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SIMULATION

[SKP6024 - Technology And Innovation In Teaching And Learning Chemistry]

SKP 6024 TECHNOLOGY AND INNOVATION IN TEACHING AND LEARNING CHEMISTRY

GROUP ASSIGNMENT: SIMULATION

NAMA PENSYARAH :CIK ASMAYATI BT YAHAYA

NAME FAIRUSISWANI BT ENDUT NORHAYATI BT NOLDIN


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MATRIC NO. M20112001374 M20112001377

SIMULATION

[SKP6024 - Technology And Innovation In Teaching And Learning Chemistry]

ELECTROLYSIS Teachers Guide / Chemistry Form 4 / Simulation


SCIENTIFIC CONCEPT

Conductor A conductor is a substance which conducts electricity but is not chemically changed during the conduction.

Insulators A non-conductor is a substance which does not allow the passage of electricity. Sometimes these non-conductors are used to protect something from electricity. They are then called insulators.

Electrolytes

Electrolytes are compounds which when molten or dissolved in water conduct electric current and are decomposed in the process. Non - Electrolytes

A non-electrolyte is a liquid which does not allow the passage of electricity.

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SIMULATION

[SKP6024 - Technology And Innovation In Teaching And Learning Chemistry]

Factor Affecting Electrolysis There are 3 factors that may influence the selective discharge of ions during the electrolysis of an aqueous solution. When more than one type of ions move towards the electrode during electrolysis, only one type of ion is selected to be discharged. Selective discharge only occur in aqueous solution because it usually has more than one type of ions attracted to the anode or cathode. The selection of ion for discharge depends on three factors : i) The position of ions in the Electrochemical Series (normally in dilute solution and inert electrodes are used) ii) The concentration of electrolyte / ions (normally in concentrated solution and inert electrodes are used) iii) The types of electrode (when active metal electrode is used)

(I)

The position of ions in the Electrochemical Series When electricity is conducted in dilute solution used inert electrodes, the cations or anions in the lower position in the Electrochemical Series will be selectively discharged.

Electrochemical Series
Cation Anion

K+ Na+ Ca2+ Mg2+ Al3+ Zn2+ Fe2+ Sn2+ Pb2+ H+ Cu2+ Ag+
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FSO42NO3ClBrEasier to discharge IOH-

SIMULATION

[SKP6024 - Technology And Innovation In Teaching And Learning Chemistry]

The chart above lists the ions in order of difficulty of discharge The ions at the top of the list is more difficult to be discharged, but as we go down the table, their become easier to be discharged. For example, Cu+ easier to be discharged compare with Ag+ and OH- is easier to be discharged compare with I-.

This series is called Electrochemical series The lower the ion in the electrochemical series, the easier the ion to be discharged during electrolysis.

Example :
Electrolysis of 0.1 mol dm-3 sulphuric acid, using carbon electrodes. Apparatus set-up :

carbon electrodes

Write the electrolyte ionisation equation Ions exist in electrolyte

H2SO4 H2O

2H+ + SO2-4 H+ + OH-

H+, OH-,SO2-4 At the Anode At the Cathode H+ H+,

Write the formulae of ions that are attracted to the anode and cathode Ions that are selectively discharge Write half equation (discharge equation) of the reaction occured at the anode and cathode

OH-,SO2-4 OH-

4OH-

2H2O + O2 + 4e [4]

2H+ + 2e

H2

SIMULATION

[SKP6024 - Technology And Innovation In Teaching And Learning Chemistry]

Name of the products at the anode and cathode Observations

Oxygen
Gas bubbles are released Insert glowing wooden splinter into the test tube

Hydrogen
Gas bubbles are released When the ligthed wooden splinter is placednear the mouth of the test tube A pop sound is produced

Confirmatory test [ method and observations of the test ]

Glowing wooden splinter is lighted up

(II)

Concentration of electrolyte
When electrolysis is carried out using inert electrodes and concentrated solutions, ions that are more concentrated will be selected to discharge, but this is only true for halide ions; which are Cl-, Br- and I-.

Example :
Electrolysis of : Set I : 0.001 mol dm-3 hydrochoric acid, HCl(aq) Set II : 2.0 mol dm-3 hydrochoric acid, HCl(aq) using carbon electrodes.

