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What is WAP?

What are the factors enabling the convergence of wireless and wired world?

What is Mobile Internet?

List some productivity application services provided by mobile Internet.

How Mobile Internet is helping us to improve our productivity?

Name and explain the key services for the mobile Internet.

What is the role of Mobile Internet Access provider?

Write all stakeholders of Business Value chain and explain how mobile ISP and Application Service Providers are generating revenues?

Write the limitations of mobile Internet Service Providers and also give the remedy of these limitations. [x]

Explain content aggregators? [x]


Explain wireless device constraints.

What is latency? How TCP behaves in high latency environment?

What is the effect of latency on wireless devices and applications?

Differentiate between HTML and XML. [x]

What is WAP?


WAP stands for Wireless Application Protocol is a set of standard protocols which provide wireless internet services on digital mobile phones, pagers, PDAs and other wireless devices. WAP extends the Internet by addressing the unique requirements of the wireless network environment and the unique characteristics small handheld devices. The WAP specifications leverages existing technologies, like digital data networking, and the Internet technologies, such as HTTP, XML, SSL, URLs, and developing new extensions when needed. It helps developers and industry to develop solutions that are air- interface independent, device independent, and that are fully interoperable. The WAP specifications ensure that the solutions are secure, fast and reliable. The WAP standard provides the necessary network protocols, content types, and run-time application environments to deliver a broad set of new and existing services.

What are the factors enabling the convergence of wireless and wired world?

Today Internet allows people to exchange message at the speed of light and access information from any source around the globe, thereby enriching people’s personal lives and reducing costs for business. At the same time people have jumped to wireless communications. Cellular telephones are critical companions for active consumers and mobile professionals. It is easier to deploy cellular infrastructure than traditional phone infrastructure where we have insufficient telephone infrastructure.

These two trends – ‘the expansion of the Internet ‘s reach and burgeoning of the mobile Internetextends the traditional Internet to wireless devices such as cellular phones, PDAs, and even automobiles.

What is mobile Internet?

The convergence of Internet and wireless communication has given rise to mobile Internet. Where users can access Internet and World Wide Web anywhere and anytime and wide range of wireless devices such as mobile phones, PDAs, etc. WAP (wireless application protocol) has enabled the use of Internet over high latency and low bandwidth cellular networks. The mobile Internet users want personalized services that match their individual preference and needs. Services should be tailored to suit the user’s current physical location. The mobile Internet combines data and voice, information and communication, and global reach and personalization. The mobiles applications deliver data that is currently available on enterprise intranets, the World Wide Web to devices in mobile context which may be time-sensitive, location-sensitive, or secure in nature.

List some productivity application services provided by mobile Internet.

Some of the productivity applications provided by mobile Internet are as follows:

> Email/Text Messaging

> Personal Information Management

> Unified messaging and Universal Mailbox

> Instant Messaging

How Mobile Internet is helping us to improve our productivity?

Productivity applications enable the user to manage information and enhance their day-to-day communications with friends and colleagues.

Email/Text Messaging: They improve speed and quality of business decision making by facilitating communication with the external clients and vendors, and enabled collaboration. It allows to keep I touch with family and friends easily and eliminates the barrier posed by long distances. Wireless e-mail makes traditional e-mail even more powerful by allowing users to read and reply to email messages from anywhere, without being chained to home or office. Mobile Internet as enabled by WAP, allows for native(live) access to the original copy of the information residing on an enterprise or web based email server.

Personal Information Management: This application suite includes tools such as calendar, scheduling, contact lists or address books, and to-do lists. It allows users to schedule meetings and maintain a directory of contacts while on the road. WAP enabled PIM solutions allows the user to download and synchronize databases over the air, giving the user access to a global phone book, the organizational diary database, and other information at all times.

Unified Messaging and Universal: The Unified Messaging Consortium(UMC) defines messaging as the ability to users to respond to multimedia messages without concern for the sender’s message format. Unified messaging enables the integration of voice, e-mail, and fax into a single inbox that can be accessed by the user. With the advent of several communication technologies such as voice mails, text messages, emails the users are forced to deal with several mailboxes and corresponding devices. Unified messaging allows the user to user a variety of devices to not only access a single message store containing multiple messages types but also respond to those messages in a format that is acceptable to the original sender. It is a key application that streamlines and simplifies messaging in both the voice and data worlds.

Instant Messaging: permits two or more people to carry on a private conversation online. Unlike with email, the interaction is instantaneous. It allows users to create a personalized directory of people with whom to converse and determine whether those people are online. The instant messaging services allows users to exchange instant messages, pictures, and documents, and ability to participate in group chat rooms and also offers voice capabilities. Corporate call centers, customer-support operations, and supply chains are benefiting using real-time IM to improve customer relations and boost business. It also enables real-time transactions in business-to-business online marketplaces and digital exchanges.

Name and explain the key services for the mobile Internet.

The key applications for mobile Internet as follows:

Productivity Applications: enable the user to manage information and enhance their day-to- day communications with friends and colleagues.


Email/Text Messaging: Native access to electronic mail, with features such as reading message, replying to it.


Personal Information Management: Access to calendar for schedule and appointments, reminders and notifications, address book, and contacts, and to-do lists.


Unified Messaging and Universal Mailbox: Integration of voice mail, e-mail, and fax into the same inbox that can be accessed by the user by various means.


Instant Messaging: Awareness of online users and instant messaging with them.

Information and Transaction Services:


Kiosk to content



Life-enhancing applications




Entertainment services


Multimedia Services


Enhanced telephony applicatios

Telephony, account and subscription, Vertical Services




Fleet Management and dispatch


Sales force automation

What is the role of Mobile Internet Access provider?

