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1.Define selective optimization with compensation?

Selectivity-Eliminate what you dont need Optimization-Enhance what you have Compensation- Adjust what cant be fixed selective optimization with compensation theory states that older adults maximize the positive and minimize the negative by selection, optimization, and compensation (Riediger, Freund, & Baltes; 2005; Baltes, 1987). For example, an older adult used to going to the gym for exercise finds that it is no longer safe due to cataracts, so she exercises at home to workout videos. Or she cannot attend all the social engagements that she once did, so she picks the most rewarding and lets the others go. Older adults select fewer and more meaningful goals and activities, optimize their existing abilities through practice and new technologies, and compensate for the losses of some abilities by finding other ways to accomplish tasks. Selective Optimization with Compensation(SLIDE) Theory that people try to maintain a balance in their lives by looking for the best way to compensate for physical and cognitive losses and to become more proficient in activities they can already do well (Paul and Margaret Baltes, 1990).

2. What are the first physical signs of senescence? A gradual physical decline that is related to aging and during which the body becomes less strong and efficient. Collagen decreases by about 1% per year By age 30: Skin is becoming thinner and less flexible; wrinkles become visible By age 60: All faces are wrinkled Hair turns gray and gets thinner Middle-age spread appears Muscles weaken Height decreases by late middle age

Many changes occur more slowly in people who exercise.

3. Cognitively, compare the novice with the expert?


Expertise is intuitive

Experts rely on their past experiences and on immediate contexts; their actions are more intuitive and less stereotypic. Novices follow formal procedures and rules. Expertise is automatic Experts process incoming information more quickly and analyze it more efficiently than nonexperts; then they act in well-rehearsed ways that appear unconscious. Expertise is strategic Experts have more and better strategies, especially when problems are unexpected. Expertise is flexible Experts are creative and curious, deliberately experimenting and enjoying the challenge when things do not go according to plan. 4. Compared to the past, what % of the fertility problem has been solved? half

5. What is the male counterpart to menopause? Andropause (male menopause) A term coined to signify a drop in testosterone levels in older men, which normally results in a reduction in sexual desire, erections, and muscle mass. Effectiveness of HRT are questionable.

6. What affects diseases and chronic conditions associated with aging?

Socioeconomic Status and Health Suspected reasons: Education teaches healthy habits. Education leads to higher income, which allows better housing and medical care. Education may be a marker for intelligence, which is a protective factor. Difficulty With Multitasking Reactions take longer and complex memory tasks become impossible because of age-related brain changes. Multitasking becomes more difficult with every passing decade (e.g. driving while talking on a cell phone). Distractions (e.g. noisy conversations, emotional stress) become more difficult to ignore The Need for Sleep Regular sleep is increasingly essential for proper brain functioning. Skipping a nights sleep slows down cognitive functions (e.g. memory). Disrupted sleep is characteristic of aging and can cause serious problems Food Habit-Overeating with inactivity Many adults choose high-calorie, low-nutrient foods. Only 27% of U.S. adults eat three daily servings of vegetables. Too many high-calorie foods combined with too little activity leads to obesity. Excess weight increases the risk of every chronic disease (e.g. diabetes)

