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Australian Standard
AS 12431982

Voltage transformers for measurement and protection

Represented on the committee which was responsible for the preparation of this standard were the following: Australian Electrical and Electronic Manufacturers Association CSIRO, National Measurement Laboratory Electrical testing laboratories Electricity Supply Association of Australia Railways of Australia Committee

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This standard, prepared by Committee EL/13, Measurement and Protection Transformers, was approved on behalf of the Council of the Standards Association of Australia on 4 December 1981, and was published on 19 April 1982.

Review of Australian Standards. To keep abreast of progress in industry, Australian Standards are subject to periodic review and are kept up to date by the issue of amendments or new editions as necessary. It is important therefore that Standards users ensure that they are in possession of the latest edition, and any amendments thereto. Full details of all Australian Standards and related publications will be found in the Standards Australia Catalogue of Publications; this information is supplemented each month by the magazine The Australian Standard, which subscribing members receive, and which gives details of new publications, new editions and amendments, and of withdrawn Standards. Suggestions for improvements to Australian Standards, addressed to the head office of Standards Australia, are welcomed. Notification of any inaccuracy or ambiguity found in an Australian Standard should be made without delay in order that the matter may be investigated and appropriate action taken.

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 80158 to 80162.

AS 12431982

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Australian Standard
Voltage transformers for measurement and protection

First published . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1972 Second edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1982 Reprinted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1985

PUBLISHED BY STANDARDS AUSTRALIA (STANDARDS ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALIA) 1 THE CRESCENT, HOMEBUSH, NSW 2140
ISBN 0 7262 2460 X

AS 12431982

PREFACE
This edition of this standard was prepared by the Associations Committee on Measurement and Protection Transformers to supersede AS 12431972. The standard has been revised in recognition of developments since 1972 and in order both to further its alignment with IEC standards and to improve comprehension by increased separation of less common aspects from general aspects. This edition differs from the first edition as follows: (a) It makes reference to AS 1824, Insulation Coordination, Part 1 Basic Principles, Standard Insulation Levels and Test Procedures, and AS 1931, High Voltage Testing Techniques, Part 1 General Definitions, Test Requirements, Test Procedures and Measuring Devices. (b) The following (previously misleading) terms have been changed: (i) Non-earthable voltage transformers are now referred to as being uniformly insulated (see Clause 1.3.2.8). (ii) Earthable voltage transformers are now referred to as being non-uniformly insulated (see Clause 1.3.2.9). (c) The term reference primary voltage has been discarded because it was not widely understood. The term was previously introduced to refer to the phase-to-neutral voltage associated with the rated phase-to-phase voltage of three-phase Category B or Designation R voltage transformers. In this edition rated primary voltage has been redefined for this type of voltage transformer (see Clause 13.3.8). (d) The whole voltage transformer is now required to withstand the thermal effects of the most onerous combination of rated voltage factor and rated duration assigned to any secondary winding. (e) Particular requirements for single-phase electromagnetic voltage transformers are now specified separately (see Section 2). (f) Category of performance and secondary residual voltage are now restricted to three-phase voltage transformers (see Section 4). (g) Particular requirements for Designation L voltage transformers are now specified separately (see Section 5). (h) The symbol for voltage is now U in accordance with AS 1046, Part 1, published in 1978. Previously it was V. However, the symbol V is retained for the unit volt (see AS 1000). (j) The measurement of partial discharges and their permissible levels have been specified as a routine test for certain HV voltage transformers (see Clause 1.14.5). (k) A method for measuring radio influence voltage is included but no limits are specified (see Clause 1.16). (l) Mention is made of measurements of dielectric dissipation factor (tangent delta) but no recommendations are included (see Clause 1.14.7). This standard also differs from the IEC standard for voltage transformers in such areas as rated voltage factor for continuous operation, phase-error limits, and ranges of compliance with error limits. In addition IEC standards do not specify detailed requirements for three-phase voltage transformers. In the preparation of this standard reference was made to the following publications: IEC 186 Voltage Transformers (First edition (1969) including Supplement A (1970) and Amendment No. 1 (1978)) Coupling Capacitors and Capacitor Dividers Voltage Transformers

IEC 358 BS 3941

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Acknowledgment is made of the assistance received therefrom. In the application of this standard, reference may be necessary to the following Australian, IEC and British standards: AS 1000 AS 1013 AS 1018 AS 1024 AS 1042 The International System of Units (SI) and Its Application Shunt Capacitors for Connection to Power Frequency Systems Recommendations for Partial Discharge Measurements Direct Recording Electrical Measuring Instruments and Their Accessories Direct-acti ng Indicat ing El ectrical Measuring Instruments and Their Accessories Letter Symbols for Use in Electrotechnology Part 1General Electromagnetic Interference Measuring Equipment Part 2Equipment for the Frequency Range 0.15 MHz to 1000 MHz Met hods of Test for El ectrical Characteristics of Solid Plastics Insulating materials Part 4 Method 4Determination of the Permittivity and Dielectric Dissipation Factor at Power, Audio and Radio Frequencies up to 300 MHz Bushings for Alternating Voltages above 1000 V Electricity Meters High Voltage Isolators (Disconnectors) and Earthing Switches Transducers for Electrical Measurements Insulating Oil for Transformers and Switchgear Insulation Coordination Part 1Basic Principles, Standard Insulation Levels and Test Procedures

