You are on page 1of 28


Teacher: Livandovschi Roman

Student: Schicu Aurelia

Theme Nr.1 The subject of study of the tourist resources management

SUBJECTS: 1.Introduction of the TRM; 2.The position in the system of economic and geographical sciences; 3.Principles, methods, and means of study; 4.The categories of the TRM; 5.The factors influencing the tourist phenomenon.

S1. Introduction of the TRM

Key Words: Tourism Tourist phenomenon Industry

Tourism fund Tourist flow and its consequences

Learning objectives: O1.Appreciate how important this industry is to the economy of the world and of many countries;

O2.Understand what tourism is and its many definitions. O1.The subject of travel is exciting and fascinating. Therefore all progressive countries throughout the world are interested in tourism. Political and industrial leaders almost universally have recognized the economic advantages of tourism. However, what these countries have done to make tourism a viable, growing segment of their economy diverges widely-from virtually nothing to creating superbly organized, highly productive tourism plants. As shown above the tourism industry is one of the most important sources of income and foreign exchange, and is growing rapidly. It is bittersweet character of contemporary travel that is both its bone and its strength. Environmentalists in developing countries are worried about moral pollution and harassed air, and there are a balance between running profitable tourism and destroying the environment to do so. Stricter planning regulations, controls over the use of scarce resources like water, limitations on access to attractions such as Taj Mahal and the Pyramids, and a ban on intrusions into national parks are just some of the probable consequences. At the base of this consequences are the main factor that is the human activity. Conclusion: Increasingly travelers are a key factor in the creation of jobs and new capital spending. Nowhere is immune to their impact and no government can ignore them. The romance of travel may not be what it was in the days of safaris but it is the most important, largest industry in the world. It accounts for: $3.5 trillion in GNP Over 200 million jobs-1every 9 employees 11% of global capital investment 11% of worldwide consumer spending

11.7% of indirect corporate taxes O2.Tourism can be defined as the science, art, and business of attracting and transporting visitors, accommodating them, and graciously catering to their needs and wants. According to the WTO definition, tourist can be any person that is outside of his current residence for a period of 24 hours up to 4 months for the following reasons: recreational, professional motivation, other motives (health). Tourism can be defined as the act of travel for the purpose of recreation, and the provision of services for this act. A tourist is someone who travels at least fifty miles from home, as defined by the World Tourism Organization (a United Nations body). A more comprehensive definition would be that tourism is a service industry, comprising a number of tangible and intangible components. The tangible elements include transport systems - air, rail, road, water and now, space; hospitality services - accommodation, foods and beverages, tours, souvenirs; and related services such as banking, insurance and safety & security. The intangible elements include: rest and relaxation, culture, escape, adventure, new and different experiences. Tourism is vital for many countries, due to the income generated by the consumption of goods and services by tourists, the taxes levied on businesses in the tourism industry, and the opportunity for employment in the service industries associated with tourism. These service industries include transportation services such as cruise ships and taxis, accommodation such as hotels, restaurants, bars, and entertainment venues, and other hospitality industry services such as spas and resorts. The tourist phenomenon includes all motivations and activities of a leisure and health nature extended in a given place and a given moment. This way it can be pointed out three main aspects of tourism: the tourist resources;

the infrastructure; the tourist flow (or the influx of tourists).


Thus, tourism is a composite of activities, services, and industries that delivers a travel experience, a phenomena and relationships in the process of attracting tourists.

S2.The position in the system of economic and geographical sciences

Key Words:

Tourist exploitation Natural factors

Tourism Tourism function Sciences

Learning objectives: O1.To determine the consequences of tourist exploitation; O2.To identify tourism function. O1.There are some limits about the tourist exploitation that doesnt touch the structure of physico-geographical landscape. When these limits are exceeded appears some lacks of balance in majority cases with negative effects for society and environment also. Modern tourism in the economy of some states became one of the most important branches with obvious weight in gross domestic product. Finally natural factors like: topography, climate, hydrography, lithologic, biogeographical elements

