Sie sind auf Seite 1von 20

“The Pizza Game

Prepared by Bob Petruska Schwan’s University The Pizza Game - A VSM Simulation Session G6

March 3, 2009

The Pizza Game - A VSM Simulation Session G6 March 3, 2009 Learning Objectives of “Pizza
The Pizza Game - A VSM Simulation Session G6 March 3, 2009 Learning Objectives of “Pizza
The Pizza Game - A VSM Simulation Session G6 March 3, 2009 Learning Objectives of “Pizza

Learning Objectives of “Pizza Game”

At the end of this session, participants will have fun with:

•Time study analysis •Cadence •Work Balance Charts •Workflow layout •Theory of Constraints

© 2008 Schwan’s University

2

Overview of “Pizza Game” Process Description: to prepare human resources for value stream mapping: •

Overview of “Pizza Game” Process

Description:

to prepare human resources for value stream mapping:

• Running a “pizza factory” on a table top

• Intentional problems built in made waste obvious

Overview

• Introduction to lean thinking and value stream

• Provide Instructions for simulation

• Performing simulation

• Tie to Value Stream Mapping

• Always have fun!

© 2008 Schwan’s University

3

• Always have fun! © 2008 Schwan’s University 3 Resources Needed for Simulation Tools 1. Instruction

Resources Needed for Simulation

Tools

1. Instruction sheets, work orders, case study

2. Sufficient space for teams to work together table tops

3. Grid paper for spaghetti diagram

4. Grid flip charts (layouts)

5. Poker chips (for pizza dough)

6. Tupperware and lids (transport)

7. Masking tape

8. Decals various colors (toppings)

9. Stopwatch and counter

10. Metronome

11. Calculators

12. Train tracks (Current State)

13. Drain-board (Future State)

11. Calculators 12. Train tracks (Current State) 13. Drain-board (Future State) © 2008 Schwan’s University 4

© 2008 Schwan’s University

4

Worker Balance A key to success in lean manufacturing is working to the Cadence To

Worker Balance

Worker Balance A key to success in lean manufacturing is working to the Cadence To achieve

A key to success in lean manufacturing is working to the Cadence

To achieve work balance, you must analyze the following:

Work Cells

Cycle Time

Cadence

© 2008 Schwan’s University

55

Worker Balance -- Example Work Cells - Example of different tasks necessary in the process
Worker Balance -- Example
Work Cells - Example of different tasks necessary in
the process of producing a product
Cycle Time - The amount of time it takes to complete
the entire task within a Work Cell or process
1. Receive
3. Cook
5. Garnish
order $
food
and extra
43s
480s
20s
Finished Product
100s
10s
10s
2. Prep
4. Plate
6. Serve
food
food
food
©
2008 Schwan’s University
66
 

Worker Balance – Time Study

 
  Worker Balance – Time Study  
 

Work Cell Elements - Receive Order

 
 

Time Observation Form

 
 

Process: Hot Dog Vendor (Receive Order)

 

Observer: JR

 

Date:

                       

Task

 

Step

Operation Element

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

Time

Remarks

 

1 Greet Customer

10

50

90

132

176

218

261

302

347

389

 

Very Repeatable

10

9

9

11

9

11

10

11

10

10

10

 

2 Tempt with offerings

15

55

95

136

181

222

267

307

353

394

   

5

5

5

4

5

4

6

5

6

5

5

 

3 Go over special of day

20

60

100

143

187

226

269

311

357

399

 

Inconsistencies

5

5

5

7

6

4

2

4

4

5

5

 

4 Ring up order

22

62

103

146

190

229

272

314

360

402

   

2

2

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

 

5 Take Cash

27

67

108

150

195

234

277

319

365

407

   

5

5

5

4

5

5

5

5

5

5

5

 

6 Make Change

41

81

121

167

207

251

291

337

379

423

   

14

14

13

17

12

17

14

18

14

16

15

 

