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Week 2 : Genetics, Cellular Reproduction, and Inheritance - Midterm Exam

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1. Which term is mostly is associated with formation of new skin cells after you have cut yourself. (choose the best answer) (Points : 2) Meiosis Transcription Mutation Mitosis Endosymbiosis
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2. (Choose the false statement) Enzymes: (Points : 2) Are made primarily of protein Are found in Eukaryotic cells Speed up chemical reactions Are carbon based Are autotrophic
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3. A diploid cell has ____ copies of every chromosome: (Points : 2) 1 2 3 4

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4. Which of the following is not an organelle? (Points : 2) Chloroplast Golgi Apparatus Tertiary Structure Endoplasmic Reticulum Lysosome

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5. Two homologous chromosomes: (Points : 2) Have the same alleles. Are found in all diploid cells. Are found in all Eukaryote cells. None of the Above All of the Above
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6. The water molecule: (Points : 2) has the chemical formula: CO2 Consists of two atoms. Is held together by ionic bonds is a polar molecule can have either a bent or a straight geometry
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7. Which happens during Metaphase in mitosis: (Points : 2) the chromosomes are duplicated. The cell splits in two. The chromosomes align along the middle of the cell. Four gametes are produced. None of the above
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8. Polysaccharides are also known as (Points : 2) carbohydrates lipids proteins fatty acids
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9. In the absence of any other types of atoms, Hydrogen and Oxygen atoms can bond to form: (Points : 2) sugar protein carbon dioxide water

science is impersonal None of the above

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10. A codon is (Points : 2) A nucleotide A sequence of two adjacent nucleotides A sequence of three adjacent nucleotides an amino acid a chain of amino acids
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11. Which is the best definition of diffusion? (Points : 2) Movement of molecules from an area of their higher concentration to an area of their lower concentration. Movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of high water concentration to an area of lower water concentration. Movement of molecules from an area of their lower concentration to an area of their higher concentration. Movement of water across a semipermeable membrane from an area of low water concentration to an area of higher water concentration. A new genre of music
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12. Human gametes are (Points : 2) without mitochondria connected by centrioles protein inhibitors transcription enzymes haploid
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13. What are the products of photosynthesis? (Points : 2) Water, Carbon Dioxide. Water, Sugar, Energy. Oxygen, Sugar Carbon Dioxide, Sugar Carbon Dioxide, ATP
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14. Sperm are produced in which process (Points : 2) Binary fission Hybridization Meiosis Transcription Mitosis The S phase of the Cell Cycle
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15. The subatomic particle with a positive charge is: (Points : 2) Electron. Neutron. Proton. Photon None of the above
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16. A classic problem in genetics is eye color, where the allele B results in brown eyes, and the allele b results in blue eyes. Suppose that the heterozygote Bb has eyes that are brown, and the homozygote BB has eyes that are brown. In this case, the allele B shows ____________ with regard to the allele b. (Points : 2) Complete dominance Incomplete dominance. Codominance. No dominance. None of the above
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17. A molecule consists of: (Points : 2) Two or more atoms bonded together. One atomic nucleus. Two electrons. A radioactive neutron.
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18. The four primary classes of biological macromolecules are (Points : 2) proteins, carbohydrates, water, and sugars water, proteins, carbohydrates, and organic molecules carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids

nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and sugars proteins, nucleic acids, nucleic acids, and organic molecules
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19. Which of the following crosses would result in offspring that are only heterozygous. (Points : 2) TT x tt Tt x Tt TT x TT TT x Tt Answers 1 & 2 None of the above
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20. The primary structure of a folded protein is (Points : 2) held together by Hydrogen bonds an amino acid sequence. determined by coiling and supercoiling. made up of nucleic acids. is a string of glucose molecules.
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21. (Choose the best answer.) Which of the class of RNA molecules carries the genetic information from the nucleus as it is needed for the construction of a protein? (Points : 2) ribosomal RNA transfer RNA primary RNA messenger RNA secondary RNA
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22. A phenotype is: (Points : 2) the nucleotide sequence at a particular gene. the genetic makeup of an organism. a form of chromosomal mutation an observable trait or feature of an organism. a geometric form of the chromosome
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23. A man that is heterozygous for a certain gene: (Points : 2)

