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MDCH/ Perunding RJA PEIA-Peningkatan Kemudahan Pelancongan di Tanah Tinggi Cameron Highlands Executive Summary

rEXECUTIVE SUMMARY

1.0 INTRODUCTION The proposed project is the development of a double storey building consisting of 110 parking lots for Cadangan Peningkatan Kemudahan Pelancongan Di Tanah Tinggi Cameron Highlands, Pahang - Green Cow and Kea Farm by Majlis Daerah Cameron Highland (MDCH). The build-up area is 1,728 m2 in area (0.427 acres) on a state land. The location of the proposed project is located in Kea Farm area, at about 3 km on the left side of Brinchang to Kg. Raja road, Cameron Highlands, Pahang Darul Makmur. The Proposed project is subjected to a Preliminary Environmental Impact Assessment (PEIA) as required under the Guidelines on Highland Development publish in 2005. The PEIA study is carried out by Geo-Technology Environmental Group, FKKKSA, UTM. The Project Site is surrounded by Hulu Bertam Forest Reserve to the west and northwest, Kea Farm Market to the north-east, the MDCH Vegetables and Fruits Market to the east and MDCH Food Stall to the south. At present, the Project Site is situated within a terrestrial forest of Hulu Bertam Forest Reserve. The proposed project site had been given a conditional approval by Jabatan Hutan Negeri Pahang as per letter Ref. No.:Bil (xx) dated XX October 2008.

2.0 ENVIRONMENTAL REQUIREMENT The proposed project is situated on areas with elevation of more than 1500 meter above mean sea level, and thus involves the development of highland which is then subjected to the Guideline for the Development of Highland Area. The submission of EIA report for approval is necessary before permission to proceed could be granted from other relevant authorities. The Project Proponent is thus required to submit an EIA Report which shall contains assessment of predicted impacts of such activity on the environment and to propose measures to be undertaken to prevent, reduce, or control the adverse impact on the environment.
Geo-Technology Environmental Group, FKKKSA, UTM

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MDCH/ Perunding RJA PEIA-Peningkatan Kemudahan Pelancongan di Tanah Tinggi Cameron Highlands Executive Summary

3.0 STATEMENT OF NEEDS The proposed project was introduced by Kementerian Pelancongan Malaysia to cater for visitors to the Kea Farm vegetable and fruit stalls. The need for big parking area arise desperately especially during school and public holidays which tantamount to heavy traffic jam due to many cars parking alongside the narrow road in front of the vegetable and fruit stalls. The situation contributed to unsafe environment to the visitors. The project shall also promote the eco-tourism activities in the area, in compliance with the overall spatial plan of the Cameron Highland area. It is expected to be a catalyst for the long term social and economic growth within the development area and its surrounding.

4.0 PROJECT DESCRIPTIONS 4.1 Project Location The proposed project site is located in Kea Farm area, at about 3 km on the left side of Brinchang to Kg. Raja road, Cameron Highlands, Pahang. The Project Site located within the national grid between the latitude 4o 30 20N and longitude of 101o 24 25E. 4.2 Project Components The proposed project comprise of double storey building consisting of 110 parking lots. The build up area is 36m x 48m, or 1,728 m2 in area on a state land. The building structure can be divided into five major components namely the entrance, floor slab, ramps, slope protection to the disturbed area and structural frames. The construction will employ shop pre-fabricated structure as the columns and beams are made of steel whilst the slab construction will use pre-fabricated steel form and will ES- 2

Geo-Technology Environmental Group, FKKKSA, UTM

MDCH/ Perunding RJA PEIA-Peningkatan Kemudahan Pelancongan di Tanah Tinggi Cameron Highlands Executive Summary

not be supported from the ground. Hence, no land clearing for the construction will be imposed other than the pile cap points. The proposed development is initiated by Majlis Daerah Cameron Highland (MDCH) and will be managed by Perunding RJA.