that participate in establishing of the tourism fund respectively of recreational resources that effect the activity of tourism phenomenon. Tourism doesnt exist without tourists and their presence allows us to identify a tourist place. Tourism is inconceivable without anthropogenic factor-man that is the principal element of it. Tourism is a dynamic activity taking up a lot of space. It involves different transport links. Tourism, through its final outcome of an economic nature, is an integral part of material and spiritual values exchanges. Tourist activity has in common with such sciences as geology, history, biology, which also participates in the setting up of tourist potential of a given region. Conclusion: The last thing the world environment needs is millions of tourists travelling around the world. Apart from the fuel needed, tourists do not live in harmony with the environment. O2.Tourism function is indissolubly related to statistics, marketing and other economic sciences. After all, tourist activity is a question of the psychological insight of each individual. Any attempt to define tourism and to describe its scope fully must consider the various groups that participate in and are affected by this industry. Their perspectives are vital to the development of a comprehensive definition. Tourism can be defined as the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the interaction of tourist, business suppliers, host governments, and host communities in the process of attracting any hosting these tourists and other visitors. Departments of tourism in various cities, states and countries work to encourage tourism to their region. they may fund advertising showing the

places to go and things to do, they may support events that are likely to draw tourists, and they may sponsor joint activities by different organizations to improve the region's attractiveness to tourists. Conclusion: Tourism is a very dynamic activity, is the entire world industry of travel, hotels, transportation, and all other components,including promotion, that serves the needs and wants of travelers.

S3.Principles, methods, and means of study

Key Words: Principles


Means Infrastructure Models

Learning objectives: O1.To define the principle of spatiality; O2.To describe the principle of causality; O3. To study the principle of integration.

Tourist activity uses a series of principles, methods, and means of study such as:

Principle of spatiality - according to this principle the research of tourist phenomena, uses as a method observation, and as a mean of representation description. And the final part of this process is the elaboration of the descriptive model, that is widely used to inform the potential tourists.

Principle of causality - which aim is the study of appearance, assertion , and development of tourist process. As activity method it has recourse to the detailed analysis of phenomena,carries out by means of explanation that can be accomplished by a mathematical model(equation,formula). From this perspective a primary place it is offered in detail to the geographical areas of reception, especially of how tourist phenomenon environment and human communities are articulated.Tourism disturbes the populations of the visited regions ,influence on environment, changes the most beautiful places in nature to create a certain idea of authenticity.It disturbs the scientists that are working in studying the touristic phenomenon .And is added the issues and operation of tourism infrastructure management. Principle of integration - of characteristic phenomena in logistical structures,designed to show the objective aspect(activity methodsynthesis),operation means-graphic representations(cartographic models). Between the principles there is a close link. The first principle serves as a basis for the second one, while the latter for the third one.

Conclusion: Note the logical independence plan established both vertical hierarchy between certain types of principles, methods, means and forms of

modeling, as well as horizontally in the same structure that grows in complexity from one study to another. In the same way may be registered the interrelationship of ranking models, means and forms of modeling of the touristic phenomena . Touristic models provide a theoretical and conceptual basis for the study of spatial dynamics of tourism.In general situation the geographical research provides useful information on travel document as: elements of the heritage , the morphology of visited regions and localities,characteristics of cure factors and the configuration of ways of communication.

S4.The categories of the TRM

Key Words: Tourist Tourism Travel

Recreation Excursionist

Tourist resources Tourist potential Tourist flow Tourist infrastructure.

Learning objectives: O1. To identify the categories of TRM;


O2. To define the main notions of the TRM; O3. To understand the relationship between these terms. The tourist phenomenon is defined by a series of notions. The most used are: tourist, tourism, tourist infrastructure, tourist potential, tourist product, tourist supply and demand. Tourist, Tourism, Travel There is a correlation between these terms. Tourism may also be defined as people taking trips away from home, and it embraces the entire range of transportation, lodging, food service, and other activities relating to and serving the traveler. The WTO has taken the concept of tourism beyond a stereotypical Image of holiday-making. The officially accepted definition is: Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes. Consequently a tourist is someone who travels away from home and whose main purpose of visit is other than the exercise of an activity remunerated from within the place visited. There are also other words describing the people traveling, such as: national tourist, domestic tourist, internal tourist, visitor, traveler, same-day visitor (excursionist) etc.
Tourist resources. They represent all the attractive elements of

a territory without taking into account their origin and the connections between them. There can be distinguished two groups of objects that make up the tourist resources, that is to say: etc.).

Tourist natural resources (relief, climate, etc.); Tourist human resources (museums, religious erections,

Tourist infrastructure. It consists of all the tourist endowments,

such as: accommodation and catering capacity; tourist services network; spas and resorts; transport links; electricity network and heating system; water supply and mains; postal and banking services, etc., etc.

potential. It consists of tourist resources and

Tourist flow. It represents the movement of the visitors from

their place of residence to the place visited. It is a dynamic category, which considers human factor by its number and financial opportunities. The special features of the tourist flows are: the direction; the rhythm; the intensity.

