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Oracle RMAN

Recovery Manager (RMAN)

http://www.datadisk.co.uk/html_docs/oracle/rman.htm

RMAN can do everything a normal backup can do, however RMAN has its own backup catalog to record the backups that took place. The database can be in two formats archivelog mode or nonarchivelog mode

archivelog - Oracle saves the filled redo logs files, which means you can recovery the database to any point in time using the archived logs nonarchivelog - the redo logs are overwritten and not saved, but can only be recovery from the last backup.

There are several types of backup

whole backup - you backup the database as a whole which includes the controlfiles and spfile partial backup - you back only a part of the database such a tablespace, one data file consistent - a consistent backup does not need to go through recover when being restored, normally associated with a closed backup inconsistent - a inconsistent backup always needs to be recovered open - is backup taken when the database is running, also known as a hot, warm, online backup closed - is a backup taken when the database is shutdown also know as a cold, offline backup

The benefits to using RMAN are

Human error is minimized as RMAN keeps tracks of all the backups Simple command interface Unused block compression lets you skip unused data blocks, thus saving space and time. RMAN can be fully automated Supports high-speed incremental backups Can perform error checking when backing up or during recovery Can perform image copies which are similar to operating system backup Can be used with 3rd party backup management software like Veritas Netbackup It is well integrated into OEM, so you can make use of Oracle's scheduler

RMAN Architecture

RMAN operates via a server session connecting to the target database, it gets the metadata from the target, this is called the RMAN repository. The repository will contain information on

Data file backup sets and copies Archived redo log copies and backup sets Tablespaces and data file information Stored scripts (only can be used if using a recovery catalog) RMAN configuration settings

The Recovery Catalog

RMAN will use the controlfile on the target database to store repository information regarding any backups for that server, this information can also be stored in a recovery catalog (optional) which resides on a rman server its own database (default size should be about 115MB) which should be dedicated to RMAN, information is still written to controlfile even if a recovery catalog is used.

The information stored in the controlfile is stored in the reusable sections called circular reuse records and non-circular reuse records. The circular reuse records have non-critical information that can be overwritten if needed. Some of the non-circular re-useable sections consists of data files and redo log information. RMAN can backup archive logs, controlfile, data files, spfile and tablespaces it does not backup temporary tablespaces, redo logs, password file, init.ora.

The controlfile based repository will retain data for only the time specified by the instance parameter CONTROL_FILE_RECORD_KEEP_TIME this defaults to seven days.

Useful View V$CONTROLFILE_RECORD_SECTION displays information about the control file record sections

Media Management Layer

If you backup to tapes you require additional software called MML (media management layer) or media manager. MML is a API that interfaces with different vendors tape libraries.

RMAN terminology

Oracle RMAN

http://www.datadisk.co.uk/html_docs/oracle/rman.htm

backup piece - operating system file containing the backup of a data file, controlfile, etc backup set - logical structure that contains one or more backup pieces, all relevant backup pieces are contained in a backup set image copy - similar to operating system copies like cp or dd, they will contain all block if if not used (disk only) proxy copy - media manger is given control of the copying process channel - Channel allocation is a method of connecting rman and the target database while also specifying the type of backup i.e. disk or tape, they can created manually or automatically.

Connecting to RMAN

There are a number of ways to connect to RMAN and it depends on where the recovery catalog is

 

c:\> set ORACLE_SID=D01

set the Oracle SID

ORACLE_SID=D01; export ORACLE_SID

connect to the target server use oracle_sid and local controlfile

c:\> rman rman> connect target /

c:\> rman target=sys/<password>@d01

connect the recovery manager catalog

rman> connect catalog rman_user/password@d01

connect target & recovery manager catalog

rman> connect target orcl catalog rman_user/password@d01

Configuring RMAN persistent settings

RMAN’s persistent settings which are stored in the controlfile (reason why must be in mount mode) of the target database (#default means that parameter is at default setting) or a recovery catalog if used

 

You can use format options with backup commands to specify a location and name for backup pieces

Format options

%F - combines database identifier (DBID), day, month, year and sequence number %U - Specifies a system generated unique filename (default) %u - specifies an 8 character name %d - name of database %s - backup set number %t - backup set timestamp %p - piece number within the backup set