7. what are the elements involved in analytic intelligence? This component refers to problem-solving abilities. 8. Who proposed the existence of g? What does it mean? A construct based on the idea that intelligence is one basic trait that involves all cognitive abilities, which people possess in varying amounts. Cannot be measured directly but be inferred from various abilities (e.g. vocabulary, memory, and reasoning). Many scientists are trying to find one common factor (genes, early brain development, or some specific aspect of health) underlies IQ. Charles Spearman. 9. What is the main hormone involved in menopause? Estrogen and progesterone 10. What affect the development of expertise? Their characters are intuitive, automatic, strategic and flexible. Culture and context guide expertise. Experts are more skilled, proficient, and knowledgeable at a particular task than the average person, especially a novice (literally, a new person) who has not practiced that skill. Experts do not necessarily have extraordinary intellectual ability 11. World wide, how much longer do females outlive males? Women live five years longer than men (significant national variations) 12. What factors of senescence affect appearance during middle adulthood? Vision (presbyopia and glaucoma), hearing (presbycusis): skin; muscle fat distribution Skeletal system(osteoporosis), the climacteric (including menopause ; health and fitness: heart disease, type A & B personality and cancer. 13. What is the developmentalists definition of expert? Adult intelligence tends to flourish in areas of the individuals particular interests, because motivation leads to years of practice and involvement. The result is the development of expertise, characterized by cognitive process that are intuitive, automatic, and flexible. Each adult becomes an expert at tasks that were once difficult and mysterious, becoming a good cook or a careful driver or an expert surgeon, author, or chess player. 14. What are considered the optimum, outer age limits of conception for men and women? 30 for women and 40 for male 15. Hearing is most acute at what age? After 60. 16. How does the quality of adult friendships change with age? Friendship becomes more important as friends circle decreases. 17. what is meant by the reference to relative deprivation?

Relative deprivation is the experience of being deprived of something to which one believes oneself to be entitled.[1] It refers to the discontent people feel when they compare their positions to others and realize that they have less of what they believe themselves to be entitled than those around them.[2] 18. WHAT IS SOCIAL CONVOY? Collectively, the family members, friends, acquaintances, and even strangers who move through life with an individual.

19. What are the physical changes that results in menopause? Insomnia, irregular and heavy period, extreme fatigue and lethargy loss of vaginal elasticity. 20.Describe the findings of Schaie. What are his primary mental abilities? 21.What % of US resident marry before the age 25? 22.Describe Maslows five stages of development. 23.What is hormaone replacement therapy(HRT)? 24. What conditions most affect a decline in exercise? Public policies and the second factor are personal relationships 25. What is Flynn Effect? A trend toward increasing average IQ, found in all developed nations during the twentieth century. 26. They thought that the older you got the dummer you became and that the intelligence peaked at eighteen. 27. Name and describe Sternbergs three forms of intelligence? Analytic intelligence Valuable in high school and college, as students are expected to remember and analyze various ideas. Creative intelligence Allows people to find a better match to their skills, values, or desires. Practical intelligence Useful as people age and need to manage their daily lives. 28.

29. Name and describe the Maslow 5 stages of development.

30. 31. Describe the relationship challenges of same-sex partners. The same as heterosexual partners do. Domestic violence etc. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38.

39. What is cataract? Cataracts: a thickening of the lens of the eye that causes vision to become cloudy, opaque, and distorted/ 40. 41. 42. 43. Which emotional disorder may mask dementia? Depression and anxiety. 44. 45. 46. 47.

48. what is primary and secondary aging? Primary Aging The universal and irreversible physical changes that occur to all living creatures as they grow older. Secondary Aging The specific physical illnesses or conditions that become more common with aging but result from poor health habits, genetic vulnerability, and other influences that vary from person to person. 49. 50. 51.What are the leading cause of death for men and women? a. cardiovascular b. cancer c. stroke d. dementia 52.

53. What are centenarians? A centenarian is a person who lives to or beyond the age of 100 years. 54. What is compression of morbidity? A shortening of the time a person spends ill or infirm before death, accomplished by postponing illness(502) 55. 56. WHAT IS AGEISM? Ageism: prejudice against others because of their age Stereotypes against older adults are often negative Most frequent form is disrespect, followed by assumptions about ailments or frailty caused by age 57. 58.What is ADL? Activities of Daily Life Actions that are important to independent living, typically identified as five tasks of self-care: eating bathing, toileting dressing transferring from a bed to a chair Inability to perform any of these tasks is a sign of frailty.