Cycle Time –

41

40

40

46

40

44

40

46

42

44

42

 

© 2008 Schwan’s University

 

77

Worker Balance – Stack Chart Cycle Time 42 s © 2008 Schwan’s University 88
Worker Balance – Stack Chart
Cycle Time
42 s
© 2008 Schwan’s University
88
Worker Balance Cadence The rate that a completed product needs to be finished in order
Worker Balance
Cadence
The rate that a completed product needs to be
finished in order to meet customer demand
Cadence
=
Net Time Available
Customer Demand
Cadence =
(7hrs) x (60min/hr) x (60s/min)
Cadence = 120 s
(One Finished Product every 2 min)
210 hotdogs
© 2008 Schwan’s University
99
every 2 min) 210 hotdogs © 2008 Schwan’s University 99 Worker Balance – Charts Working slower

Worker Balance – Charts

Working slower than the Cadence will not meet customer demand. Working faster than the cadence results in?

Current State

Faster Slower Time Cadence (s/pc)
Faster
Slower
Time
Cadence
(s/pc)

Work cells

© 2008 Schwan’s University

1010

Worker Balance – Getting Results

Worker Balance – Getting Results

How to balance workload to the Cadence:

Future State

1. Eliminate 2. Combine 3. Change sequence Cadence Time 4. Simplify (s/pc)
1. Eliminate
2. Combine
3. Change sequence
Cadence
Time
4. Simplify
(s/pc)

# Operators required =

Work cells

Total Manual Cycle Time

3. Change sequence Cadence Time 4. Simplify (s/pc) # Operators required = Work cells Total Manual

Cadence

© 2008 Schwan’s University

1111

Cadence © 2008 Schwan’s University 1 1 1 1 The Pizza Game Simulation You are assigned

The Pizza Game Simulation

You are assigned to a team that makes pizzas and have a complete factory that your team is responsible to operate

Your customer is “Mom’s Pizza”

Your supplier is ABC supply

to operate Your customer is “Mom’s Pizza” Your supplier is ABC supply © 2008 Schwan’s University

© 2008 Schwan’s University

1212

The Pizza Game Simulation

The Pizza Game Simulation

Process Step

Personnel

Job Requirements

 

Quantity

Required

 

Sheeting

1

Dough

160

/ day

Assembly

3

Toppings

160

/ day

Package

1

Package

2 pizzas / case

Palletize

1

Palletize

10 cases/ pallet

Inspect

1

Minimum 10% inspection, and tracking of overall FTT

16

Lean Disciple

1

Workflow diagram

1

Lean Disciple

1

Worker Balance

7

Chart

© 2008 Schwan’s University

1313

 

The Pizza Game – Job Functions

  The Pizza Game – Job Functions
 

Sheeting

• Produce dough for both assembly lines

 

• Distribute one dough per each assembly line at the same time as fast as you can

Assembly

• Obtain raw materials and add topping according to plan

• Slide Pizza’s through the oven (slide down conveyor)

to plan • Slide Pizza’s through the oven (slide down conveyor) © 2008 Schwan’s University 1
to plan • Slide Pizza’s through the oven (slide down conveyor) © 2008 Schwan’s University 1

©

2008 Schwan’s University

1414

The Pizza Game – Job Functions (Cont’d) Packaging • Assemble (tape) two pizzas together •

The Pizza Game – Job Functions (Cont’d)

Packaging

• Assemble (tape) two pizzas together

• Convey package to Palletizer

Palletize

Place ten cases to a pallet (Tupperware) and move to storage area

Inspection

to a pallet (Tupperware) and move to storage area Inspection • Perform 10% inspection to assure

• Perform 10% inspection to assure quality requirements are met.