AS 1046 AS 1052

AS 1255

AS 1265 AS 1284 AS 1306 AS 1384 AS 1767 AS 1824

AS 12431982

AS 1931

AS 2006 AS 2481 AS 2532

AS 3100

High Voltage Testing Techniques Part 1General Definitions, Test Requirements, Test Procedures and Measuring Devices High Voltage Alternating Current Circuit-breakers Al l -or-not hi ng E l ect ri cal R el ays (Instantaneous and Timing Relays) Current and Voltage Transformers for Measurement and Protect i on Measurement of Partial Discharges Approval and Test Specification for Definitions and General Requirements for Electrical Materials and Equipment

AS C320* Classification of Insulating Materials for Electrical Machinery and Apparatus on the Basis of Thermal Stability in Service IEC 44 Instrument Transformers Part 4Measurement of Partial Discharges IEC 358 Coupling Capacitors and Capacitor Dividers IEC 445 Identification of Apparatus Terminals and General Rules for a Uniform System of Terminal Marking, Using an Alphanumeric Notation IEC 481 Coupling Devices for Power Line Carrier Systems BS 1858 Bitumen Based Filling Compounds for Electrical Purposes

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* Superseded by AS 27681985, Electrical Insulating MaterialsEvaluation and Classification Based on Thermal Endurance

Copyright STANDARDS AUSTRALIA Users of Standards are reminded that copyright subsists in all Standards Australia publications and software. Except where the Copyright Act allows and except where provided for below no publications or software produced by Standards Australia may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system in any form or transmitted by any means without prior permission in writing from Standards Australia. Permission may be conditional on an appropriate royalty payment. Requests for permission and information on commercial software royalties should be directed to the head office of Standards Australia. Standards Australia will permit up to 10 percent of the technical content pages of a Standard to be copied for use exclusively in-house by purchasers of the Standard without payment of a royalty or advice to Standards Australia. Standards Australia will also permit the inclusion of its copyright material in computer software programs for no royalty payment provided such programs are used exclusively in-house by the creators of the programs. Care should be taken to ensure that material used is from the current edition of the Standard and that it is updated whenever the Standard is amended or revised. The number and date of the Standard should therefore be clearly identified. The use of material in print form or in computer software programs to be used commercially, with or without payment, or in commercial contracts is subject to the payment of a royalty. This policy may be varied by Standards Australia at any time.

AS 12431982

CONTENTS
Page SECTION 1. SCOPE AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . Rated Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rated Insulation Level (RIL) . . . . . Rated Primary Voltage . . . . . . . . . Overvoltage Ratings . . . . . . . . . . . Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Temperature Rise . . . . . . . . . . . . . Current Density . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Secondary Windings . . . . . . . . . . . Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Routine Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Type Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Type TestRadio Influence Voltage (RIV) Test . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.17 Commissioning Tests . . . . . . . . . . 5 5 5 8 8 8 8 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 14 16 16 SECTION 4. THREE-PHASE VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 Scope of Section . . . . . . . . . . Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Category of Performance . . . . . Rated Voltages . . . . . . . . . . . . Rated Burden and Output . . . . Rated Voltage Factor and Rated Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7 Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.8 Terminal Markings . . . . . . . . . 4.9 Terminal Positions . . . . . . . . . 4.10 Routine Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.11 Type Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 22 22 22 22 22 22 24 24 24 26 Page

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.. . .. . ... ... ... . ..

SECTION 5. DESIGNATION L VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Scope of Section . . . . . . . . . . Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rated Primary Voltage . . . . . . Rated Secondary Voltages . . . . Rated Burden . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rated Voltage Factor and Rated Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Accuracy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terminal Markings . . . . . . . . . Accuracy Testing of Uniformly Insulated Designation L VTs . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. .. 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28 28

SECTION 2. SINGLE-PHASE ELECTROMAGNETIC VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 Scope of Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Rated Secondary Voltage . . . . . . . . 17 Rated Burden and Output . . . . . . . 17 Rated Voltage Factor and Rated Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Terminal Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Type Testing of Single-phase Uniformly Insulated VTs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

.. . .. . ... ...