59. 60. What does stratification by age mean? STRATIFICATION BY AGE Industrialized nations segregate elderly people, gradually shunting them out of the mainstream of society as they grow older. Segregation by age harms everyone because it creates socialization deficits for members of all age groups 61. What is assisted living? A living arrangement for elderly people that combines privacy and independence with medical supervision. Assisted-living facilities range from group homes for three or four elderly people to large apartment or townhouse developments for hundreds of residents. 62.What s continuity theory? The theory that each person experiences the changes of late adulthood and behaves toward others in a way that is consistent with his or her behavior in earlier periods of life. In this perspective, each innovation is a new expression of the old self. One source of continuity is temperament. The Big Five personality traits (see Chapter 13) are maintained throughout old age as in younger years. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. What influences positive feelings of elderly? A sense of accomplishment and control over decisions. 68. 69. 70. Name three form of grand parenting? Remote grandparents (sometimes called distant grandparents) are emotionally distant from their grandchildren. Companionate grandparents (sometimes called fun-loving grandparents) entertain and spoil their grandchildren. Involved grandparents are active in the day-to-day lives of their grandchildren. Surrogate parents raise their grandchildren, usually because the parents are unable or unwilling to do so. 71. 72. feminists. 73. 74. What is disengagement and activity theory?

disengagement theory The view that aging makes a persons social sphere increasingly narrow, resulting in role relinquishment, withdrawal, and passivity. activity theory The view that elderly people want and need to remain active in a variety of social sphereswith relatives, friends, and community groupsand become withdrawn only unwillingly, as a result of ageism. 75. page 575 freedom from pain, no abandonment, close family and friends and I proximates the Maslow triangle. 76. what is grief? Mourning? Bereavement? Bereavement is coping the death of a loved one. Mourning is the way with which we come to live with loss, bereavement,and grief, to how we weave loss into the fabric of our lives. It can be conscious or unconscious. Can be temporary or life lasting.

1. Menopause is the time in middle age when a woman begins to have more and more infrequent menstrual cycles, eventually leading to no menstrual cycles at all. During this time the production of estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone drops considerably. Menopause may also occur when a woman has a hysterectomy which surgically removes the uterus. 2. The four measures of health include vitality, morbidity, mortality, and disability. Vitality is considered the most important measure, and it refers to how much good health and energy a middle-aged person normally associates with his or her life. Morbidity relates to the incidence of disease in this age group, whether acute or chronic. Mortality reflects the death rate per 1,000 of middle-aged persons. Disability refers to the inability to perform some normal basic activities of life due to physical limitations among this cohort. 3. Sternbergs three types of intelligence are analytic, creative, and practical. Analytic intelligence is valued in higher education but might lead intellectuals to disagree with popular culture; creative individuals might be appreciated by the young because they resist authority but would not be tolerated in authoritarian regimes; practical intelligence might be underrated in normal times but valued (as street smarts) if survival is threatened. 4. Expertise is the result of acquiring knowledge and skills in a particular area. Expertise can be present and expressed by a doctor, a race car driver, a doll collector, or in the ability to get along with others. Motivation is a significant factor in acquiring expertise

Berger 1e, Chapter 12, Quiz 1 completed


Total score: 14 out of 20, 70%
26:04:2012:21:29 lhamo, sonam fake

31866891552003

What one organ system shows significant effects of aging? a. pulmonary b. circulatory c. respiratory d. sexual-reproductive

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Correct. (p. 420) Senescence: a. is not affected by lifestyle factors. b. affects only some parts of the body. c. is a gradual physical decline that occurs with age. d. is genetically determined.

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Correct. (p. 420) Which of the following increases gradually beginning in our 20s? a. nearsightedness b. farsightedness c. presbycusis d. atrobycusis

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Correct. (p. 421) At what age do 50 percent of both men and women report being comfortable monogamists? a. 2529 b. 3539 c. 4044 d. 5054

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Incorrect. The correct answer is C. (p. 422, Figure 12.2) Physicians recommend that would-be mothers try to conceive before age: a. 30. b. 40. c. 45. d. 50.

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Correct. (p. 422) What is the most common form of assisted reproductive technology? a. ART b. ICSI c. GIFT d. IVF

1 out of 1
Correct. (p. 423)

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) has been shown to: a. reduce dementia. b. decrease the risk of stroke. c. reduce osteoporosis. d. decrease the risk of cancer.

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Correct. (p. 424) Sperm production typically: a. does not change with age. b. is not affected by environmental influences. c. ceases if a man is not sexually active. d. continues indefinitely.

