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Chapter-1 INTRODUCTION

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1.1 INTRODUCTION Development of human resource is crucial for the industrial development of any nation. Job satisfaction describes how content an individual is with his/her job. Its relatively recent term in previous centuries the jobs available to a particular person were often predetermined to the occupation of that persons parent. There are variety of factors which can influence the level of job satisfaction. Some of these factors include the level of pay and benefits, the perceived fairness of the promotion system within a company, the quality of the working conditions leaderships and social relationships, the job itself,(the variety of tasks involved ,the interst and challenge the job generates, the clarity of the job description/requirements The happier people are within their job, the more satisfied they are said to be. Job satisfaction is not he same as motivation, although its clearly linked. Job design aims to enhance job satisfaction and performance methods include job rotation, job enlargement, job enrichment. Other influence on satisfaction includes the management style and culture ,employee involvement, empowerment and autonomous work groups. Job satisfaction is very important attribute which is frequently measured by or organisations. The most common way of measurement is the use of rating scales where employees report their reactions to their jobs. Questions relate to relate of pay, work responsibilities, variety of tasks, promotional opportunities the work itself and co-workers. Job satisfaction in regards to ones feeling or state of mind regarding nature of their work. Job can be influenced by variety of factors like quality of ones relationship with supervisor, quality of physical environment in which they work, degree of fulfilment in their work, etc. Job satisfaction is an attitude which result from balancing &summation of many specific likes or dislikes experienced in connection with the job their evaluation may largely upon ones success or failure in the achievement of personal objective and upon perceived combination of the job and combination towards these end. Positive attitude towards job are equivalent to job satisfaction where as negative attitude towards job has been defined variously from time to time. In short
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job satisfaction is a persons attitude towards job. Job satisfaction is an important indicator of how employees feel about their job and a predictor of work behaviour such as organizational Citizenship, Absenteeism, and Turnover.

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM


Here i want to study the job satisfaction among employees in Travancore Cochin Chemicals LTD, Udoygamandal. Job satisfaction is an individuals general attitude towards his or her job. Job satisfaction is one of the important factors which have down attending of managers in the organisation as well as academicians. So here i evaluate how effectively TCCL Udoygamandal ensuring job satisfaction among employees.

1.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


To assess the satisfaction level of employees To identify the factors which influence the job satisfaction of employees To know the welfare facilities given to the employees To know the security given to employees To know the employees satisfaction towards the facilities

1.4 SCOPE OF THE STUDY


The researcher has taken the topic a study on job satisfaction. The study will be carried out in manufacturing industry TRAVENCORE COCHIN CHEMICALS (TCC) UDYOGAMANDAL. The researcher has to decided to study the factors involved in the job satisfaction ,to what extent it is being followed in the industries. This study also aims at finding out the dis-satisfaction as a result of the job satisfaction and to extent it being implemented. The scope of the study extent to verify and assess the job satisfaction. Ways and means to create a job satisfaction, welfare facilities of the organization &importance of the organization.

1.5 METHODOLOGY OF THE STUDY


Any common enquiry to gain some knowledge or a common enquiry to seek out facts or a common enquiry to clarified doubts and misconceived phenomenon is called as research. Research is nothing but, the systematic search for
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an answer to a question or a solution to a problem. Research is a purposive investigation or an organized inquiry.

AIM OF THE STUDY


The main aim of the study is to know about the various factors that affect the JOB SATISFACTION in Travancore Cochin Chemicals the manufacturing industry.

DATA COLLECTION
The collection of data includes the primary data collection and secondary data collection.

PRIMARY DATA
Primary data are in the form of raw material to which statistical methods are applied for the purposes of analysis and interpretations. The primary sources are discussion with employees, data collected through questionnaire.

SECONDARY DATA
The secondary data mainly consists of data and information collected from records, company websites and also discussion with the management of the organisation. Secondary data was also collected from journals, magazines and books.

SAMPLING DESIGN
A sampling design is a finite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. Non probability sampling techniques is adopted.