5.0 PROJECT OPTION AND SITE SELECTION 5.1 Project Options 5.1.1 Selection of the Best Available Project Option The available project options i.e. project that could ease the problem of heavy traffic due to many cars parking alongside the narrow road in front of the vegetable and fruit stalls. The situation contributed to unsafe environment to the visitors. The need for big parking area (double storey building consist of 110 parking lots) arise desperately especially during school and public holidays. The foundation introduced into the design is the bored micropile system. The bored micropile system is essentially a bored 150mm diameter hole, then advancing a steel pipe and fill the hole with concrete grouting grade 30N/mm concrete. The constructed foundation system will strengthen the slope. The construction will employ shop pre-fabricated structure as the columns and beams are made of steel whilst the slab construction will use pre-fabricated steel form and will not be supported from the ground. Hence, no land clearing for the construction will be imposed other than the pile cap points. 5.1.2 No-Project Option Without the Project, heavy traffic jam will be occurred especially during school and public holidays along the narrow road at Kea Farm area. The situation contributed to ES- 3

Geo-Technology Environmental Group, FKKKSA, UTM

MDCH/ Perunding RJA PEIA-Peningkatan Kemudahan Pelancongan di Tanah Tinggi Cameron Highlands Executive Summary

unsafe environment to the visitors. In addition, current state of social benefit limited due to nature of existing business activities. 5.2 Site Option Recognising the need to develop a double storey building consisting of 110 parking lots, Majlis Daerah Cameron Highland (MDCH) has identified several sites as potential sites for parking lot building development. The criteria for selecting a new site normally include engineering, environmental and economic aspects. Usually, some of these criteria limit the choice of potential sites to a given few. Anyway the selected site was found to be the most suitable since it is near to the Kea Farm area that could be reached by walking. It is believed that this project will be an economically and environmentally sound project. Kea Farm is frequently visited by travelers and tourists because the farm provides fresh local fruits and vegetables.

6.0 PHYSICO-CHEMICAL ENVIRONMENT The following is the summary of existing environment of the proposed project area, the significant environmental impacts of the proposed project and appropriate mitigating measures to be carried out.

6.1 EXISTING ENVIRONMENT 6.1.1 Topography The land within the project site is generally hilly with terrain of elevation in the range of 1550 meter to 1600 meter above mean sea level. Based on the slope analysis, the Project Site comprises of mixed slope classes ranging from low risk zone to high-risk zone.

Geo-Technology Environmental Group, FKKKSA, UTM

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MDCH/ Perunding RJA PEIA-Peningkatan Kemudahan Pelancongan di Tanah Tinggi Cameron Highlands Executive Summary

6.1.2 Existing Land Use At present, the existing land use on the project site is a terrestrial forest of Hulu Bertam Forest Reserve. The predominant type of land use setting in the impact area belongs to a forested land situated in the western portion of the impact area, namely Hulu Bertam Forest Reserve. No major stream or river is observed within the project site except a seasonal waterway of tributary to the Sg. Bertam. 6.1.3 Geology and Soil The regional geology of the project area is generally underlain with granitic rocks, formed in the Late Triassic period, and roof pendants of Lower Paleozoic metasedimentary with deposits comprises of schist, phyllite, metaquartzite and sand facies. The soil within the site is classified as Renggam-Jerangau series. The bedrock of the Project Site consists of biotite granite, light gray in color, massive, and medium to coarse grained. The overburden soil above bedrock comprises of materials ranging from Grades V and IV. The top section of the soil profile above granite comprises predominantly of medium dense SILT with some gravels. The thickness of the residual soils (Grade V to IV) in this area may exceed 30 m. 6.1.4 Geotechnical Characteristics The average soil erosion rate in the area for existing condition is about 3.68 tons/ha/yr. From the analysis of soil erosion potential at existing environment, it can be concluded that most of the areas of Project Site have low soil loss thus low soil erosion risk. Impacts due to soil erosion are considered insignificant before the construction period. Majority of the natural slopes surrounding the proposed site are dipping at angle between 160 and 250, and consists mainly of highly weathered granite and residual soils. No failures of the existing natural slopes were noted during the site visit. 6.1.5 Water Quality ES- 5

Geo-Technology Environmental Group, FKKKSA, UTM

MDCH/ Perunding RJA PEIA-Peningkatan Kemudahan Pelancongan di Tanah Tinggi Cameron Highlands Executive Summary

