is there a coffee machine in the Department?
No, but students may use the staff kitchen facilities situated on the first floor in order
to make themselves drinks on payment of 40pence per drink. Please ensure you put
your money in the jar provided in the kitchen.
MSc/PgD Campus-Based
81
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F r i d a y








$
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A
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<
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B
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C
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Department Of Criminology
Department of Criminology The Friars
154 Upper New Walk Leicester LE1 7QA
Telephone: +44 (0)116 252 3946/2458
Fax: +44 (0)166 252 5788
E-mail: criminology@le.ac.uk
Website: http://www.le.ac.uk/criminology/