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Australian Standard ®

SAA INDUSTRIAL FUEL-FIRED APPLIANCES CODE

AS 1375—1985

This Australian standard was prepared by Committee ME/21, Industrial Fuel-fired Equipment. It was approved on behalf of the Council of the Standards Association of Australia on 10 September 1984 and published on 4 April 1985.

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The following interests are represented on Committee ME/21: Australian Gas Association Australian Institute of Energy Australian Institute of Petroleum Ltd Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia Confederation of Australian Industry Department of Labour and Industry, Vic. Department of Mines and Energy, N.T. Department of Transport and Construction Heating and Cooling Industry Association of Victoria Insurance Council of Australian Ltd Metal Trades Industry Association of Australia University of Melbourne

Review of Australian Standards. To keep abreast of progress in industry, Australian Standards are subject to periodic review and are kept up to date by the issue of amendments or new editions as necessary. It is important therefore that Standards users ensure that they are in possession of the latest ed ition, and any amendments thereto. Full details of all Australian Standards and related publications will be found in the Standards Australia Catalogue of Publications; this information is supplemented each month by the magazine ‘The Australian Standard’, which subscribing members receive, and which gives details of new publications, new editions and amendments, and of withdrawn Standards. Suggestions for improvements to Australian Standards, addressed to the head office of Standards Australia, are welcomed. Notification of any inaccuracy or ambiguity found in an Australian Standard should be made without delay in order that the matter may be investigated and appropriate action taken.

This standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 83129.

AS 1375—1985

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Australian Standard ®
SAA INDUSTRIAL FUEL-FIRED APPLIANCES CODE

First published . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Revised edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Second edition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1973 1979 1985

PUBLISHED BY STANDARDS AUSTRALIA (STANDARDS ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALIA) 1 THE CRESCENT, HOMEBUSH, NSW 2140
ISBN 0 7262 1641 0

AS 1375—1985

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PREFACE
This edition of this standard was prepared by the Association’s Committee on Industrial Fuel-fired Equipment, to supersede AS 1375—1979. The standard was first issued in 1973, and was revised in 1979 to incorporate amendments and to update it generally; it has now been completely reviewed to expand it in detail and make it generally more comprehensive. In the main the amendments in preceding years had concentrated on the appendices which are a vital feature of this standard because of the importance of the design guidance which they provide. In a succession of amendments, the appendices dealing with explosion relief, with ventilation rates for ovens, and with data tables were clarified, adjusted, and modified. The 1979 edition was fundamentally a reprinting to bring a degree of order to these various amendments, and did not constitute a general review. This edition represents a general revision, the main features of which are as follows: (a) Broadly, the alterations represent the result of further experience with the standard, developments in thinking arising from the publication and revision of AS 1853, Automotive Oil and Gas Burners—Mechanical Draught, and input from Committee ME/1, Boilers and Unfired Pressure Vessels. (b) More attention is paid to the appliance management system, as distinct from the burner management system. (c) The general subject of shutdown in the event of malfunction has received more detailed attention. (d) It is made clearer in a number of places that the link between critical time and supervision response time applies only at the ignition phase. (e) The treatment of flame failure during operation is expanded, to explain exemptions more clearly. (f) A number of adjustments and clarifications have been made to the clauses on purging, without making any fundamental change of direction. (g) Installation requirements have been expanded in detail, with the assistance of Committee ME/1. (h) The commissioning clauses have been supported by a new appendix recommending a procedure. (j) Flues and chimneys have been expanded considerably to cater mainly for the needs of very large appliances, boilers, and the like. No attempt has been made to touch on structural design, this being a specialist subject well covered in standards available elsewhere. The variable usage of words such as flue, chimney, stack, smokestack or funnel to mean the same thing, or sometimes different things, has caused an as yet unresolved difficulty. This edition uses the language of the industrial appliance industry, i.e. flue is used as a generic term to mean the same as the alternative words. (k) Appendix B and Appendix C have been made more comprehensive. (l) Appendix D has been expanded, mainly to include an additional option, i.e. using excess air to achieve infinity critical time. This technique has many attractions, notably it avoids the need to depend on very fast-reacting protective systems. Appendix D therefore reflects some change of emphasis. (m) Appendix E and Appendix F remain unchanged, both being in regular use, and satisfactory, so there is no need for alteration. (n) Appendix H has been added to give guidelines for a procedure for commissioning new equipment. In addition, there has been considerable editorial change.
© Copyright STANDARDS AUSTRALIA Users of Standards are reminded that copyright subsists in all Standards Australia publications and software. Except where the Copyright Act allows and except where provided for below no publications or software produced by Standards Australia may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system in any form or transmitted by any means without prior permission in writing from Standards Australia. Permission may be conditional on an appropriate royalty payment. Requests for permission and information on commercial software royalties should be directed to the head office of Standards Australia. Standards Australia will permit up to 10 percent of the technical content pages of a Standard to be copied for use exclusively inhouse by purchasers of the Standard without payment of a royalty or advice to Standards Australia. Standards Australia will also permit the inclusion of its copyright material in computer software programs for no royalty payment provided such programs are used exclusively in-house by the creators of the programs. Care should be taken to ensure that material used is from the current edition of the Standard and that it is updated whenever the Standard is amended or revised. The number and date of the Standard should therefore be clearly identified. The use of material in print form or in computer software programs to be used commercially, with or without payment, or in commercial contracts is subject to the payment of a royalty. This policy may be varied by Standards Australia at any time.