Tourist product. It represents all goods and serves that

facilitate the tourist activity.

Tourist market. It represents the place of interference or

contact of tourist product with its consumers, in other words, of supply with demand.
Internal tourism.Visits by residents of a country to their own

Travel.the action and activities of people taking trips to a place

outside their home communities for any purpose except daily commuting to and from work.


Recreation:the action and activities of people engaging in

constructive and personally pleasurable use of leisure time.







accommodation. Conclusion: All this terms of tourism have a close relationship between them.This terms interact and form concepts of tourism and helps to understand better this branch of industry.

S5.The factors influencing the tourist phenomenon

Key Words: Factors Population Development Learning objectives: O1.To define the factors influencing the tourist phenomenon; O2.To identify what place human beings occupies in the development of tourism industry. Factors that contribute to tourism development are the following: o Demographic factors - Tourism is a process in which the human being is an important factor. The human needs to physical and psychological recovery and knowledge is the main cause of the emergence of tourism. This factors act through the population growth, increase in life expectancy, the

growth of young people. So if the number of population is higher then logically the number of tourists is higher. This growth of tourists is explained by the fact that people want to rest from city busy life(cars, noise, or the bigger number of population in a country)
o Economic factors - They are of great importance for tourist

phenomenon. Only people that have a certain standard of living and savings can take part in tourist activity. This kind of people that saves money for resting have an important influence: Labor productivity growth, rising incomes of populations and the growth of leisure time. o Political factors - They often contribute to the development or the restriction of tourist activity (different systems of government, armed conflicts, etc.).This fact mean that can be a limitation to the tourist flow through the visa regime. Tourism is a product of international atmosphere, of the understandings between countries for its development.
o Psychological factors - They determine the need for travel. It

involves the mental activity of people concerning its interest for nature, health and beauty. This factors have a great importance for tourism industry. They are generated by the usual stress, the removal from nature.
o Social factors - They are the leisure time of people. This term of

leisure time appears in the time of transition of economy to industrialization. The development of the economy led to the development of tourism throught the new technologies of firms and so the interval of the labor force increased,and they have more time to spend in recreation. Conclusion:

All this factors contribute to the development of tourism and have a correlation between them.

Textbooks, Brochures 1. McIntosh, Goeldner, Ritchie, Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies, John

Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1995, 552 p 2. "The economic impact of international tourism: dynamic and trends"
3. Definitions and terminology(pag 20)

4. Tourism and development ,chapter 5 Trends and Issues in Tourism Industry Management,theme Recent transport Advances,page 89 5. Aspects of Tourism,Sport Tourism Developmentby Thomas Hinch and James Higban,page 214 6. NEC Lesson & Exercise Ecotourism in the Niagara Escarpment
7. Tourism and Mountains A Practical Guide to Managing the Environmental and

Social Impacts of Mountain Tours 8. Tourism and development ,chapter 5 Trends and Issues in Tourism Industry Management,theme Recent transport Advances,page 89 9. Tourism and development ,chapter 5 Trends and Issues in Tourism Industry Management,theme The Renaissance,page 89 Tourism and development by K.K.Sharma ,chapter 5 Trends and Issues in Tourism Industry Management, BIBLIOGRAPHY
Textbooks, Brochures

10.theme Dark Ages (500-1100 AD) to Middle Ages (1100-1500 AD ) ,page 88. 11.Tourism and development ,chapter 5 Trends and Issues in Tourism Industry Management,theme Travel and Tourism in Antiquity ,page 84

Articles and Publications



Theme Nr. 2:

The history of Tourist development

Lerning objectives:
O 1 The stage of tourism in antiquity. O

The stage of tourism in the Middle Ages until the Renaissance.

O 3 The stage of tourism in the late Middle Ages during the Renaissance and the great geographical discoveries till mid - 20 th century. O

The period of contemporary tourism.