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Correct. (p. 425) Drug abuse decreases over adulthood primarily because of: a. financial responsibilities. b. health problems. c. maturity and marriage. d. the cost of drugs.

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Correct. (p. 426) What percentage of adults in the United States are overweight? a. 33 b. 66 c. 25 d. 50

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Correct. (p. 428) What term refers to the number of deaths each year per 1,000 members of a particular population? a. mortality b. morbidity

c. morbundity d. vitality

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Correct. (p. 430) The measure of health that is most costly to society is: a. disability. b. mortality. c. morbidity. d. vitality.

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Correct. (pp. 430431) Which of the following is NOT a reason that, at age 80, women outnumber men two to one? a. Womens biology protects them until their childbearing years are over. b. More women seek help. c. Men avoid anything that could be construed as weakness. d. Old men die at a higher rate than do old women.

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Correct. (p. 431) How did Spearman measure general intelligence (g)? a. He measured g directly. b. He inferred g from tests of fluid intelligence. c. He inferred g from tests of various abilities, such as vocabulary, memory, and reasoning. d. He inferred g from tests of crystallized intelligence.

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Incorrect. The correct answer is C. (p. 436) The trend toward increasing average IQ is called: a. the g factor. b. selective optimization. c. the Flynn effect. d. fluid intelligence.

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Correct. (pp. 437438) What were the primary mental abilities studied by Schaie? a. fluid and cognitive intelligence b. bodily-kinesthetic, word fluency, number ability, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning c. verbal meaning, word fluency, number ability, inductive reasoning, deductive reasoning d. verbal meaning, word fluency, number ability, inductive reasoning, spatial orientation

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Incorrect. The correct answer is D. (p. 438) Which of the following statements about IQ is true? a. In adulthood, chronological age is the prime determinant of IQ. b. In adulthood, chronological age and culture are the prime determinants of IQ. c. In adulthood, culture is the prime determinant of IQ. d. In adulthood, chronological age, culture, context, and personal choices are all equally influential in determining IQ.

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Correct. (p. 439) What form of basic intelligence enables us to adapt and learn new things? a. crystallized b. naturalistic c. fluid d. bodily-kinesthetic

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Incorrect. The correct answer is C. (p. 440) Which of the following forms of intelligence is needed to manage our daily lives? a. analytic b. fluid c. creative d. practical

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Incorrect. The correct answer is D. (p. 441)

When is practical intelligence usually valued? a. when new challenges arise b. in times of social upheaval c. in high school and college d. when the demands of daily life are omnipresent

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Incorrect. The correct answer is D. (p. 441)

Robert Sternberg - Triarchic Theory of Intelligence:---Psychologist Robert Sternberg defined intelligence as "mental activity directed toward purposive adaptation to, selection and shaping of, real-world environments relevant to ones life." While he agreed with Gardner that intelligence is much broader than a single, general ability, he instead suggested some of Gardner's intelligences are better viewed as individual talents. Sternberg proposed what he refers to as 'successful intelligence,' which is comprised of three different factors: Analytical intelligence: This component refers to problem-solving abilities. Creative intelligence: This aspect of intelligence involves the ability to deal with new situations using past experiences and current skills. Practical intelligence: This element refers to the ability to adapt to a changing environment. Final Thoughts:-------While there has been considerable debate over the exact nature of intelligence, no definitive conceptualization has emerged. Today, psychologists often account for the many different theoretical viewpoints when discussing intelligence and acknowledge that this debate is ongoing. Howard Gardner - Multiple Intelligences:---One of the more recent ideas to emerge is Howard Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Instead of focusing on the analysis of test scores, Gardner proposed that numerical expressions of human intelligence are not a full and accurate depiction of people's abilities. His theory describes eight distinct intelligences that are based on skills and abilities that are valued within different cultures. The eight intelligences Gardner described are:

Visual-spatial Intelligence; Verbal-linguistic Intelligence Bodily-kinesthetic Intelligence; Logical-mathematical Intelligence Interpersonal Intelligence; Musical Intelligence Intra personal Intelligence; Naturalistic Intelligence