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AS 1375—1985

CONTENTS
Page FOREWORD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 1. SCOPE 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6
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GENERAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 7 7 7 7 7

Scope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Application . . . . . . . . . . . . . New Designs and Innovations Interpretations . . . . . . . . . . . Referenced Documents . . . . . Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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SECTION 2. APPLIANCE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 2.1 General Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2 Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.3 Safety of Personnel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.4 Operating and Maintenance Provisions . . . . . 2.5 Explosion Damage Protection . . . . . . . . . . . 2.6 Temperature Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.7 Instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.8 Marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 3. COMBUSTION SYSTEM 3.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2 Ignition System Construction . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Supervision, Control, and Safe Procedures 3.4 Starting and Ignition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.5 Flame Failure During Operation . . . . . . . 3.6 Multifuel Firing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.7 Shutdown Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.8 Purging . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 4. CONTROL OF N ON-FUEL COMBUSTIBLE 4.1 Scope of Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Prevention or Relief of Explosions . . . . . 4.3 Air Dilution and Purging . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4 Vapour and Dust Removal . . . . . . . . . . .

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SECTION 5. INSTALLATION , COMMISSIONING , AND OPERATION 5.1 Installer’s Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2 Standards for Workmanship and Good Practice . . . . . 5.3 Location and Access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.4 Fresh Air Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.5 Fuel Supply System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.6 Commissioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECTION 6. FLUES (CHIMNEYS), EXHAUST 6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.2 Flue Design and Construction . . . 6.3 Flue Supports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Earthing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.5 Flue Dampers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.6 Ducts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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APPENDICES A Operating Data, Special Purpose Ovens . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B Regular Testing of Safety Devices and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . .

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C D E F G H

Typical Ignition Procedures . . . . Critical Energy and Critical Time Relief of Explosions . . . . . . . . . . Dilution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Characteristics Data . . . . . . . . . . Model Commissioning Procedure .
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ANNEX . L IST

REFERENCED DOCUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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AS 1375—1985

STANDARDS ASSOCIATION OF AUSTRALIA Australian Standard for INDUSTRIAL FUEL-FIRED APPLIANCES

