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Browns Gas

Introduction
Oxyhydrogen is a mixture of monoatomic hydrogen (H2) and monoatomic oxygen (O2) gases. This gaseous mixture is used for torches for the processing of refractory materials and was the first gaseous mixture used for welding. In practice a ratio of 4:1 or 5:1 hydrogen: oxygen is required to avoid an oxidizing flame. Oxyhydrogen is used as a fuel enhancer and this is the technology we are going to look into. Water is decomposed in hydrogen & oxygen by electricity, each liter of water expands into 1860 liter of combustible gas. Oxyhydrogen can only be produced in a common ducted electrolyzer. By not separating the product hydrogen and oxygen gases efficiency is improved; when hydrogen is in the presence of oxygen, immediately after electrolytic production, the formation of diatomic hydrogen and oxygen is preceded by the formation of hydrogen and oxygen molecular structures of increased energy content. This accounts for the increasingly efficient electrolytic reaction observed in series cell common ducted electrolyzers. Brown's gas and HHO are a laymans synonyms for oxyhydrogen. Jules Verne in his book The Mysterious Island (1874) wrote the following age: "Water decomposed into its primitive elements (Hydrogen and Oxygen), and decomposed doubtless by electricity, which will then have become a powerful and manageable force. Yes, my friends, I believe that water will one day be employed as a fuel".

Hydrogen fuel enhancement


Hydrogen fuel enhancement is the process of using a mixture of hydrogen and conventional hydrocarbon fuel in an internal combustion engine, typically in a car or truck, to improve fuel economy, power output, or both. Scientifically accepted methods include storing hydrogen on the vehicle as a second fuel, or reforming conventional fuel into hydrogen with a catalyst.

Difference between Browns gas and Pure Hydrogen


Pure Hydrogen
The beauty of pure hydrogen is that it can be substantially pressurized to over 10,000 psi, which makes it a suitable fuel for tanking, storage, and distribution.

Browns Gas
Browns Gas cannot be stored under the viably high pressures that are necessary for distribution. Browns Gas is optimally consumed immediately after production. The logical explanation of the reaction process in making brown's gas is this that no excess energy is used, the atoms begin monatomic (within the molecule), they continue this way after disassociation (explaining its unique properties unlike diatomic H and O), and finally they are inputted into the final reaction, which in this specific case, calls for monatomic forms of the atoms in order to create and complete the molecule (H20) in the simplest & most efficient reaction, leaving out any wasteful steps such as using energy to create diatomic elements only to spend more energy breaking them up soon after to get back to the desired atomic forms. All of this energy preparing H2 and O2 is the difference between normal H burning and browns gas consumption. BG begins and remains at the simplest state which leaves us more harness able energy than its counterpart, normal H2 and O2 that costs energy just to be prepared for the final reaction ".

Properties
Auto-ignition temperature: 570 degree C or 1065 degree F Minimum energy required to ignite the mixture with a spark: 20 micro J When ignited, the gas mixture releases energy and converts to water vapor, which sustains the reaction: 241.8 kJ of energy (LHV) for every mole of H2 burned. The amount of heat energy released is independent of the mode of combustion, but the temperature of the flame varies. The maximum temperature of about 2800 C is achieved with a pure stoichiometric mixture, about 700 degrees hotter than a hydrogen flame in air. It implodes first then explodes. Does not boil water but can melt such a high heat resistance material as

tungsten.

HHO injection for improved combustion


By using HHO gas as one can expect to see an increase in gas mileage between 8 and 35%, depending on engine design, fuel and HHO gas volume etc. In a carburetor, the air that is filled with Hydrogen will explode milliseconds faster than air with no hydrogen, resulting in that the whole combustion chamber that's filled with hydrogen explode all at once when the spark plug activate a spark. This result in a better combustion of the fuel. The amount of energy in it (442 Kcal) add "fuel" to help push down the piston. At normal temperature and pressure, Hydrogen gas can burn when it is between 4% and 94% hydrogen by volume. If you cannot get to 4% nothing will happen. Note: in water only 11% is hydrogen (by volume) because oxygen molecules are much heavier. Dr Mills Hydrino theory It was proposed in 1986 to explain the anomolous combustion of certain fuels especially emulsified fuels. It explains the the excess of heat in the absence of nuclear products in the research of cold fusion. Abridged postulates of the theory: There are states lower than the ground state. Hydrogen is one such example which can achieve this state by resonant collision with a nearby atom or combination of atoms having the capability to absorb the energy to effect the transition. K+ ions have transition energy level equal to the potential energy of hydrogen atom with the ground state (27.2 eV). This can transit ground state to lower states of 1/n ( 1/2, 1/3, 1/4) Shrunken hydrogen atom is called Hydrino. Can catalyse to shrunk other hydrinos further. Thus a chain formation occurs. This increases energy release per atom (1000 eV per atom in total). Mill used potassium carbonate as electrolyte. On the same grounds, 2 atoms of oxygen(13.61 eV of each) play the role of one K+ ion. Net reaction: H H1/2 + 40.8 eV Reactions:H2 H + H O + H2O OH + HO H + O2 O + OH O + H2 H + OH

