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Latin Cheat Sheet 2 The 5 main cases of Latin Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative Ablative subject possessive (of)

acts on a noun indirect object direct object modifies a verb with/from/by

1st Declension Chart Singular porta portae Portae portam port Plural portae portarum ports ports ports

N G D Ac Ab

-a -ae -ae -am -

-ae -rum -s -s -s

Rule 1: The subject of a finite verb is always in the nominative case. (A finite verb is indicativestated as a fact, subjunctive- is a wish, or contingent on something else, or imperative- a command) Rule 2: A finite verb agrees with its subject in number and person. 1st Conjugation verbs re Laud, I praise. Present stem: laudPrincipal Parts: Laud, laudre, laudv, laudtum singular laud, I praise lauds, you praise laudat , he , she it praises laudmus we praise laudtis you praise laudant, they praise plural

2nd Conjugation verbs -re Mone, I advise I warn. Present stem monPrincipal Parts: mone, monre, monu, monitum Present Indicative Active singular plural mone, I advise monmus we advise mons, you advise monet , he , she it advises montis you advise monent, they advise

Rule 3: The direct object of a verb is in the accusative case Rule 4: A noun (or pronoun) limiting another noun and not meaning the same person is in the genitive case. Rule 5: The accusative and ablative cases may be used with prepositions 2nd declension nouns- all words whose genitive singular ends in-. Amicus, M., friend Lase: amic-,

N G D Ac. Ab.

Singular Amcus, a friend Amc, of a friend

-us -

Plural Amc, friends Amcrum, of friends Amcs, to or for friends Amcs, friends Amcs, from, etc., friends

- rum -s -s -s

Amc,to or for a - friend Amcum, a friend Amc, from, etc., a friend -um -

Bellum, N., war Base bell-

N G D Ac. Ab.

Singular bellum, war bell, of war bell,to or for a war bellum, war bell, from, etc., a war

-um - - -um -

Plural Bella, wars bellrum, of war bells, to or for war bells, war bells, from, etc., war

-a rum -s -s -s

What cases of this declension have the same endings? Third Conjugation verbs end in ere reg, I rule. Present stem: regePrincipal Parts: reg, regere, rx, rctum

Singular Reg, I rule Regis, you rule Regit, he, she, it rules

Plural Regimus, we rule Regitis, you rule Regunt, they rule

Fourth Conjugation verbs end in re audi, I hear Present stem: audPrincipal Parts: audi, audre, audv, audtum

Singular Audi, I hear Auds, you hear audit, he, she, it hears

Plural audimus, we hear audtis, you hear audiunt, they hear