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SIMULATION

[SKP6024 - Technology And Innovation In Teaching And Learning Chemistry]

The electrolyte ionisation equation Ions exist in electrolyte

HCI
H2O

H+ + CIH+ + OH-

H+ , CI- , OHSet I : 0.001 mol dm-3 dilute HCl Set II : 2.0 mol dm-3 concentrated HCl

The ions that are move to the cathode Ions that are selectively discharge Discharge equation at the Cathode Name of the product at the Cathode The ions that move to the Anode Selective ion Discharge equation at the Anode Name of the product at the Anode Observation 4OH-

H+ H+
2H+ + 2e Hydrogen gas OH- CI OH2H2O + O2 + 4e 2CI
-

H+ H+
H2 2H+ + 2e Hydrogen gas OH- CI
-

H2

CICI2 + 2e

Oxygen gas
Gas bubbles are released Insert glowing wooden splinter into the test tube

Chlorine gas
Greenish yellow gas is released A damp blue litmus paper placed near the mouth of the test tube

Confirmatory test for product form at anode*. [ method and observation of the test ]

Glowing wooden splinter is lighted up

The gas changed the damp blue litmus paper to read and then bleached it

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SIMULATION

[SKP6024 - Technology And Innovation In Teaching And Learning Chemistry]

(III)

Types of electrode
There are two types of electrode : Inert electrode An electrode that acts as a conductor of current only and does not undergo any chemical changes. Normally are made of carbon or platinum. These electrodes do not participate in an electrolysis but merely provide a surface for the release of electrons.

Non-inert/ active electrode An electrode that not only acts as a conductor of current but also undergoes chemical changes. During the electrolysis, the metal anode will corrode while the reaction at the cathode is similar to the reaction at carbon electrode. Consist of metal anodes such as copper, silver and nickel.

Example : Set I : Electrolysis of 0.02 mol dm-3 silver nitrate solution using carbon electrodes Set II : Electrolysis of 0.02 mol dm-3 silver nitrate solution using silver electrodes Apparatus set-up :

Set I : Carbon electrodes

Set II : Silver electrodes

Carbon electrodes

A 0.02 mol dm-3 AgNO3 solution Silver plate

The electrolyte ionisation equation Ions exist in electrolyte

H2O AgNO3

H+ + OHAg+ + NO2-3 NO2-3

Ag+ H+ OH[7]

SIMULATION

[SKP6024 - Technology And Innovation In Teaching And Learning Chemistry]

Set I : Carbon electrodes The ions that move to the cathode Discharge equation at the cathode Name of the product at the cathode The ions that move to the anode Discharge equation at the anode Name of the product at the anode Cathode Observations at the Anode

Set II : Silver electrodes

Ag+ H+ Ag+ + e Ag

Ag+ H+ Ag+ + e Silver solid


OHNO2-3

Ag

Silver solid
OH4OHNO2-3 2H2O + O2 + 4e

Ag

Ag+ + e Silver solid

Oxygen Grey shiny solid deposited

Grey shiny solid deposited Anode becomes thinner

Gas bubbles are released

UNIQUE FEATURE OF THIS ACTIVITY


Students are able to visualize the reaction occur and the effect formed between half cell to the another cell. Students are able to determine the three main factors that influence the electrolysis product by using computer simulation. Students also can try using another metal and solution and visualize what will happen next. From the simulation, student can built the reaction involved in the experiment.

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SIMULATION

[SKP6024 - Technology And Innovation In Teaching And Learning Chemistry]

ENGAGING

Figure 1

1. What do you understand about Figure 1 diagram? 2. Give 3 factors that can affect light in the bulb 3. What the different between electrolyte and non electrolyte?

Answer 1. The bulb is blink because it has a good electrolyte where have high concentration of electrolyte and good electrode. 2. 3 factors that can affect light in the bulb Position of the electrochemical series The concentrations Types of electrode 3. Electrolytes are compounds which when molten or dissolved in water conduct electric current and are decomposed in the process while a non-electrolyte is a liquid which does not allow the passage of electricity.