• Keep track of First Time Through (FTT) # good

FTT =

# produced

© 2008 Schwan’s University

1515

FTT = # produced © 2008 Schwan’s University 1 5 1 5 The Pizza Game –

The Pizza Game – Job Functions (Cont’d)

Lean Disciple # 1

Study the cycle time and determine the time for each operator. For example – taping.

the time for each operator. For example – taping. • A work process is divided into
the time for each operator. For example – taping. • A work process is divided into

• A work process is divided into elements

• Start timing when work begins and record time when a COMPLETE work cycle if finished

• In some fast paced work environments, studying several work cycles are necessary

© 2008 Schwan’s University

1616

The Pizza Game – Job Functions (Cont’d) Lean Disciple # 1 Study the cycle time

The Pizza Game – Job Functions (Cont’d)

Lean Disciple # 1

Study the cycle time and determine the time for each operator. For example – taping.

the time for each operator. For example – taping. • Not Yet! The job is NOT
the time for each operator. For example – taping. • Not Yet! The job is NOT

• Not Yet! The job is NOT finished!

• Keep timing until the task you are studying is completed

© 2008 Schwan’s University

1717

is completed © 2008 Schwan’s University 1 7 1 7 The Pizza Game – Job Functions

The Pizza Game – Job Functions (Cont’d)

Lean Disciple # 1

Study the cycle time and determine the time for each operator. For example – taping.

the time for each operator. For example – taping. • The job is still NOT finished!
the time for each operator. For example – taping. • The job is still NOT finished!

• The job is still NOT finished!

• Keep timing until gets back to the starting position

• Round time to the nearest second (otherwise it will drive you nuts!)

© 2008 Schwan’s University

1818

The Pizza Game – Job Functions (Cont’d)

The Pizza Game – Job Functions (Cont’d)

Lean Disciple # 1

 

Study the cycle time and determine the time for each operator. For example – taping.

• Now the job is still finished!
• Now the job is still finished!

• Now the job is still finished!

• Glance quickly at the stopwatch, to record the time

© 2008 Schwan’s University

1919

 

The Pizza Game – Job Functions (Cont’d)

The Pizza Game – Job Functions (Cont’d)
 

Lean Disciple # 1

 

Study the cycle time and determine the time for each operator.

 

For example:

 

Operation

Total # Seconds timed

Total # of Pieces produced

Seconds / Piece

 

1 - Sheeter

10

30

(10/30) = 0.33

2 - Assembler 1

30

5

(30/5) = 6.00

3 - Assembler 2

30

6

(30/6) = 5.00

4 - Assembler 3

30

8

(30/8) = 3.75

5 - Packager

30

3

(30/3) = 10.00

6 - Palletizer

5

2

(0.5/2) = 0.25

© 2008 Schwan’s University

 

2020

The Pizza Game – Job Functions Continued Lean Disciple # 1 Create a work balance
The Pizza Game – Job Functions Continued
Lean Disciple # 1
Create a work balance chart
© 2008 Schwan’s University
2121
The Pizza Game – Job Functions Continued Lean Disciple # 2 Study the flow of
The Pizza Game – Job Functions Continued
Lean Disciple # 2
Study the flow of materials (pizza) and make
a spaghetti diagram of product movement
Purchasing
Accounts payable
© 2008 Schwan’s University
2222
The Pizza Game – Job Functions Continued Lean Disciple # 2 The layout is on
The Pizza Game – Job Functions Continued
Lean Disciple # 2
The layout is on “Grid” paper one square
equates to ten feet
Trace material flow, count squares for total
distance
© 2008 Schwan’s University
2323
for total distance © 2008 Schwan’s University 2323 Constraints 1. Each production order must be signed

Constraints

1. Each production order must be signed and dated by the Assembler, Inspector, Packager, and Palletizer

2. Assembly change over time is 20 seconds

3. Clean up time takes four hours per day

4. Customer demand is 160 pizzas per day

5. Your manufacturing plant runs four minutes at each process step

6. The plant is scaled at 1” = 10’

© 2008 Schwan’s University

24

Setting up the Game © 2008 Schwan’s University 25
Setting up the Game
© 2008 Schwan’s University
25
Starting with Sheeting © 2008 Schwan’s University 26
Starting with Sheeting
© 2008 Schwan’s University
26
Notice some scrap… © 2008 Schwan’s University 27
Notice some scrap…
© 2008 Schwan’s University
27
What type of waste is this? © 2008 Schwan’s University 28
What type of waste is this?
© 2008 Schwan’s University
28
Suggested Next steps 1. Study process cycle times and fill out the cycle time worksheet

