You are on page 1of 6

CHAPTER 8

Ceramics, Graphite, and Diamond: Structure, General Properties, and Applications

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 8-1

Examples of Ceramics
(a) (b)

Figure 8.1 A variety of ceramic components. (a) High-strength alumina for high-temperature applications. (b) Gas-turbine rotors made of silicon nitride. Source: Wesgo Div., GTE.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 8-2

TABLE 8.1 Type Oxide ceramics Alumina Zirconia Carbides Tungsten carbide

General Characteristics High hardness, moderate strength; most widely used ceramic; cutting tools, abrasives, electrical and thermal insulation. High strength and toughness; thermal expansion close to cast iron ; suitable for heat engine components. Hardness, strength, and wear resistance depend on cobalt binder content; commonly used for dies and cutting tools. Not as tough as tungsten carbide; has nickel and molybdenum as the binder; used as cutting tools. High-temperature strength and wear resistance ; used for heat engines and as abrasives. Second-hardest substance known, after diamond; used as abrasives and cutting tools. Gold in color; used as coatings because of low frictional characteristics. High resistance to creep and thermal shock; used in heat engines. Consists of silicon nitrides and other oxides and carbides; used as cutting tools. Consist of oxides, carbides, and nitrides; used in high-temperature applications. High temperature resistance; quartz exhibits piezoelectric effect; silicates containing various oxides are used in high-temperature nonstructural applications. Contain at least 50 percent silica; amorphous structures; several types available with a range of mechanical and physical properties. Have a high crystalline component to their structure ; good thermalshock resistance and strong. Crystalline form of carbon; high electrical and thermal conductivity; good thermal shock resistance. Hardest substance known; available as single crystal or polycrystalline form; used as cutting tools and abrasives and as dies for fine wire drawing.

Types and General Characteristics of Ceramics

Titanium carbide Silicon carbide Nitrides Cubic boron nitride Titanium nitride Silicon nitride Sialon Cermets Silica

Glasses Glass ceramics Graphite Diamond

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 8-3

Properties of Various Ceramics at Room Temperature


TABLE 8.2
Transverse rupture strength (MPa) 140240 725 1400 100750 480600 14001900 10302600 620 Compressive strength (MPa) 10002900 7000 7000 1300 7003500 31003850 41005900 Elastic modulus (GPa) 310410 850 8301000 70 240480 300310 310410 520700 200 Hardness (HK) 20003000 40005000 70008000 550 21003000 20002500 18003200 18002400 1100 Poissons ratio () 0.26 0.25 0.14 0.24 0.30 Density (kg/m3) 40004500 3480 3500 3100 3300 55005800 10,00015,000 5800

Material Aluminum oxide Cubic boron nitride Diamond Silica, fused Silicon carbide Silicon nitride Titanium carbide Tungsten carbide Partially stabilized zirconia

Symbol Al2O3 CBN SiO2 SiC Si3 N4 TiC WC PSZ

Note: These properties vary widely depending on the condition of the material.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 8-4

Properties of Various Glasses


TABLE 8.3 Soda-lime glass High Low Low Moderate Good Good Poor Fair Poor Lowest Lead glass Highest Low Low Best Best Good Fair Poor Poor Low Borosilicate glass Medium Moderate Good Good Fair Poor Good Good Fair Medium 96 Percent silica Low High Better Good Poor None Better Good Good High Fused silica Lowest Highest Best Good Poorest None Best Best Good Highest

Density Strength Resistance to thermal shock Electrical resistivity Hot workability Heat treatability Chemical resistance Impact-abrasion resistance Ultraviolet-light transmission Relative cost

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 8-5

Graphite Components
Figure 8.2 Various engineering components made of graphite. Source: Poco Graphite, Inc., a Unocal Co.

Kalpakjian Schmid Manufacturing Engineering and Technology

2001 Prentice-Hall

Page 8-6