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SIMULATION

[SKP6024 - Technology And Innovation In Teaching And Learning Chemistry]

EMPOWERING 1. Electrolysis is the dissociation of an electrolyte into ions at the electrodes by the passage of electric current. 2. In electrolysis, the circuit must contain with: a) b) c) d) electrode Aqueous solution Electric current Wires

3. Log on the web side and observe the animation to answer the question. http://www.tutorvista.com/content/chemistry/chemistry-ii/electrolysis/electrolysis-animation.php

Electrolysis
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SIMULATION

[SKP6024 - Technology And Innovation In Teaching And Learning Chemistry]

Electrolysis is the dissociation of an electrolyte into ions at the electrodes by the passage of electric current.

This diagram shows that in this solution it is contain an anions and cations movement.

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SIMULATION

[SKP6024 - Technology And Innovation In Teaching And Learning Chemistry]

This diagram show that when we use electrode and have electric current, the ions move. We used copper electrode and copper sulfate solution.

When we give electric current, the ions move to cathode and anode electrodes. [12]

SIMULATION

[SKP6024 - Technology And Innovation In Teaching And Learning Chemistry]

Question 1. What is the meaning of conductor? 2. What do you understand about electrochemical series? 3. Give three factor that affect electrolysis.

Answer 1. A conductor is a substance which conducts electricity but is not chemically changed during the conduction. 2.

The chart above lists the ions in order of difficulty of discharge The ions at the top of the list is more difficult to be discharged, but as we go down the table, their become easier to be discharged. For example, Cu+ easier to be discharged compare with G+ and OH- is easier to be discharged compare with I-. This series is called Electrochemical series The lower the ion in the electrochemical series, the easier the ion to be discharged during electrolysis.

3. There are three main factors that influence the electrolysis products. There are: Position of the electrochemical series The concentrations Types of electrode

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SIMULATION

[SKP6024 - Technology And Innovation In Teaching And Learning Chemistry]

ENHANCE Application Of Electrolysis In Daily Life The storage battery

A fully charged lead storage cell

A widely used lead acid battery, the storage battery was invented in 1859 by the French physicist Gaston Plant. Reversing the chemical reaction can recharge this battery. It consists of three or six cells, which are connected in a series. So the electricity generated by it is very strong. Because of this, it has found wide usage in automobiles, trucks and other vehicles. The catch here is that this type of battery runs down very quickly. However its ability to recharge itself while in operation has removed the hurdle and is the main reason for its widespread usage. During recharging the chemical reactions that take place when the battery is discharging current are reversed and the original chemical balance is restored. This being a continuous process, the battery can work for a long time without interruption. The electrolyte in this battery is a dilute solution of sulphuric acid, the negative electrode is made of lead, and the positive electrode is made of lead dioxide.

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SIMULATION

[SKP6024 - Technology And Innovation In Teaching And Learning Chemistry]

The table below shows three electrolytic cells with different electrolytes and different electrodes. You are required to answer each section by writing your answer in the spaces provided. 1. In the diagrams, label the cathode with the symbol and the anode with the symbol +. 2. Show the direction of the flow of the electrons with arrowheads, > 3. Write the formula of all ions in the electrolyte. 4. Write the formula of ions which are attracted to the cathode. Underline the formula of ion which is selectively discharged. 5. Write the half equation to represent the reaction at the cathode. 6. What will you observe at the cathode?

7. Write the formula of ions which are attracted to the anode. Underline the formula of ion which is selectively discharged. 8. Write the half equation to represent the reaction at the anode. 9. What will you observe at the anode?

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SIMULATION

[SKP6024 - Technology And Innovation In Teaching And Learning Chemistry]

Anwers : 1 2

3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Na+, Cl, H+ , OH Na+, H+ 2H+ + 2e H2 Gas bubbles are formed Cl, OH ions 2Cl Cl2 + 2e Gas bubbles are formed

Na+, Cl, H+ , OH Na+, H+ 2H+ + 2e H2 Gas bubbles are formed Cl, OH ions 4OH 2H2O + O2 + 4e Gas bubbles are formed

Cu2+, SO42, H+, OH Cu2+, H+ Cu+ + 2e Cu Brown solid deposited on the cathode SO42, OH Cu Cu2+ + 2e Copper plate becomes thinner

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