Suggested Next steps

1. Study process cycle times and fill out the cycle time worksheet

2. Measure plant floor for distances traveled (spaghetti diagram)

3. Brainstorm to identify waste

4. Draw a current state VSM

5. Identify Kaizen Bursts add to VSM

6. Prepare a future state VSM as a team

© 2008 Schwan’s University

29

Teams present their vision of the current state (value added and waste) © 2008 Schwan’s
Teams present their vision of the
current state (value added and waste)
©
2008 Schwan’s University
30
Kaizen Blitz # 1 – Combine Inspection • Review and update standard work / safety
Kaizen Blitz # 1 – Combine Inspection
• Review and update standard work / safety procedures
• Move inspection pallet closer to sheeting
• Train those affected on new process
• Re-deploy inspector
©
2008 Schwan’s University
3131
Kaizen Blitz # 2 – Plant Layout / Packaging Method • Review and update standard
Kaizen Blitz # 2 – Plant Layout / Packaging Method
• Review and update standard work / safety procedures
• Move pallet to offloading from packaging
• Train those affected on new process
• Re-deploy affected personnel
© 2008 Schwan’s University
3232
Kaizen Blitz # 3 – Balance Workload • Review and update standard work / safety
Kaizen Blitz # 3 – Balance Workload
• Review and update standard work / safety procedures
• Stop using one oven (keep as backup)
• Put in First in - First out lanes
• Rebalance to the Cadence
• Train those affected on new process
• Re-deploy affected personnel
© 2008 Schwan’s University
3333
Kaizen Blitz # 4 – Eliminate Product Falling
• Review and update standard work / safety procedures
• Mistake proof product falling defects
• Incorporate First in - First out lanes
• Rebalance to the Cadence
• Train those affected on new process
• Re-deploy affected personnel
© 2008 Schwan’s University
3434
Kaizen Blitz # 5 – Pull System for Assembly • Design and build visual flow
Kaizen Blitz # 5 – Pull System for Assembly
• Design and build visual flow racks (SWIP)
• Eliminate order signature requirements
• Review and update standard work / safety proc
• Rebalance to the Cadence
• Train those affected on new process
• Re-deploy affected personnel
© 2008 Schwan’s University
3535
© 2008 Schwan’s University 3636
©
2008 Schwan’s University
3636
Box Score – Example from Pizza Game Future State Expected Benefits Reduced process time by

Box Score – Example from Pizza Game

Box Score – Example from Pizza Game Future State Expected Benefits Reduced process time by 35%

Future State

Expected Benefits

Reduced process time by 35%

Reduced lead time by 80%

Tripled the percent of Value Added Time

Doubled FTT

© 2008 Schwan’s University

37

Outcomes of the Activity

Outcomes of the Activity

Benefits and Results

• An understanding that processes that support the business can be value added, and there is always a better way to do things that will reduce waste

• Pizza Game process is designed to teach participants that any process can be improved

• We tied this to an actual project

 

Lessons Learned

• Watch the teams at first and be prepared to step in and assist if they get “wrapped around the axel”

• Expect to provide a great deal of instructions at first

• Work on the VSM together as a team on the wall

© 2008 Schwan’s University

38

Thought provoking questions Questions: What is the biggest constraint in the plant? How many resources

Thought provoking questions

Questions:

What is the biggest constraint in the plant?

How many resources are needed to do the work?

© 2008 Schwan’s University

39

What questions do you have?

the plant? How many resources are needed to do the work? © 2008 Schwan’s University 3