There are two (2) water-sampling points (denoted as W1 and W2) established as water monitoring points. All the two (2) samples were collected on 3rd December 2008. The quality of water bodies within the proposed area was assessed using selected major parameters namely pH, Temperature (C), Dissolve Oxygen (DO), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD5), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Ammonical Nitrogen (NH3-N) and Oil & Grease. Heavy metals such as Chromium Trivalent (Cr3+), Chromium Hexavalent (Cr6+), Manganese (Mn), Zinc (Zn), Cadmium (Cd) and Copper (Cu) were also analysed. Subsequently Water Quality Index (WQI) for each sample is derived from six (6) of the parameters determined i.e. NH3-N, BOD5, COD, DO, pH and TSS. The indexes for all water sampling points were reported within Class II III of DOE -INWQS. 6.1.6 Air Quality Ambient air quality data was collected at three points (denoted as A1, A2 and A3) of the factory boundary within the project site on 3 December 2008 to establish the existing baseline data. Concentrations of Total Suspended Particulate (TSP), Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2), Sulphur Dioxide (SO2), Carbon Monoxide (CO) and Hydrogen Sulphide (H2S) was chosen as indicators of ambient air quality. The ambient air quality is affected by all point and non-point sources in the vicinity of the area and all dispersed pollutants from point sources as the results are well below the DOE standard guidelines. The Total Suspended Particulate (TSP) level ranges between 16 to 26 g/m3 for the A1, A2 and A3 sampling points within the proposed area. The TSP values are considered to be very low even with medium traffic movements along the main road facing the site. The Recommended Malaysian Air Quality Guideline (MAQG) for TSP is 260 g/m3 (daily average), thus the sampled ambient air value is at an acceptable level. Other parameters such as the level of Carbon Monoxide (CO) is still below than the Recommended MAQG value which is 10 ppm (per 1 hour). ES- 6

Geo-Technology Environmental Group, FKKKSA, UTM

MDCH/ Perunding RJA PEIA-Peningkatan Kemudahan Pelancongan di Tanah Tinggi Cameron Highlands Executive Summary

6.1.7 Boundary Noise Level The locations of the noise sampling points are the same as air sampling points. Noise levels at three samplings points, denoted as N1, N2 and N3, were determined on 3 December 2008. The noise level ranged from between 62 dB(A) to 71.5 dB(A) which is slightly above the Planning Guidelines for Environmental Noise Limits and Control by DOE 2004 under Schedule 1 (Designated Industrial Zones) designated at <70dB(A) during the day and <60dB(A) at night time. From observation the noise level measured is mainly contributed by the medium and heavy traffic from Tanah Rata to Kea Farm such lorries and buses.

7.0 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT AND RECOMMENDED MITIGATION MEASURES 7.1 IMPACTS TOWARDS THE ENVIRONMENT

This section will discuss the potential environmental impacts and more importantly, the specific mitigation or abatement measures that shall be adopted by the Project Proponent in order to minimize potential significant impacts identified. The main concerns during project implementation stage are impacts from soil erosion, sedimentation and siltation during earthworks activities towards waterways on-site and into Sg. Bertam. Other potential impacts generated are from transportation activities during construction stage in the form of air pollution (from dust dispersion), noise and to a certain extent, traffic issues. 7.1.1 Exploration and Prospecting Stage 7.1.1.1 Potential Impacts ES- 7

Geo-Technology Environmental Group, FKKKSA, UTM

MDCH/ Perunding RJA PEIA-Peningkatan Kemudahan Pelancongan di Tanah Tinggi Cameron Highlands Executive Summary

The exploration and prospecting stage involves field reconnaissance, surveying and mapping, and drilling and sampling. Disturbances to the existing environment are indeed minimal. Thus, no significant adverse impact has been identified for this stage of development.

7.1.2 Site Preparation and Construction Stage 7.1.2.1 Potential Impacts The main activities during construction are site clearing, excavation or earthwork activities (such as drilling for micropile enforcement and sub-surface drainage system), handling of excavated materials, building constructions, and constructions of control structures such as rubble wall and retaining wall. a) Biomass Disposal During construction stage, the minimal land clearing work will be employed to the area. The extent of land clearing is not to the whole site but is only localised to the positions of the micropile borehole points. Biomass in this area is estimated to be about 290 tons/ha. The volume of biomass to be disposed is estimated to be only around 5 tons. b) Impacts of Soil Erosion and Sedimentation The construction will highlight on the minimal earthwork activities except at the pile cap locations and loads application is directly to the bedrock. The projected earthworks area is less than 10% of the built up area and the amount of excavation work is estimated to be less than 230 m3 of earth. From the analysis of soil erosion potential at existing environment, it can be concluded that most of the areas of Project Site have low soil loss thus low soil erosion risk. Impacts due to soil erosion are considered insignificant before the construction period. However, during land clearing and development phase (when the soil cover is removed ES- 8