O + H2O OH + OH OH + H H2O Reason for melting of metal and non-boiling of water with Browns Gas= Lowest energy release of 400eV is in ultra-violet range and these light emissions wouldnt be absorbed by water, but can be changed to heat energy when it strikes metals. Air-less combustion of emulsified fuels:CnnHm + nH2O nCO + (n + m/2)H2 nCO + nH2O nCO + nH (Water Shift Reaction) In preheating if air is used as oxidant then there will be 4 times more nitrogen than oxygen and the probability of collision between oxygen and nitrogen increases, resulting in the formation of NOx and it is an endothermic reaction (182.4 kJ/mol). But if brown gas is used as an oxidant then not only will it provide oxygen but also the reaction will not be endothermic.

Construction Of Electrolyzer
Electrodes
Various designs are: Plates: Made of 304 or 316L stainless steel in general. The size of the plates, the thickness and distance between the plates is very important to make it most efficient. Although most plate-setups are vertical. Horizontal flat round plates are likely the best. Recommended. Bolts: some very cheap designs use stainless steel bolts as electrodes. Not recommended. Will get hot quickly. Wires: A few designs are using thin wired electrodes. Low volume gas production. Not recommended Tubes: A good design is tubes. Depending on the specific size, material and setup this design works very good. It will produce high quality HHO gas in general without the need for pulsed-power. The round tubes designs were being produced on large scale at the end of WW2 to power British army vehicles. We found out that it produces a lot of gas, stays pretty cool and doesn't need any maintenance other than filling it up with distilled water.

Recommended. There exist different qualities HHO gases, depending on generator design. So, not all generator designs do actually produce high quality of HHO gas. (quality depends on the mixture of Hydrogen and Oxygen without other gases). BG - HHO Gas over 95% pure is implosive. Everything below 95% is explosive. So using the right electrolyte is utmost important. In a nutshell: Distance between plates - about the same as the thickness of the plates Electrodes should be made of 316 L or 304 stainless steel. Use distilled, de-ionized water or rainwater and (medical grade) KOH or NAOH for electrolyte. Don't exceed 1,8 volts between the plates
Always keep the HHO Cell temperature under 50 Celsius. Flashback protection needed always.

Electrolytes
1 - Tap Water - H2O (containing minerals, salts etc.) Advantages: Available everywhere Cheap Safe Disadvantages: Water might turn brown with smudge on the electrodes Water that contains chlorine should not be used The best water for a HHO generator we found to be: distilled, demi and deionized water

2 - White Vinegar - acetic acid - H3C-COOH Advantages: Stainless electrodes stay clean Available everywhere Cheap Safe

Disadvantages: Smells water will become coloured less powerfull Available at your local grocery store. A good mix for medium distance electrodes: 100% vinegar with (only if necessary) some baking soda. (If you do so be carefull, because the reaction likely will produce co2 and some other gasses!)

2 - Baking Soda ( Natriumbicarbonate ) NaHCO3 Advantages: Available everywhere Cheap Disadvantages: Electrodes and water might turn brown Produces Co2 (30%) and Co (4%). For this reason not recommended Pure Baking Soda might leave a brown tinted residu.

3 - Sodium Hydroxide also called Lye = NaOH Advantages: Electrodes stay clean Cheap 95 - 100% pure HHO (oxygen hydrogen) Gas production with right generator design Available in the Grocery store Disadvantages: Limited dangerous to work with Too much heat causes corrosion (general rule) Pure sodium hydroxide is a white solid; available in pellets, flakes, granules and as a 50% saturated solution. It is deliquescent and readily absorbs carbon dioxide from the air, so it should be stored in an airtight container. It is very soluble in water with liberation of heat. Use with distilled water. TRY TO FIND MEDICAL GRADE QUALITY (works excellent, so highly recommended) 4 - KOH Also called pottassium hydroxide. Advantages: Electrodes stay clean 95 - 100% pure HHO gas production along with the right generator design strong and pure electrolyte Disadvantages: Not available everywhere dangerous to work with Recommended as very good electrolyte (recommended by Honda in 2001)

recommended for professional use (only). 5 - K2CO3 Pottassium Carbonate. Advantages: Non aggressive Reasonable / good HHO gas production depending on HHO cell design Cheap Safe to work with Disadvantages: It is possible (sometimes necessary) to mix it with a little Koh to draw more amps. Winter Electrolyte: Developed by mr. M. Moldoveanu Water+Ethyl Glycol+KOH will provide the benefit the technical of low freezing point but high boiling point at the same time. General information to get the best results: Use destilled water, demi water or de-ionized water only.

Water Hydro Car -Save Thousands of Dollars on Gas.

Almost doubles your mileage and helps you save a few hundred dollars on gas per month Makes your engine last longer Reduces your maintenance costs Greatly enhances engine's power and performance Protects your environment

Prevents global warming Reduces the noise produced by your engine Limits harmful emissions