Produces sperm cells that all have the same allele for this gene. Could not have had a homozygous parent. Can pass one of two possible alleles to his children. All of the above. None of the above
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24. OH- ions are given off by (Points : 2) acids bases salts None of the above
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25. Consider a simple example of human eye color. Suppose that the allele B results in brown and the allele b results in blue. Suppose that the heterozygote Bb has eyes that are a speckled mixture of brown and blue. In this case, the allele B shows _____________ with regard to the allele b. (Points : 2) Complete dominance. Codominance. Recessiveness. None of the above
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26. During the citric acid cycle of respiration, ATP is made in the: (Points : 2) Cytoplasm Chlorophyll Golgi Apparatus Mitochondria Chloroplast
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27. Genes are made up of sequences of... (choose the best answer) (Points : 2) peptides chromosomes amino acids nucleotides fatty acids
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28. The plasma membrane is: (Points : 2) A phospholipid bilayer. A semipermeable barrier. Embedded with proteins. 2 and 3. All of the above.
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29. Transcription of a part of a DNA molecule with a nucleotide sequence of A-A-A-C-A-A-C-T-T results in a mRNA molecule with the complementary sequence of: (Points : 2) G-G-G-A-G-A-A-C-C. U-U-U-G-U-U-G-C-C. T-T-T-G-A-A-G-C-C. C-C-C-A-C-C-T-C-C. U-U-U-G-U-U-G-A-A.
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30. It is believed that our ancestral eukaryotic cells acquired mitochondria through the process of (Points : 2) spontaneous generation an adaptive nucleotide deletion mutation adaptive radiation peaceful negotiation endosymbiosis apoptosis
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31. Inside of the nucleus, DNA is _________ into RNA. (choose the best answer) (Points : 2) duplicated translated transformed fused transcribed None of the above
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32. Which of the following groupings are made up entirely of Prokaryotes? Choose the best answer. (Points : 2) Protista

Archaea Bacteria 1&2 1&3 2&3

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33. Which organelle(s) contain their own DNA outside of the cell nucleus? (Points : 2) Golgi apparatus Mitochondria Chloroplast Lysosome 1&2 2&3 None of the Above
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34. Cellular respiration (Points : 2) Does not occur in plants Only occurs in Eukaryotes Produces oxygen in as the result of a reduction reaction Releases energy by breaking down large molecules Only occurs in animals
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35. If one strand of DNA has the base sequence AAGCAA, the complementary strand has which of the following sequences? (Points : 2) UUCGUU UUTAUU TTCGTT AAGCAA TTACTT
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36. Prokaryotes do not have (Points : 2) DNA RNA Plasma membranes

Anabolic processes Metabolic processes None of the above

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37. A codon codes for (Points : 2) a complete gene a full protein a single nucleotide a single amino acid a chain of nucleotides a chain of amino acids
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38. The active site of an enzyme: (Points : 2) Is not affected by an extreme change in pH or temperature. Reacts with all molecules in a cell. Is the part of the enzyme where its substrate can fit. Is the period of optimal functionality in an enzyme's life cycle. None of the above
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39. Choose the best answer. Polypeptides are chains of (Points : 2) nucleic acids proteins amino acids carbohydrates organic molecules sugars
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40. Which kind of RNA carries amino acids to the ribosomes in the process of protein synthesis? (Points : 2) mRNA tRNA rRNA zRNA None of the above




41. Which of the following is the strongest kind of bond between atoms (Points : 2) Nuclear Polar Hydrogen Covalent Ambivalent
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42. All animals have the same number of chromosomes. (Points : 1) True False
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43. Humans have more microbial cells living in and on them than they have cells with human DNA. (Points : 1) True False
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44. Which of the following statements is not true. (Points : 2) pH effects the activity of enzymes the pH scale runs between 0 and 14 low pH values indicate acidic conditions a pH of 12 indicates an acidic solution
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45. The monomers of Carbohydrates are (Points : 2) amino acids nucleic acids proteins monosaccharides lipids
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46. Which of the following is incorrect (Points : 2) Catabolism involves degradative reactions and includes cell respiration. Anabolism involves synthetic reactions and includes protein synthesis. Cell respiration produces sugar for energy storage. Photosynthesis involves the use of captured sunlight energy and carbon dioxide.




47. The S stage is the part of the cell cycle in which (Points : 2) the chromosomes are replicated. Chromatids are separated. Chromosomes are aligned in the middle of the cell. The cell begins to split into two daughter cells by forming new membrane along the mid-line of the cell. None of the Above
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48. How many micrometers are there in one meter? (Points : 2) 1,000,000 100,000 1,000 0.000,1 0.000,0001
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49. Autosomes (Points : 2) are the class of unicellular organisms that reproduce via binary fission. are organelles that carry waste from the cytoplasm to the cell wall. are circular chromosomes that can be transferred between some prokaryotes. are homologous chromosomes that are alike in length and shape. are developmental genes that have been implicated in the development of cancer.
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50. Earth's oxygen atmosphere is thought to (Points : 2) have been present since the planet first formed. is thought to have been produced by volcanic eruptions. is thought to have formed through the photosynthetic activity of oak forests. is thought to have been produced through the cellular respiration of early life. is thought to have been produced as a waste product of photosynthesizing life forms.
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51. When a trait is influenced by many different genes it is called... (choose the best answer) (Points : 2) pleiotropy mendelian polygeny

sex-linked aneuploidy
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