1.6 PERIOD OF THE STUDY


The study is conducting for a period of 45 days starting from 20th October to5th December 2011.

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1.7 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


1) Due to inadequate time, it is not possible to analyze all aspects relevant to the study. 2) The sample includes only a percentage of the total number of workers working in the company. 3) Researcher faced a little difficulty to get the information. 4) Most of the respondents seemed to be very busy with their jobs and they are not interested in answering the questionnaire. 5) The cause reference are only restricted to TCC. 6) The study was limited only during the day hours. So interactions with the employees in the night shift were not possible.

1.8 CHAPTERISATION
Chapter-1 INTRODUCTION Includes the introduction to the study, statement of the problem, objectives of the study, scope of the study, methodology, period of the study and limitations of the study. Chapter-2 INDUSTRY PROFILE Includes industrial profile of Chemical industry Chapter-3 COMPANY PROFILE Includes Company profile- Travancore Cochin Chemicals, Udyogmandal Chapter-4 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK This chapter deals with the theoretical framework on job satisfaction Chapter-5 ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION This chapter deals with the analysis and interpretation of the collected datas from the company. Chapter-6 FINDINGS, CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS This chapter deals with Findings, Conclusion and Suggestion.

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CHAPTER-2 INDUSTRY PROFILE

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INDUSTRY PROFILE
The world economy is developing. This development is accompanied by the development of various industries as well. A wide variety of products are coming in to the market. These industries require many chemicals in the course of it production. Apart from the production process, chemicals also from a major

constituent of the product. Hence many chemical industries producing a wide range of chemicals have come up. A chemical industry can be defined as a company that produces industrial chemicals. This industry utilizes chemical process such as chemical reactions and refining methods to convert raw materials in to more than 70000 different products. Salt is one of the oldest and most popular condiments. What is relatively unknown, however, is that salt is also the raw material for one of the most potentially profitable chemical industries in the country chlor- alkali. The chlor alkali industry in India is around 60 years old. It began with a modest capacity of a few thousand tonnes per annum. In the process of manufacturing chlor-alkali some bye products are assured. For each tonne of caustic soda ,860 kg of chlorine and 25kg of hydrogen will be produced. Some amount of chlor produced is combined with hydrogen to make hydrochloric acid. Caustic soda, hudrochloric acid and chlorine are the basic chemicals and are used by almost all industries .Chemical industry is highly heterogeneous with following sectors like petrochemicals, inorganic chemicals, organic chemicals, bulk drugs, agrochemicals, paints and dyes and foreign trade.

2.1Chemical Industry
The chemical industry comprises the companies that produce industrial chemicals. It is central to modern world economy, converting raw materials (oil, natural gas, air, water, metals, and minerals) into more than 70,000 different products. Polymers and plastics, especially polyethylene, polypropylene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, polystyrene and polycarbonate comprise about 80% of the industrys output worldwide. Chemicals are used to make a wide variety of consumer goods, as well as thousands inputs to agriculture, manufacturing, construction, and service industries. The chemical industry itself consumes 26 percent of its own output. Major industrial customers include rubber and plastic products,
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textiles, apparel, petroleum refining, pulp and paper, and primary metals. Chemicals are nearly a $2 trillion global enterprise, and the EU and U.S. chemical companies are the world's largest producers. The largest corporate producers worldwide, with plants in numerous countries, are BASF, Dow, Shell, Bayer, INEOS, Exxon Mobil, DuPont, and Mitsubishi, along with thousands of smaller firms. In the U.S. there are 170 major chemical companies. They operate internationally with more than 2,800 facilities outside the U.S. and 1,700 foreign subsidiaries or affiliates operating. The U.S. chemical output is $400 billion a year. The U.S. industry records large trade surpluses and employs more than a million people in the United States alone. The chemical industry is also the second largest consumer of energy in manufacturing and spends over $5 billion annually on pollution abatement. In Europe, especially Germany, the chemical, plastics and rubber sectors are among the largest industrial sectors. Together they generate about 3.2 million jobs in more than 60,000 companies. Since 2000 the chemical sector alone has represented 2/3 of the entire manufacturing trade surplus of the EU. The chemical sector accounts for 12% of the EU manufacturing industry's added value. The chemical industry has shown rapid growth for more than fifty years. The fastest growing areas have been in the manufacture of synthetic organic polymers used as plastics, fibers and elastomers. Historically and presently the chemical industry has been concentrated in three areas of the world, Western Europe, North America and Japan (the Triad). The European Community remains the largest producer area followed by the USA and Japan. The traditional dominance of chemical production by the Triad countries is being challenged by changes in feedstock availability and price, labour cost, energy cost, differential rates of economic growth and environmental pressures. Instrumental in the changing structure of the global chemical industry has been the growth in China, India, Korea, the Middle East, South East Asia, Nigeria, Trinidad, Thailand, Brazil, Venezuela, and Indonesia.