The wireless operator or carrier enables seamless coverage and connectivity to both voice and data applications, regardless of the location from which the services are accessed. To support WAP, the carrier implements, maintains, and upgrades the necessary wireless network and data (ISP) infrastructure; it also ensures high availability of the network at all times. The operator has access to a large subscriber base from the voice world, and also has the infrastructure needed for billing and payment collection, so the portals and content providers can partner and obtain access to customers and infrastructure. The operator would act as the primary interface to the subscriber and function like a service bureau. Some carriers might implement a revenue-sharing business model with the content providers, others may function as a simple transport or access provider. Some might develop a strategic collaboration with the content providers to support private-labeled or co-branded WAP sites or instead opt to earn a small commission from the million of transactions carried out over their wireless networks. It might even

extend its role to niche areas such as service hosting, service aggregation, or customization rendering

Write all stakeholders of Business Value chain and explain how mobile ISP and Application Service Providers are generating revenues?

The key components for engaging the wireless Internet are

the device

the network access and infrastructure

the service subscription

the application and its development

the server that hosts the applications.

Collectively, the businesses that will play a part in providing one or more of these components, define a value chain for delivering services to end users. Each member of the value chain offers a specific revenue-generating value proposition either to end users or to other businesses within the value chain.

The stakeholders of the Business Value Chain are as follows:




End User

Is the primary consumer of the service.

You and Me


Manufactures the terminal device and the micro-browser or other user agents running on it.

Ericsson, Nokia, Motorola,Panasonic, Sharp


Wireless Network Operator and ISP

Operates the wireless network; may implement the WAP capability and provide connectivity between the device and the internet

AT&T, NTT, DoCoMo, SBC, Vodafone Airtouch


Manufactures gateways, switches, servers, and tools that implement WAP technology and allow WAP applications to be built and hosted

Ericsson, IBM,




Aggregates and packages a variety of content offered by various content providers; may implement the WAP capability and provide connectivity between the device and the Internet

Excite, Infospace,

Aggregator or


content portal


Provides and aggregates services such as e-mail, PIM and enterprise application access

Aether, AOL,


Concentric, IBM




Content Provider

Owns the specialized content and makes it available to end users by hosting it on the Internet or intranet

CNN, Mapquest,


Application and

Develops the application, service, or content

Various ISVs



Application service providers (ASPs) and service bureaus are emerging new channel for applications on the web. These providers host and rent niche applications to ISPs, enterprises, and consumers alike. Service Bureaus generally offer ‘horizontal’ applications such as email, and content hosting, whereas most ASPs also support specialized business software such as ERP or sales force automation.

The value proposition lies in offering economies of scale while hosting applications and servers within virtual domains for multiple small or medium-size businesses. The typical revenue model is based on the number of seats per customer per application per month. The vendors could find opportunities for new horizontal and vertical applications specifically tailored for the mobile data space. The new applications would likely require ASPs to incur only an incremental infrastructure cost because they already operate data and network operations centers. The service bureau would provide the enterprise with secure solutions that enable access to the corporate groupware application from any device over any network at any time. Other integrated access scenarios could include web hosting, supply chain management, sales force automation, and field service dispatch services. In the area of e-business, ASPs would host managed security offerings, audio and video streaming, and e-commerce transaction and fulfillment capabilities.


Explain wireless device constraints.

The portable devices have a limited amount of processing power available, so the application which require large caches of data or complex calculation will perform poorly.With improvements happening regularly in the processing power we also require more data storage and battery power. However, the user interface is still limited to a handful of keys, low-definition displays and small form factors. The constrained user interface implies the need for new usability and design paradigm. Also, the application must be tailored toward specific devices and even may need to change its behavior dynamically based on how the device is currently being used. Eg. Sound may be turned on or off.

What is latency? How TCP behaves in high latency environment?

Network latency or delay is the amount of time required for a message to travel between two points in the network. The latency, once established, will remain reasonably constant for each byte sent via connection. Wireless networks typically have considerably longer latencies than their wired counterparts.

Wireless network latency also effects the underlying transport protocols. The TCP get into all sorts of trouble if the network latency exceeds what the TCP considers a reasonable time to receive a response. TCP includes a very complex set of rules to ensure that it can handle slow-responding network and it tries to adjust itself to work with the response times discovered. The transport problems arise because of the way that TCP attempts to adjust its transmission speed to account for network congestion and avoid flooding the network. TCP sends two basic acknowledgments from the receiver:

ACK, the normal positive acknowledgment that the data was received correctly and in sequence order.

DUPACK, indicating that the data was received correctly but “out of sequence”.

TCP has two types of triggers for error recovery:

Timeout: If timeout is detected, the sender reduces its transmission speed to one segment per Round-Trip Time (RTT), in the belief that either serious congestion or link failure has occurred. If this drastic rate reduction is successful, the sender then ramps up the transmission speed exponentially in the “slow start” phase, reaching half of the original transmission rate. Finally, in the “congestion avoidance phase”, the transmission rate is increased linearly.

DUPACK: recovery mechanism begins with the sender halving its data rate (i.e. segments sent per RTT). The rate is then increased in the same way as in the congestion avoidance phase.

What is the effect of latency on wireless devices and applications?

A wireless system will need to take account of the network latency to operate effectively, otherwise false errors will be detected. Miscalculations of the expected response time has dire consequences for an application’s behavior. Variable wireless network latencies can introduce other side effects as well. Eg, if each packet incurs a different latency, then packets may be received out of order. Reassembling of the packets in the correct order requires each packet to have some form of sequence identifier and a reassembly software in the device.