APPENDICES A B C Service Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . Guidance in the Selection of Rated Voltage Factor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Classes of Accuracy and Their Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Derivation of Errors at Differing Burdens and Power Factors . . . . . . Temperature Measurements . . . . . . Detection of Insulation Failure During an Impulse Voltage Withstand Test . Determination of Primary and Secondary Currents . . . . . . . . . . . . Determination of Temperature Coefficients of Error . . . . . . . . . . . Method of Test for Radio Influence Voltage (RIV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Residual Voltage Windings . . . . . . Accuracy Tests on Three-phase VTs System Voltages Under Unsymmetrical Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Information to be Supplied with Enquiry and Order . . . . . . . . . . . . Alphabetical Index of Defined Terms 30 31 32 34 37 39 40 44 45 47 49 55 57 58

SECTION 3. CAPACITOR VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 Scope of Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rated Secondary Voltage . . . . . . . . Rated Burden and Output . . . . . . . Rated Voltage Factor and Rated Duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Special Requirements . . . . . . . . . . Conditions for Compliance with Error Limits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Terminal Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Transient Response to Primary Short-circuit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ferro-resonance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overvoltage Protective Device . . . . Routine Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Type Tests . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Commissioning Tests . . . . . . . . . . 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 21 21

D E F G H J K L M N O

AS 12431982

STANDARDS ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALIA Australian Standard for VOLTAGE TRANSFORMERS FOR MEASUREMENT AND PROTECTION SECTION 1. SCOPE AND GENERAL REQUIREMENTS
1.1 SCOPE. This standard specifies requirements for voltage transformers for use with electrical measuring instruments and electrical protection devices such as are covered, in general, by the following Australian standards: AS 1284 Electricity Meters AS 1024 Direct Recording Electrical Measuring Instruments and Their Accessories AS 1042 Direct-acting Indicating Electrical Measuring Instruments and Their Accessories AS 1384 Transducers for Electrical Measurements AS 2481 All-or-nothing Electrical Relays.
NOTES: 1. Throughout this standard, the words voltage transformer are abbreviated to VT and capacitor voltage transformer to CVT. (The plurals are VTs and CVTs respectively.) 2. In order to facilitate the specification and purchase of VTs, the standard also lists information which should be supplied with enquiry and order (see Appendix N). 3. Particular attention is drawn to the Foreword to AS 1384 concerning possible peculiarities in the burdens imposed on VTs by certain transducers.

1.3.2 Definitions Relating to Construction. 1.3.2.1 Voltage transformer (VT)a transformer, for use with electrical measuring instruments and/or electrical protection devices, for the transformation of voltage and in which the voltage across the secondary terminals is, within prescribed error limits, proportional to and in phase with the voltage across the primary terminals. A three-phase VT, or a three-phase group of single-phase VTs, may also have secondary windings connected to develop secondary residual voltage. These windings may be either broken-delta connected, or wound on the additional limbs of a 5-limb three-phase VT. 1.3.2.2 Electromagnetic voltage transformera VT consisting of a magnetic core and two or more windings. 1.3.2.3 Capacitor voltage transformer (CVT)a VT comprising a capacitor voltage divider (CVD) and an electromagnetic unit (EMU). (See Clause 1.3.5 and Fig. 1.1.) 1.3.2.4 Windingthe assembly of turns forming an electrical circuit associated with a primary or secondary voltage assigned to a VT.
NOTE: A simple three-phase VT has two windings (a primary winding and a secondary winding), not six windings.

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1.2 APPLICATION. All voltage transformers shall comply with the relevant requirements of Section 1, and with the relevant requirements of the following Sections, as applicable: (a) Single-phase electromagnetic voltage transformers .. Section 2. (b) Capacitor voltage transformers .. Section 3.
NOTE: This standard does not apply to capacitor voltage transformers in which the capacitance of the high-voltage capacitor is such that outputs greater than 10 V.A cannot be obtained, although some of the clauses may apply to such devices.

1.3.2.5 Primary winding (of an electromagnetic VT) the winding to which is applied the voltage to be transformed. 1.3.2.6 Secondary windinga winding in which the transformed voltage is developed. 1.3.2.7 Secondary circuitthe external circuit supplied by the secondary winding of a VT. 1.3.2.8 Uniformly insulated VT*a VT having all primary terminals of equal rated insulation level. (See Clause 1.3.3.12.) 1.3.2.9 Non-uniformly insulated VTa VT having one primary terminal intended for direct or indirect connection to earth, which terminal being assigned a lower rated insulation level than the other primary terminal(s). 1.3.2.10 Broken-delta connectionthe connection, in delta, of three secondary windings of either a three-phase VT or a three-phase group of single-phase VTs, one of the connections making the delta being open for the purpose of supplying a secondary circuit.

(c) Three-phase voltage transformers . . Section 4. (d) Voltage transformers for laboratory use (Designation L) .. Section 5. 1.3 DEFINITIONS. 1.3.1 General. For the purpose of this standard the following definitions apply. For convenience the definitions are indexed in two forms; the Index hereunder lists the aspect groupings and Appendix O lists the individual terms. Clauses 1.3.2 to 1.3.6 detail the definitions in full. Definitions relating to See Clause Construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.2 CVTs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.5 Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.3 Residual voltage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1.3.6 Service conditions of a three-phase system . . . . 1.3.4

* Previously known as non-earthable VT. Previously known as earthable VT.

COPYRIGHT

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AS 1243-1982, Voltage transformers for measurement and protection


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