Geo-Technology Environmental Group, FKKKSA, UTM

MDCH/ Perunding RJA PEIA-Peningkatan Kemudahan Pelancongan di Tanah Tinggi Cameron Highlands Executive Summary

and with no conservation practices), highest soil erosion loss values recorded for the worst case scenario is 156.95 tons/ha/yr at the construction site, mainly due to cutting activities and earthworks carried out there. The project areas average soil erosion loss, A,for the different scenarios can be summarize as below: a) Before construction b) During construction (at a worst-case scenario) c) After construction = 3.68 tons/ha/yr = 156.95 tons/ha/yr = 13.95 tons/ha/yr

c) Impact from Natural and Cut Slopes Majority of the existing natural slopes, especially the flanks surrounding the proposed project site, are all fall in the category of Class I and Class II Areas (area with LOW to MODERATE geotechnical constrains). Meanwhile Class III Area (area with HIGH geotechnical constraints) with in situ terrain gradient from 26 to 35o occupies about 11.47% of the project site area. The highly weathered rock (Zone 4 to Zone 6) may exhibit modes of failure similar to soil slope (e.g. circular and slump). The results of geological terrain mapping analysis conducted for the Project Site is presented in Table 1. However, positive impacts are also likely to occur from the bored micropile system where the constructed foundation installed by the system will strengthen the slope.

Table 1: Geological terrain mapping analysis for the Project Site CLASS DEGREE DESCRIPTION AREA Area (m2)
Geo-Technology Environmental Group, FKKKSA, UTM

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MDCH/ Perunding RJA PEIA-Peningkatan Kemudahan Pelancongan di Tanah Tinggi Cameron Highlands Executive Summary

I II III

0-15o 16-25o 26-35o

Suitable for development Suitable for development Suitable for development with detail geotechnical and geological studies Not suitable for development

343.50 808.75 202.25

19.50 45.88 11.47

IV

>36o

408.00

23.15

d) Impacts from Traffic Mobilization of construction may cause minor and temporary disruption to the existing traffic flow along the road. However, most of heavy machinery once mobilized is left on-site, thus causing no further traffic problem until the end of the Project.

7.1.3 Operational Stage 7.1.3.1 Potential Impacts a) Stormwater Stormwater arising from this project will increase in runoff and decrease in infiltration due to modification in hydrological regime. b) Solid Waste Pollution Solid waste can be generated from the community on-site. If the solid wastes are not properly collected and disposed, it could be a source of water pollution. c) Air and Noise Pollution Air pollutants such as dust, smoke and exhaust gases are generated from vehicular movements within and nearby Project Site. d) Traffic

Geo-Technology Environmental Group, FKKKSA, UTM

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MDCH/ Perunding RJA PEIA-Peningkatan Kemudahan Pelancongan di Tanah Tinggi Cameron Highlands Executive Summary

Due to parking lots development, potential increases in traffic on area roadways near Project Site. Increase traffic will contribute to degradation of air quality, increase in noise level, and traffics congestion at exit area. Movement of vehicles can cause high noise level. Dust emitted by heavy vehicles is hazardous to health. e) Socio-economic The operational stage would boost socio-economic development in the Project Site. With the commencement of the car park lots building, and the future commercial development, socio-activities will increase.

7.2

MITIGATION MEASURES

7.2.1 Exploration and Prospecting Stage No mitigating measure is suggested since no significance adverse impact has been identified during this stage. 7.2.2 Site Preparation and Construction Stage a) Biomass disposal Smaller sized trees may be chipped and sold if it is found to be commercially viable. Remaining vegetation will have to be removed and dumped in a suitable dumping area which should be away from the Project Site. There should be no burning of vegetation at site. b) Soil Erosion and Sedimentation Mitigation measure for soil erosion loss is proper implementation of erosion and sediment control Plan (ESCP). Some of the mitigation measures undertake to minimize ES- 11