 

rman> show all

Displaying

CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY TO REDUNDANCY 1; # default CONFIGURE BACKUP OPTIMIZATION OFF; # default CONFIGURE DEFAULT DEVICE TYPE TO DISK; # default CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP OFF; CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO '%F'; CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK BACKUP TYPE TO COMPRESSED BACKUPSET PARALLELISM 1; CONFIGURE DATAFILE BACKUP COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO 1; # default CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG BACKUP COPIES FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO 1; # default CONFIGURE CHANNEL DEVICE TYPE DISK FORMAT 'z:/orabackup/%U'; CONFIGURE MAXSETSIZE TO UNLIMITED; # default CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION FOR DATABASE OFF; # default CONFIGURE ENCRYPTION ALGORITHM 'AES128'; # default CONFIGURE ARCHIVELOG DELETION POLICY TO NONE; # default CONFIGURE SNAPSHOT CONTROLFILE NAME TO 'C:\ORACLE\PRODUCT\10.2.0\DB_1\DATABASE\SNCFD01.ORA';#default

set default device to be a tape drive

configure default device type to sbt;

set default device to be a disk drive

configure default device type to disk;

set default backup to be a image copy

configure device type disk backup type to copy;

default disk backup to a compressed backupset (upto 20% ratio)

configure device type disk backup type to compressed backupset;

default tape backup to a compressed backupset (upto 20% ratio)

configure device type sbt backup type to compressed backupset;

Set degree of parallelism

configure device type disk parallelism 4; configure device type sbt parallelism 4;

 

configure backup optimization on;

Backup optimization

Note: this will ensure that RMAN doesn't perform a backup if it has already backed up identical versions.

Oracle RMAN

http://www.datadisk.co.uk/html_docs/oracle/rman.htm

My basic rman config

CONFIGURE RETENTION POLICY TO RECOVERY WINDOW OF 30 DAYS CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP ON CONFIGURE DEVICE TYPE DISK BACKUP TYPE TO BACKUPSET PARALLELISM 1

CONFIGURE CONTROLFILE AUTOBACKUP FORMAT FOR DEVICE TYPE DISK TO 's:\ora_backup\controlfile_%F'

CONFIGURE CHANNEL DEVICE TYPE DISK FORMAT 's:\ora_backup\ora_%d_T%t_S%s_P%p'

Channel Parameters/Options

The parameters/options are use to control the resources used by RMAN, there are many options probably best to consult the oracle documentation.

channel device type - set default location of backups can be disk or sbt channel rate - limits i/o bandwith KB, MB or GB channel maxpiecesize - limits the size of the backup pieces channel maxsetsize - limits the size of the backup sets channel connect - instructs a specific instance to perform an operation duration - controls time for backup job (hours/mins) parms - send specific instructions to tape library

examples rman> configure channel device type disk format ‘s:\ora_backup\ora_dev_f%t_s%s_s%p’; rman>
examples
rman> configure channel device type disk format ‘s:\ora_backup\ora_dev_f%t_s%s_s%p’;
rman> configure channel device type disk rate = 5m;
rman> configure channel device type disk maxpiecesize = 2g;
rman> configure channel device type disk maxsetsize = 10g;

Backup Retention

Default is redundancy 1 which means always attempt to have one backup image or backupset of every data file, archive log and controlfile

keep backups for 30 days

rman> configure retention policy to recover window of 30 days;

keep aleast 2 copies

rman> configure retention policy to redundancy 2;

reset back to 1 (default)

rman> configure retention policy clear;

extend the retention period

rman> change backupset tag monthly_backup keep until time ’01-dec-07’ logs;

Backup Tagging

examples rman> backup database tag “monthly_backup”; rman> backup database as copy tag “monthly_backup”;
examples
rman> backup database tag “monthly_backup”;
rman> backup database as copy tag “monthly_backup”;
Controlfile Backup
rman> backup current controlfile;
rman> configure controlfile autobackup on; (default location flash recovery area)
examples
rman> configure controlfile autobackup format for device type disk to
\controlfile_%F’;
‘z:\orabackup

Tablespace Excludes

examples rman> configure exclude from tablespace test; (exclude test tablespace from backup) rman> configure
examples
rman> configure exclude from tablespace test; (exclude test tablespace from backup)
rman> configure exclude from tablespace test clear; (remove the exclude test tablespace from backup)
rman> backup database noexeclude (ignore any exclude settings)

Creating Backups

Backup Sets

rman> run { allocate channel c1 type disk; backup database format ‘db_%u_%d_%s’; (the backup set name for the data file) backup format ‘log_t%t_s%s_p%p’; (the backup set name from the archive logs) (archivelog all);

}

rman> run { allocate channel c1 type disk; allocate channel c2 type disk;

Oracle RMAN

http://www.datadisk.co.uk/html_docs/oracle/rman.htm

 

backup (datafile 1,2,3 channel c1) (archivelog all channel c2);

