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The Fukushima Daiichi

The Fukushima Daiichi


Nuclear Power Station Accident
Nuclear Power Station Accident
Tomomi Matsunaga
Kansai Electric Power Company
Cooperation with JEPIC (Japan an Electric Power Information Center)
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Number of units Total power (MW)
In operation 1 18,81
Under construction
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Nuclear Power Plants in Japan
Cessation of Operation : The Japan Atomic Power Co. Tokai (1998)
Chubu EP Co. Hamaoka-1,2 (2009)
2
1
Status of Nuclear Power Plants after the Earthquake
Source: Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, INC. (JAIF)
All units (Unit 1-3) were
immediately shut down
automatically
Then safely went into cold
shut down
The unit was immediately
shut down automatically
Then safely went into cold
shut down
3
The accident caused environmental damage at several
units in the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power Station
after the earthquake occurred on March 11.
Other nuclear power plants in Japan were in normal
operation or safely shutdown.
The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station
4
Before the earthquake
Unit6
Unit5
Unit1
Unit2
Unit3
Unit4
Source: NISA (http://nei.cashfly.net/static/images/BWR_illstration.jpeg)
Overview of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)
(Mark-I Type ;Fukushima Daiichi Unit 1,2,3,4 and 5)
5
Mechanism of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR)
6
Containment Vessel
Reactor Pressure
Vessel
Condenser
Sea water
Pump
steam
water
Generator
Turbine
Control rod
Suppression Chamber
fuel
Pump
Dry Well
Pump
Supply
Electricity
Electricity is generated by rotating the
turbine and the generator with steam.
QWater is boiled within
the reactor.
Steam is generated and
sent to the turbine.
Source: The Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc.
Before the earthquake ,Unit 1,2 and 3 of the Fukushima Daiichi Power plant were
operating .
Unit 4,5 and 6 were under periodic inspection.
After the earthquake , all control rods were inserted into the reactor as designed
and Unit 1,2 and 3 automatically shutdown .
Offsite power supply was lost because of the earthquake.
The emergency diesel generators installed in each Unit started normally.
Direct damage to the safety-related equipment due to the earthquake was not
found.
Seawater pumps, DGs, and power panels at all Units were flooded by the tsunami,
then all AC power sources for Units 1 to 6,except for one air-cooled DG for Unit 6
lost their functionality.
All motor operated safety systems, water injection and cooling facilities at Units 1
to 5 became inoperable. This is the major cause of the Fukushima daiichi
accident.
Accident Description: Fukushima Daiichi NPS
7
GeoEye

C
Intensive Inflow
inflow
inundated
Fukushima Daiichi
Fukushima Daiichi
Fukushima Daini
Fukushima Daini
8
Inundated and Inflow Area at Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Site
Turbine
Electrical
Generator
Condenser
Condensate
Storage Tank
Poison
Tank
Standby Liquid
Control System
Core Spray System
PCV Spray Cooling System
PCV
HPCI
RPV
Reactor Bldg.
Inoperable
since the
battery was
soaked in
water
Core Cooling by
Isolation Condenser
(3/11 14:52)
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d
w
a
t
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Isolation
Condenser
Main Steam Line
Pump
Effort to sustain reactor water level
: Inoperable
: Operable
Accident progression at Unit1(1/3)
Source: Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA)
9
Inoperable due to
the emergency
DGs soaked in
water (3/11 15:37)
External
electricity
was
inoperable
due to the
earthquake
(3/11 14:46)
HPCI
Function has not been correct
Core Spray System
Poison Tank
Turbine
Electrical
Generator
Condenser
F
e
e
d
w
a
t
e
r
L
i
n
e
Main Steam Line
Pump
PCV
RPV
Reactor Bldg.
Isolation
Condenser
Condensate
Storage Tank
PCV Spray Cooling System
Decrease in reactor water level due to loss of cooling capability
of emergency condenser, followed by uncovering the core
: Inoperable
Uncovering the Core
(3/11 around 17:00 estimated)
Decrease in reactor
water level
- Fuel Rod damage
-Hydrogen Generation
due to a Zirconium-
Water reaction
Accident progression at Unit1(2/3)
Source: Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA)
10
Accumulation of
Hydrogen
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Reactor building
Explosion
Reactor building
Hydrogen explosion in the operation floor
Source: Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA)
Accident progression at Unit1(3/3)
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Unit 4
Unit 3
Unit 2
Accident Progression at Unit 2 through 4
Source: Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA)
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Vapors rising from Unit 3 are assumed to be produced from Spent Fuel Pool.
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[
m
m
]
RCIC
HPCI No Operation
SRV
FP/Fire Engine
PCV Vent


Fuel Range (A) (mm)


Fuel Range (B) (mm)


CAMS D/W(A)(Sv/h)


CAMS S/C(A)(Sv/h)


S/C Pressure (MPa)


D/W Pressure (MPa)
'19:64)Sea Water
Order for Vent Preparation #

'17:30)
Depressurization
'~18:00)
Earthquake
'14:46)
Tusnami
'15:27)
#

(2:55) Operation confirmed
#

(11:00)

Vent Line
Configuration Completed
Unit1 R/B
Explosion
'15:36)
Core Damage Started due to
MAAP Analysis
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Fukushima Daiichi Unit 2 Plant Parameter and Operation
Unit3 R/B
Explosion
'11:01)
Impact sound
'6:00-6:10)
Valve Condition Unclear
Order for Sea Water Injection
Preparation '12:05)#
2Valves Open
Small Vent Valves Opened
(13:25)Out of Service Judged
0(TAF)
13
Source: The Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc.


Rx Pressure (A) (MPa)


Rx Pressure (B) (MPa)
Hydrogen
generation
Increase in
D/W pressure
S/C pressure:0Mpa
Decrease in
D/W pressure
Radioactive
gas
released
into the air
Plant Parameter: Fukushima Daiichi Unit 2
Source: NISA and JNES
March 11 March 30, 2011
14
Increase in D/W
pressure
Decrease in
D/W pressure
Qaround 11:30
around 15:00
Radioactive
gas
released
into the air