Geo-Technology Environmental Group, FKKKSA, UTM

MDCH/ Perunding RJA PEIA-Peningkatan Kemudahan Pelancongan di Tanah Tinggi Cameron Highlands Executive Summary

soil erosion and siltation are as summarize below: Staged clearing and leveling of the Project site to limit the extent of area denuded and exposed at any one time. Timing of clearing and construction activities to avoid the extremely wet season, particularly the monsoons. Soil conservation shall be carried out by revegetate and turf exposed area not affected with rock extraction activities as soon as earthworks have been completed. Suitable sedimentation ponds or silt traps shall be provided to filter the runoff before being discharged into the natural watercourses downstream of the Project site. Drainage installations and the sediment ponds should be regularly desilted and checked to ensure that they are not clogged and are functioning effectively. c) Slope Stability As far as the existing natural slopes are concerned, it is recommended to maintain and to preserve these slopes as much as possible. Excessive clearing of surface vegetations on steep terrains must be avoided as to maintain the structural stability of the in situ slope materials and to conserve the natural surface protection. Cutting of new slopes must be undertaken in a manner not to induce significant disturbance to the existing slope and adopt the existing contour and profile. Create gentle slope gradients wherever possible (typically 1: 1.5 for Zone 4 to Zone 6, and 1: 0.5 in Zone 1 to Zone 3) and with appropriate slope bench and terrace. Suitable stabilization methods for soil slopes must be adopted to ensure long-term stability. These include commonly used chemical and/or mechanical stabilization methods (e.g. guniting, soil nailing and buttress walls). d) Traffic Issues Roads and tracks should be watered regularly.

Geo-Technology Environmental Group, FKKKSA, UTM

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MDCH/ Perunding RJA PEIA-Peningkatan Kemudahan Pelancongan di Tanah Tinggi Cameron Highlands Executive Summary

Appropriate road sign should be put up to alert other road-user. During the peak of the operation, personnel may perhaps be stationed at the junction to the Project Site to assist traffic flow. Space for construction vehicles for loading and unloading works will be allocated nearby to the Project site.

7.2.3 Operational Stage a) Stormwater In order to control flow of water down slope faces and percolation of surface water into the slopes of the cuts and fills in the project area, sub-surface drainage will be introduced into the project to act as drainage interceptor to running storm water. The storm water will be collected by the sub-surface drainage network and discharge into detention pond and then into nearby stream. This system will greatly retard erosion as the amount running storm water on the surface is minimised. b) Solid Waste Pollution Mitigation measure is to implement a proper and adequate waste collection system. Solid wastes shall be collected at least two times a week. It shall be made by concerted with the Local authority (MDCH) to facilitate the daily and proper disposal of solid waste generated within the Project area.

c) Air and Noise Pollution Planting of roadside greens and trees shall serve to absorb air pollutants and attenuate the transfer of noise as well as enriching the living environment. d) Traffic

Geo-Technology Environmental Group, FKKKSA, UTM

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MDCH/ Perunding RJA PEIA-Peningkatan Kemudahan Pelancongan di Tanah Tinggi Cameron Highlands Executive Summary

Appropriate road sign should be put up to alert other road-user. Driver should be notified to take extra precaution at the junction. The Project Proponent incorporates an effective traffic management scheme into the overall developmental framework of the proposed project. e) Socio-economic No mitigation measure proposed as this is a beneficial impact. The potential environmental impacts that may arises from the development of the proposed project, including the proposed mitigation measures and residual impacts, are summarizes in Table ES-1 (Appendix A).

8.0 RESIDUAL IMPACT Among all the impacts during the operational stage that may have residual effects and requires regular monitoring are related to: Stability of slope Solid waste generated and water, air and noise quality Traffic issues Anyway, the proposed development will also provide residual beneficial impact, in term of socio-economic of the community, whereby business and job opportunities could be generated on-site and nearby areas. 9.0 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The need to prepare, submit and secure an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) approval for the above described project is in line with the Cabinets decision on hill slope developments in Cameron Highlands for better environmental protection and control. The EIA study shows that the proposed project at Kea Farm, Cameron
Geo-Technology Environmental Group, FKKKSA, UTM

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MDCH/ Perunding RJA PEIA-Peningkatan Kemudahan Pelancongan di Tanah Tinggi Cameron Highlands Executive Summary

Highlands will have minimum detrimental impact to the environment provided that appropriate mitigating measures are carried out. The overall socio-economic gains from its implementation would also offset the adverse impacts, thus promoting the economic development in Kea Farm area and in Cameron Highlands as a whole.

Geo-Technology Environmental Group, FKKKSA, UTM

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