FOREWORD
Safety, which is an essential in all industrial activity, can be achieved in even the most sensitive processes by adequate equipment design and operating procedures. Not only do fuel-fired appliances generate fuel/air mixtures, they may also contain or operate in atmospheres which include finely divided combustible materials. In such conditions, hazards are always a possibility and this standard gives principles for designing such appliances to operate with safety. The most common accidents in heated industrial equipment are internal explosions that result from the accidental ignition of accumulations of fuel/air mixtures, volatile solvents, other vapours, or combustible dusts. An explosion becomes damaging when the internal pressure created exceeds the ability of the appliance to contain it, and, since few appliances are of sufficient strength to withstand pressures of a high order, it is necessary firstly to prevent the accumulation of combustible mixtures, secondly to avoid their ignition wherever possible, and thirdly, depending on the operating characteristics and reliability of these preventive measures, to provide means of relieving or mitigating the effect of an explosion. When a finely divided fuel is introduced into an enclosed space, it is potentially unsafe until it is ignited; if the ignition attempt fails, or if the flame is extinguished at any time after initial ignition, unburnt fuel can accumulate in the enclosure, and may quickly reach potentially dangerous proportions. Therefore, the principal and most important of all the safety devices on an appliance is its ignition system; all other protective measures should be considered as secondary provisions, i.e. back-up systems for which the need arises only when the primary protection, the ignition system, has failed. Given a known fuel flow rate and a known combustion chamber volume, it is possible to calculate how long it would take for accumulated fuel to become dangerous if not ignited. This is called the critical time, and is a characteristic of each individual appliance. It indicates the maximum allowable delay in ignition, and also the maximum safe response time for any ignition failure protection system. It is always preferable to extend the critical time to the greatest possible extent, rather than depend too much on sensitive flame-monitoring equipment. The use of pilot ignition, or low-fire starting, or the providing of high levels of dilution by excess air, all have the effect of extending the critical time, and in the period since this standard was first published the emphasis has developed in the direction of encouraging designers to extend critical time to infinity. Another alternative is to ensure that the structure is strong enough to be explosion proof. Where the critical time is shorter than the reaction time of the ignition-failure protection system, and cannot be extended, the speed and efficiency and reliability of the ignition system becomes vital, and facilities for relieving excessive explosion pressures become essential. This standard is based on the view that the hazard during the starting up phase is considerably greater than that at any other part of the operating cycle. Thus attention is concentrated on protection and supervision during ignition, and critical time considerations are applied only during this period. Lighting-off from a pilot, or turn-up after a low-fire start, or flame failure during operation, are not considered to be sufficiently problematical to warrant the application of critical time considerations. Combustible vapours or dusts have essentially the same characteristics as fuel, i.e. they possess upper and lower combustible limits, stoichiometric ratios and characteristic flame speeds. Any material that will oxidize is potentially explosive if it is in a finely divided state and mixed with air. Since it is never possible to guarantee the absolute elimination of all possible sources of accidental ignition, first attention should be given to preventing the formation of combustible mixtures, the usual method being by dilution with air, but sometimes inert gases or products of combustion are used. Since these measures also cannot be guaranteed to be absolutely reliable, it is necessary to provide explosionrelieving facilities whenever such combustibles are present, unless the appliance can withstand any possible explosion pressure. Some types of appliance make use of atmospheres that are rich in combustible materials, often well above the upper combustible limit, and at temperatures that are above the normal auto-ignition temperatures. For these appliances the same basic rules apply, i.e. the simultaneous occurrence of combustible mixtures and igniting temperatures must be prevented unless in strictly controlled circumstances. Certain priorities should be kept clearly in mind when the protection needs of an appliance are being decided. The first priority should be that no injury to personnel results. The minimizing or containment of damage to the appliance or its surroundings, while important, is a secondary consideration. Certain essential safety rules have widespread application irrespective of wide varieties of configuration, methods of heating, or types of control. For example a reaction to a fault or to a danger must be equally effective whether it is the reaction of an attendant or of an automatic device; adherence to a certain sequence of events may be equally important irrespective of whether the timing is provided manually or mechanically. The safety of an industrial appliance is a function of the features peculiar

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AS 1375—1985

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to that individual appliance, and the functions of any accessories often cannot be specified independently, but must be derived from and be suitable for the needs of the individual application. Thus it will be noticed that this standard in general avoids giving mandatory lists of precisely what types of hardware should be fitted to particular appliances. In particular it makes little mention of ‘automatic burners’ or ‘package burners’ and makes no attempt to provide

rules for such burners independently of the whole appliance. When this standard is used to check individual appliances, it will be necessary to decide whether the controls provided for the operating techniques specified are capable of providing, with a sufficient degree of reliability, the functional characteristics that are necessary for the safety of the particular appliance. The intent of this standard is to describe how to determine these critical appliance characteristics.

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AS 1375—1985

SECTION 1. SCOPE AND GENERAL
1.1 SCOPE. This standard sets out the safety principles relating to the design, installation, and operation of industrial appliances that involve the combustion of gas or oil, or other fuel in air suspension, or the generation of combustible vapours in such appliances.
NOTE: Although the rules for combustion safety given in this standard are applicable in principle to very high energy release appliances such as large land boilers for electricity generation and for solid fuel and pulverized coal firing, it should be recognized that appliances of such a size present unique problems, often requiring comparatively sophisticated control systems. Each such case should be studied individually and its safety evaluated in relation to its own particular conditions.