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2.2Technology
As accepted by chemical engineers, the chemical industry involves the use of chemical processes such as chemical reactions and refining methods to produce a wide variety of solid, liquid, and gaseous materials. Most of these products are used in manufacture of other items, although a smaller number are used directly by consumers. Solvents, pesticides, lye, washing soda, and Portland cement are a few examples of product used by consumers. The industry includes manufacturers of inorganic- and organic-industrial chemicals, ceramic products, petrochemicals, agrochemicals, polymers and rubber (elastomers), oleo chemicals (oils, fats, and waxes), explosives, fragrances and flavours. Examples of these products are shown below. Product Type Examples inorganic industrial ammonia, nitrogen, sodium hydroxide, sulphuric acid, Organic industrial acrylonitrile, phenol, ethylene oxide, urea, Ceramic products silica brick, frit Petrochemicals benzene, ethylene, styrene, Agrochemicals fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides, Polymers polyethylene, Bakelite, polyester, Elastomers polyisoprene, neoprene, polyurethane, Oleo chemicals lard, soybean oil, stearic acid, Explosives nitroglycerin, ammonium nitrate, nitrocellulose, Fragrances and flavors benzyl benzoate, coumarone, vanillin. Although the pharmaceutical industry is often considered a chemical industry, it has many different characteristics that put it in a separate category. Other closely related industries include petroleum, glass, paint, ink, sealant, adhesive, and food processing manufacturers. Chemical processes such as chemical reactions are used in chemical plants to form new substances in various types of reaction vessels. In many cases the reactions are conducted in special corrosion resistant equipment at elevated temperatures and pressures with the use of catalysts. The products of these reactions are separated using a variety of techniques including distillation especially fractional distillation, precipitation, crystallization, adsorption, filtration, sublimation, and drying. The

processes and product are usually tested during and after manufacture by dedicated instruments and on-site quality control laboratories to insure safe operation and to assure that the product will meet required specifications. The products are packaged and delivered by many methods, including pipelines, tank-cars, and tank-trucks (for
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both solids and liquids), cylinders, drums, bottles, and boxes. Chemical companies often have a research and development laboratory for developing and testing products and processes. These facilities may include pilot plants, and such research facilities may be located at a site separate from the production plant. 2.3Companies in 21st century The chemical industry includes large, medium, and small companies that are located worldwide. Companies with sales of chemical products greater than $10 billion dollars in fiscal year 2005 are shown below. For some of these companies the chemical sales represented only a portion of their total sales; for example Exxon Mobils chemical sales were only 8.7 percent of their total sales. Chemical Industry is highly heterogeneous with following major sectors:

Petrochemicals Inorganic Chemicals Organic Chemicals Fine and specialties Bulk Drugs Agrochemicals Paints and Dyes

2.4Foreign Trade
India was a net importer of chemicals in early 1990s, but has now become a net exporter due to reduction in imports because of implementation of many large scale petrochemical plants like Reliance, ONGC etc. and also because of tremendous growth of exports in sectors like bulk drugs and pharmacy, pesticides, dyes and intermediates.