}

rman> backup as compressed backupset database; rman> backup incremental level 0 database; - baseline incremental backup (a full backup ) rman> backup incremental level 1 database; - incremental backup must have baseline backup rman> backup incremental level 1 cumulative database; - backs up from last level 0 backup (NOT FULL)

rman> backup as backupset copy of tablespace sysaux; (create a backupset from a image copy)

## make that all redo logs are archived - see redo rman> backup database (archivelog all);

 

rman> run { allocate channel c1 type disk; copy datafile 1 to ‘z:\orabackup\system01.dbf’, current controlfile to ‘z:\orabackup\control01.ctl’;

}

Backup Images

rman> backup as copy database; rman> backup as copy copy of database; rman> backup copy as copy tablespace sysaux; rman> backup as copy datafile 2;

 

rman> configure device type disk parallelism 3; (must have 3 channels)

Parallel Streams

Note : You only configure the number of streams to the number of channels, if you configure more they will not start. Remember that you need multiple channels configured to use the streams.

Backup controlfile and spfile to flash recovery area

# need to clear the 'controlfile autoback format' then the flash recovery area will be used. rman> configure controlfile autobackup format for device type disk clear rman> backup current controlfile;

 

rman> backup device type disk copies 2 datafile 1 format ''disk1/df1_%U', '/disk2/df1_%U'; rman> backup as copy copy of database from tag 'test' check logical tag 'duptest'; rman> backup database plus archivelog; rman> backup as copy duration 04:00 minimize time database; rman> backup as compressed backupset database plus archivelog;

Other examples

Note:

logical - perform logical check of the backup files duration - time limit to perform the backup minimize - perform the backup as fast as it can compressed - compress the backup set, remember it will take longer to recovery as it needs to uncompress

Validating/Cross Checking Backups

You can validate a backup set before you restore which ensures that backup files exist in the proper locations and that they are readable and free from any logical and physical corruptions, you can also crosscheck backup sets to make sure they are available and have not been deleted (backup sets can be deleted from the operating system level).

Validate a backup

rman> validate backupset 1;

crosscheck

rman> crosscheck backupset 1;

Viewing backups

The v$ views information regarding backups is always located in the target database’s or target database’s controlfile.

The list commands are used to determine files impacted by the change, crosscheck and delete commands. The report command is accurate when the control and RMAN repository are synchronized which can be performed by the change, crosscheck and delete commands

list all image copies

rman> list copy; rman> list archivelog all;

list all backups

rman> list backup; rman> list backupset by backup [summary|verbose];

list backed up files

rman> list backupset by file;

list backed up databases;

rman> list backup of database;

list all datafile number 1 backups

rman> list backup of datafile 1;

list backed up controlfiles

rman> list backup of controlfile;

list backup scripts

rman> list script names; rman> list global script names;

list all backups no longer required according to retention policy

rman> report obsolete;

Oracle RMAN

http://www.datadisk.co.uk/html_docs/oracle/rman.htm

list all the physical datafiles

rman> report schema;

list files that require backing up

rman> report need backup

 

Useful Views

v$controlfile_record_Section

displays information about the control file record sections

v$backup_files

lists each file backed up, also has compressed option

v$backup_set

lists backup sets

v$backup_piece

lists backup pieces

v$backup_redolog

lists archived backup logs

v$backup_spfile

lists spfiles

v$backup_device

names of SBT devices that have been linked to rman

v$rman_configuration

lists all changed configurations settings (good point to check config)

v$rman_status

Status of all completed rman jobs

v$backup_corruption

provides important corruption information

v$copy_corruption

provides important corruption information

Deleting Backups

To removed old archive logs use "delete all" option , if all is missed only the archive logs in the primary destination will be deleted.

Examples

rman> delete backupset 12; rman> delete backupset tag=monthly_backup; rman> delete copy of datafile 6; rman> delete copy of archivelog all; rman> delete obsolete;

Note:

obsolete - delete all backups no longer needed due to retention levels

Catalog commands

The catalog command helps you identify and catalog any files that aren't recorded in RMAN's repository and thus are known to RMAN

catalog all data files copies

rman> catalog datafilecopy 'c:\oracle\backup\users01.dbf';

catalog all backup pieces copies

rman> catalog backuppiece ':c\oracle\backup\backup_20.bkp';

Search for uncatalog files in a directory

rman> catalog start with ':c\oracle\backup';

Delete discrepancy in catalog

rman> delete force noprompt archivelog sequence 40;

Block change tracking

Block change tracking is used to backup very large databases,when you enable change block tracking a new process CTWR is then started:

Enabling

alter database enable block change tracking using file ‘c:\oracle\tracking\block_tracking.log’

Viewing

select filename, status, bytes from v$block_change_tracking;

Disabling

alter database disable block change tracking;