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1.2 APPLICATION. The requirements of this standard may be read in conjunction with, but do not take precedence over, any Statutory Regulations that may apply in any area.
NOTE: It should be noted that an installation may come under the jurisdiction of several authorities with differing areas of responsibility, and that an approval from one does not necessarily constitute an approval from others. Thus the construction of any plant may require separate approvals from authorities interested in flammable and combustible liquids, factory or machinery safety, electricity, gas, health, environment, water supply, sewerage and drainage, or the training and licensing of personnel.

1.3 NEW DESIGNS AND INNOVATIONS. Any novel materials, designs, methods of assembly, procedures, etc, which do not comply with a specific requirement of this standard, or are not mentioned in it, but which give equivalent results to those specified, are not necessarily prohibited. The responsible committee (ME/21, Industrial Fuel-Fired Equipment) can act in an advisory capacity concerning equivalent suitability, but specific approval remains the prerogative of the Authority. 1.4 INTERPRETATIONS. Questions concerning the meaning, application or effect of any part of this standard, may be referred to SAA Committee ME/21 for explanation. The authority of the committee is limited to matters of interpretations and it will not adjudicate in disputes. 1.5 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS. A list with titles of the standards referred to in this standard is given in the Annex. 1.6 DEFINITIONS. For the purpose of this standard, the following definitions apply: 1.6.1 Appliance—industrial-typeequipment, irrespective of application or location, used to apply heat to objects or materials or to produce a special atmosphere. 1.6.2 Appliance management system—a system or an operating procedure that controls the overall operation of the appliance and which initiates and executes such actions as are necessary to the normal operation of the appliance and its protection from actually or potentially unsafe conditions. 1.6.3 Approval, approved—with the approval of, acceptable to, and meeting the prescribed standards of, the Authority. 1.6.4 Authority—the Authority having jurisdiction concerning the installation.

1.6.5 Burner management system—a system or an operating procedure that controls the normal or emergency functions of a burner. 1.6.6 Chimney—the final vertical portion of a flue, which discharges to atmosphere. The term is usually reserved for larger free-standing flues, e.g. as used on large boilers, brick kilns, or the like. 1.6.7 Critical time—the time required for unignited fuel to accumulate in such quantity and proportions that, if ignited, the pressure of the resultant explosion would constitute a hazard. (See Appendix D for further explanation and methods of determination.) 1.6.8 Dilution—the supply of fresh air, or other suitable diluent, and its circulation, distribution and exhaust to outside atmosphere, in a quantity sufficient to dilute the concentration of a flammable vapour or dust to such an extent that it cannot be ignited. 1.6.9 Duct—a closed conduit whose primary purpose is to conduct gaseous fluid from one place to another. It is taken to include any conduit that— (a) leads gases from an external combustion chamber to the appliance; (b) introduces ventilating air; (c) recirculates air or gases either external to or as an integral part of the appliance; or (d) exhausts process products, vapours or dusts. 1.6.10 Flame simulation—a false signal, indicating that flame is present when in fact no flame is present. 1.6.11 Flue—a duct or a system of ducts used to remove products of combustion from the appliance to the outside atmosphere. 1.6.12 Fresh air—air which, at the point of usage, is essentially free from solid particles, fibres, liquid droplets, or gaseous contaminants. 1.6.13 Installer—a person or organization who undertakes the responsibility of making the installation, but not an individual tradesman employed by the installer. 1.6.14 Interlock—a device which makes the operation of an item of equipment dependent on the fulfilment of predetermined conditions by another item of equipment. 1.6.15 Lockout—a condition in which the device under consideration has been turned off and can be restarted only after an initial manual action. 1.6.16 May—the word ‘may’ implies the right to use discretion. 1.6.17 Power flue—a flue system which incorporates a fan downstream of a draught diverter or atmospheric break to overcome potential reverse draught in the flue. 1.6.18 Proved—means that the relevant condition has been sensed and registered as being correct. The term applies to both sensing by automatic control equipment and to visual or other personal verification by an operator.

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AS 1375-1985, Industrial fuel-fired appliances (known as the SAA Industrial Fuel-fired Appliances Code)

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