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CHAPTER-3 COMPANY PROFILE

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INTRODUCTION
The Travancore Cochin chemicals Ltd, popularly known as TCC Ltd, is a state owned public sector undertaking by the government of kerala.TCC is situated at Udyogamandal, Cochin, incorporated in 1951,TCC is the oldest chlor-alkali unit in the country and also is the only chlor-alkali unit in the state of kerala. The caustic soda was produced initially using mercury cell technology.TCC was also the first company in India to install the mercury cell plant for the manufacture of caustic soda.TCC is a chemical industry and manufactures of products like caustic soda ,chlorine, hydrochloric acid, soda bleach and related chemicals. With continues efforts for up gradation of technology and professional management the compass has a good track record of operation and healthy industrial relations.TCC is an also 9001:2000certified company. The company supports a large number of industrial units by supplying basic chemicals.TCC is conscious about its social responsibility and is dedicated to maintain the quality of products.

3.1HISTORY & GROWTH


The Travancore-Cochin Chemicals Ltd., popularly known as TCC was established in 1950. The idea of establishing the unit was conceived by M/s Sheshasayee Brothers the then managing agent of FACT. The venture was started as partnership concern in the name Travancore Mettur Chemicals with FACT and MCIC (Mettur Chemicals and Industrial Corporation) as partners. In 1951 the partnership was registered as a Public Limited Company, with the State Government contributing the major share of equity and the company was then named as TRAVANCORE-COCHIN CHEMICALS LTD. M/s Sheshasayee Brothers continued to be the managing agents for the next 10 years. Commercial production of Caustic Soda from the first plant of 20 tpd capacity was started in 1954 January. The technology employed was mercury cell technology. TCC is the first unit in India to manufacture Rayon grade Caustic Soda.

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3.2PRESENT SITUATION
TCC is the only chlor-alkali industry in Kerala. In India there are about 40 chlor-alkali units as the companys competitors. Now TCC owes 109 acres of land and around 600 people are working in three shifts. Plants are functioning by full capacity. The company has helped in attracting new industries to Kerala. These industries include Indian Rare Earth Ltd, Hindustan Insecticides Ltd, Hindustan News Print Ltd, Kerala Minerals and Metals Ltd etc. These industries are dependent on TCC for the supply of the basic chemicals. At present the company having the installed capacity of 175 TPD of caustic soda.125 TPD from M/s ASAHIGLASS COMPANY, Japan commissioned in 1997.25 tones per day bipolar membrane cell caustic soda plant supplied by M/s UHDE Germany was commissioned in July 2005 and another 25 TPD membrane cell plant from UHDE, Germany was commissioned in August 2006.The registered office and factory of the company is situated at Eloor,Udyogmandal-683501,Ernakulam Dist, Kerala. Company has obtained SO certification9001-2001 n the year 2006.The company is working towards ISO 14000 standards currently.

PRESENT CAPITAL FORMATION


INVESTORS Govt. of Kerala KSIDC FACT Vinly Investment Ltd, Chennai TOTAL SHARE (percentage) 80 17 2 1 100

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INFRASTURECTURE
The company is conveniently situated at Udyogamandal, industrial area, Kerala. Its situated on the banks of Periyar river and hence has abundant supply of water. Out of the 109 acres of land on which TCC is situated,20 acres are leased out to M/s BSES Kerala power Ltd.TCC receives lease rent on this. In addition to the plant and building, it has a full fledged housing colony for the accommodation of its employees. The company also has a water treatment plant from Periyar river. This water treatment plant has a capacity of 5mgd.For electricity supply, TCC also has a 110 k v electricity substation. Stages of Growth

1956 - A continuous Caustic Fusion Plant 20 tonnes per day for producing Caustic Soda flakes.

1958 - Chlorine Liquefaction Plant 1960 - Capacity enhanced to 30 tonnes per day further to 40 tonnes per day.
o

Established new plant for manufacture of Sodium Hydrosulphate 3 tpd capacity

1967 - 7 tpd Sodium Hydrosulphate


o o

60 tpd Caustic Fusion Plant 4 tpd Iron free Sodium Sulphate

1975 Added another 100 tpd Caustic Soda Membrane Unit thereby increased the production capacity 200 tpd own Water Treatment Plant. (by 1988, many of the old unit were dismantled)

1997 - 100 TPD Caustic Soda manufacturing unit using Membarane technology capacity 125 tpd.

