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AC Fundamentals

Unit - 1

Difference between Direct Current and Alternating Current

Direct Current Circuit

Alternating Current Circuit

Terminologies

Frequency

The number of cycles that occur in one second. Is commonly measured in cycles per second (cycles/sec) and, in normal usage, is expressed in units of Hertz (Hz).

Time Period

The time taken in seconds to complete one cycle of an alternating

quantity. It is represented by T.

The inverse of Frequency and usually expressed in milliseconds

Amplitude

Terminologies

The amplitude of a sine wave is the value of that sine wave at its peak.

The effective voltage of the AC power system is 0.707 times the peak voltage

Instantaneous Value

The value of an alternating quantity at any instant

Phase

-is the fractional part of time period or cycle through which the quantity has advanced from the selected zero position of reference

Problems

Values of Alternating Voltage and Current

Peak Value

-is the maximum value attained by an alternating quantity.

Average value:

It is the average of the instantaneous value for a particular time period.

0.636V m , 0.636 I m

Values of Alternating Voltage and Current

Root Mean Square (RMS) or Effective Value

is that steady current (dc) which when flowing through a given resistance for

a given time produces the same amount of heat as produced by the

alternating current through the same resistance for the same time

I

rms

I
m
2

0.707 I

m

V

rms

V
m
2

0.707 V

m

AC Circuit Containing Pure Inductance Only

L
v =V m sinωt

V L

v L

di

dt

V

di sin t dt

m

i

L

V

m

L

sin t dt

V

m

L

V

m

L

2

sin(

t

)

i

( cos t )

sin(

i is maximum when

sin( t )

2

V

m

L

is unity,

Hence:

I

m

Therefore:

i I

m

t )

2

90 0

I

Phase Angle for Inductive Circuit:

In a pure inductance, current lags the voltage by 90 0

v = V m sinωt

i I

v
i

m

sin(

t )

2

AC Circuit Containing Pure Capacitance

C

v = V m sinωt

q Cv CV

m

sin t

i

d ( q ) d dt

dt

(

CV

m

sin

t

i

CV

m

i CV

m

t

cos

sin(

t )

2

i is maximum when

sin( t

Hence:

I

m

CV

m

is) unity,

2

)

I

90 0

V C

Therefore:

i I sin(

m

t )

2

Phase Angle for Capacitive Circuit:

In a pure capacitance, current leads the voltage by 90 0

v

v = V m sinωt

i

i I

m

sin(

t )

2

Practice problems:

Practice problems:

3. An alternating current of frequency 60 Hz has a maximum value of 120 A.

a) Write down the equation for its instantaneous value.

b) Find the instantaneous value after 1/360 second and

c) Find the time taken to reach 96 A for the first time.

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