O The stage of tourism in antiquity


Key Words:

Travel Trips Problems Movement Events

We travel long roads and cross the water to see what we disregard when it is under our eyes. This is either because nature has so arranged things that we go after is far off and remains indifferent to what is nearby, or because any desire loses its intensity by being easily satisfied Wealthy people have always travelled to distant parts of the world, to see great buildings, works of art, learn new languages, and experience new cultures and to taste different cuisines. Long ago, at the time of the Roman Republic, places such as Baia were popular coastal resorts for the rich. Early explorers, traders, and shippers laid the groundwork upon which our modern age of travel is based. Human needs to arrange trips and facilitate movements have not changed over ages. Building roads, vehicles, and ships and providing overnight rest accommodations go back into antiquity. The brave explorers who went into the unknown made available to their contemporaries knowledge of what the world was really like. Over the centuries, inventions such as the sandglass to measure time, the log Line to measure distance, made possible successful sea exploration. The roads of early Persia and those of the Roman Empire were used for exploration, for military purposes, for transporting tribute, and for pleasure trips and recreation. The emergence of human civilization in China, India, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Greece, and Rome represented a favorable occasion for tourist movements. A direct source of many trips was at ancient cities like Rome, Alexandria, and Athens. During this stage

appeared many problems in movement, people could move only within a particular city. But there were many attractive places, cities, events such as Olympic Games that attract people to travel. Conclusion: However, the conditions for an ever- expanding tourism market are little different now from Roman times. Tourism will flourish if prospective travelers are convinced that they will be safe and comfortable and well rewarded by their trip.

O The stage of tourism in the Middle Ages until the Renaissance.


Key Words:
Pseudo-tourist Trade routes Religious issues

First universities

Pseudo-tourist corresponds to the period between medieval and Renaissance history in Europe. During this period all tourism activity is confused due to religious fanaticism. People travel from one region to another because of religious issues. Appear pilgrimages to Rome and Jerusalem (are visited by the Christians), Medina and Mecca (by the Muslims), Lhasa by the Buddhists, Mount Fuji (is the pole of gravity for touristic activities) by the Japanese. Convoys were led by monk guides. During this period appear first trade routes: VeniceVienna-Krakow, Chernovtsy-Baltic Sea -Siren-Galati-ParisMunich-Prague-Budapest. With the development of trade routes appears an extension of maritime links used in diplomatic purposes. The most important sea links were those who united w the Mediterranean ports of East Asia and Southeast. The movement of merchants and dealers caused the emergence of inns. During this period, with a halt of more than one hundred years, the cultural tourism was developed, promoted by the emergence of the first universities: Bologna (1119, the oldest), the Sorbonne (1200), Cambridge (1209), Oxford (1214), Naples (1224), Prague(1348), Cracow (Krakow) (1364), Vienna (1365), Cologne (Kln) (1380), etc.

Conclusion : Tourism in the Middle Ages revolved around aimless

wandering and 'educational' wandering. Research material includes the

sources of the period: texts, chronicles, travelers accounts, literature (poetry and prose), biographies, deeds, wills etc. Sociological analysis should focus on country or region of origin, the traveler, and the destination visited. Comparisons are made between tourism in the middle Ages and contemporary tourism: tourism today is seen as a reaction to everyday routine and a momentary escape from performing many roles in society; religious tourism, e.g., pilgrimages is still popular; however, educational tourism, which was popular in the Middle Ages, is quite rare today.

The stage of tourism in the late Middle Ages during the Renaissance and the great geographical discoveries till mid - 20 th century.

Key Words:

Geographical discoveries

Free movement Industrial revolution

The Late middle Ages is a term used by historians to describe European history in the period of the 14th and 15th centuries (c. 13001499). The Late Middle Ages were preceded by the High Middle Ages, and followed by the Early Modern era (Renaissance).Around 1300, centuries of European prosperity and growth came to a halt. A series of

famines and plagues, such as the Great Famine of 1315 1317 and the Black Death, reduced the population by as much as half according to some estimates. Along with depopulation came social unrest and endemic warfare. France and England experienced serious peasant risings: the Jacquerie, the Peasants' Revolt, and the Hundred Years' War. To add to the many problems of the period, the unity of the Catholic Church was shattered by the Great Schism. Collectively these events are sometimes called the Crisis of the Late Middle Ages. Despite these crises, the 14th century was also a time of great progress within the arts and sciences. A renewed interest in ancient Greek and Roman texts led to what has later been termed the Italian Renaissance. The absorption of Latin texts had started in the twelfth-century Renaissance through contact with Arabs during the Crusades, but the availability of important Greek texts accelerated with the capture of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks, when many Byzantine scholars had to seek refuge in the West, particularly Italy. Combined with this influx of classical ideas was the invention of printing which facilitated dissemination of the printed word and democratized learning. These two things would later lead to the Protestant Reformation. Toward the end of the period, an era of discovery began (Age of Discovery). The growth of the Ottoman Empire, culminating in the fall of Constantinople in 1453, cut off trading possibilities with the east. Europeans were forced to discover new trading routes, as was the case with Columbuss travel to the Americas in 1492, and Vasco da Gamas circumnavigation of India and Africa in 1498. Their discoveries strengthened the economy and power of European nations. The industrial revolution promoted the leisure industry too. The mass tourism could only emerged in an industrialized society and not in an agricultural one. The population explosion in the West led to a strong demographic growth and respectively to the increased

number of tourists. The transportation links have been modernized and the first hotels, spas, and resorts appeared in Germany and France. Thomas Cook arranged in 1841 the first organized trips, which later also established the first travel agencies. From the second half of the 19th century the foundations for the tourist infrastructure have been laid (for instance, the tourist areas on the French Riviera: Monte Carlo, San Remo, Nice, Saint-Tropez, etc.). The first tourist guide appeared in France in 1672. As from the second decade of the 20th century, tourism as subject of study is taught at the Universities of Dsseldorf (1914), Rome (1925), and Berlin (1929). The institution of paid leave and the general spread of passports promoted leisure activities.

Conclusion: The changes brought about by these

developments have caused many scholars to see it as leading to the end of the Middle Ages, and the beginning of the modern world. However, the division will always be a somewhat artificial one for other scholars, who argue that since ancient learning was never entirely absent from European society, there is certain continuity between the Classical and the Modern age. Some historians, particularly in Italy, prefer not to speak of the Late Middle Ages at all, but rather see the 14th century Renaissance as a direct transition to the Modern Era. Expansion continued as improvements in transportation linked the resort to a wider range of visitors markets with better roads and expanded coach services reducing travel times


O The period of contemporary tourism.


Key Words:

Social change Globalization Authenticity

The study of tourism and indeed the tourism industry is changing constantly. Contemporary Tourism: an international approach presents a

new and refreshing approach to the study of tourism, considering issues such as the changing world order, destination marketing, tourism ethics and pro-poor tourism. In particular, it highlights the ongoing threats from terrorism and health scares faced by the tourism industry today, and discusses the related security and risk management strategies, illustrating the potential implications for the patterns and flow of tourism in the future. Divided into five sections, each chapter has a thorough learning structure including chapter objectives, examples, discussion points, self review questions, checklists and case studies. Cases will be both thematic and destination-based and always international. They will be used to emphasise the relationship between general principles and the practice of tourism looking at areas such as business and special interest tourism and the role of technology.

The period of mass tourism begins in middle of 20th century. The reasons why tourist movement intensified all over the world are: The shortening of the working days and weeks; The rise in the standard of living; The intense development of links and means of transportation; The development and diversification of tourist supply on a regional scale; The increased need for relaxation with regard to city life. The features of contemporary tourism are: The growth of its mass nature; The growth of travel distance;

The growth of tourist consumption; The diversification of forms of tourism in accordance with tourists needs; The mobility due to the perfection of modes and links of transportation; The involvement in tourism of the low-income tourists; The computerization, the automation, and robotization.

Conclusion: This factors of contemporary tourism determined a lot of

changes in tourism industry and in all industries of a specific country.The modernization and the effect of free mobility of people caused the change in contemporary tourism.

Textbooks, Brochures


12. McIntosh, Goeldner, Ritchie, Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies, John

Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1995, 552 p 13."The economic impact of international tourism: dynamic and trends"
14. Definitions and terminology(pag 20)

15.Tourism and development ,chapter 5 Trends and Issues in Tourism Industry Management,theme Recent transport Advances,page 89 16.Aspects of Tourism,Sport Tourism Developmentby Thomas Hinch and James Higban,page 214 17.NEC Lesson & Exercise Ecotourism in the Niagara Escarpment
18. Tourism and Mountains A Practical Guide to Managing the Environmental and

Social Impacts of Mountain Tours 19.Tourism and development ,chapter 5 Trends and Issues in Tourism Industry Management,theme Recent transport Advances,page 89 20. Tourism and development ,chapter 5 Trends and Issues in Tourism Industry Management,theme The Renaissance,page 89 Tourism and development by K.K.Sharma ,chapter 5 Trends and Issues in Tourism Industry Management, BIBLIOGRAPHY
Textbooks, Brochures

21.theme Dark Ages (500-1100 AD) to Middle Ages (1100-1500 AD ) ,page 88. 22.Tourism and development ,chapter 5 Trends and Issues in Tourism Industry Management,theme Travel and Tourism in Antiquity ,page 84

Articles and Publications