1998- New CCF Plant in place of existing 60 tpd. 2005 -Addition 25 tpd 2006 Addition 25 tpd

At present total installed capacity is 175 tpd Caustic Fusion plant for 100 tpd

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Products: Caustic soda lye Caustic soda flakes Liquid Chlorine Hydrochloric acid Sodium Hypochlorite

3.3. CORPORATE MISSION


TCC is committed to supply quality chemicals at competitive prices. Customer satisfaction, Concern for environment and Safety are our priorities. They intend to achieve vision Utmost level of conservation of all resources including energy Cost effectiveness in all operations Regular upgrading of technologies used in processing Compliance with laws and statutory regulation Capacity up gradation by another 50 TPD

3.4. OBJECTIVES
Produce and market chemicals and caustic soda economically and in an environmentally sound manner. To maintain optimum level of efficiency and productivity and to secure optimum return on investment. To maximize profits from projects taken up. The continuously upgrade the quality of human resource of the company and to promote organization development. To improve the plants operational safety and to confirm statutory pollution controls standards. To ensure corporate growth by expansion and diversification. To care for community around.

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Corporate Governing Body:

CHAIRMAN

MANAGING DIRECTER

DIRECTOR (OFFICIAL)

DIRECTOR (FINANCE)

NOMINEE DIRECTOR (KSIDC)

DIRECTOR

Quality Policy: They are committed to enhance customer satisfaction by providing goods and services complying with continually improving Quality Management System. Health and safety policy:

TCC is committed to provide every one of its employees and the related public an accident-free and healthy environment in its efforts to manufacture high quality products at competitive prices. The company will comply with all statutory requirements in this regard.

The company will provide a work environment in which identified hazards are controlled, if elimination is not feasible and will provide personal protective equipments wherever necessary.

Accident prevention is the direct responsibility of the Line Management and will be an important criterion for performance appraisal. Line Management will ensure that all safety measures are incorporated in the operating and maintenance procedures as well as in any process technology changes in the plant/infrastructure.
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Consideration of health and safety will be given proper weightage in selection and deployment of the personnel.

The company will ensure that health and safety aspects are given due consideration in decision regarding purchase of plant equipments, machinery and materials.

Every employee of the company shall perform his/her job adopting Safe and proper work methods and using appropriate Safety equipments understanding that their career advancement is linked with SAFE performance.

Contractors, sub-contract workers, transporters and visitors entering the factory shall be required to observe health and safety practices of the company in all their activities.

All contract jobs will be carried only through the laid down procedures with appropriate supervision.

The company will carry out safety audits, risk assessment studies, emergency mock drills, and periodic assessment of health of its employees as well as status place hazards be identified, appropriately evaluated and effectively controlled to achieve this goal. Whole hearted co-operation of all is solicited for this. Energy Policy: At the Travancore-Cochin Chemicals Udyogamandal are always committed to conservation of energy by all possible means

To accomplish our mission, they strive for:


Technological up gradation to reduce specific energy consumption Conducting energy conservation studies including energy audit and adopting the apt measures for conserving energy

Contacting other organizations and enriching our experiences on energy conservation

Using renewable energy sources to the extent possible Disseminating knowledge and information on energy conservation to our employees

Low energy fuels also to be tried depending upon feasibility.


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3.5. AWARDS WON AND ISO CERTIFICATION


Moving with the times, TCC keeps up its technology regularly updated and continue to be the competitive strength in the Chlor-alkali industry. With expanded plants and higher production capacity, TCC has come out to be the profitable public sector undertaking. Over the years we have achieved recognition and awards for the remarkable performance in the industry with regard to production, productivity, energy conservation and environmental protection. 1981 - Best Performance Award for Safety in the State from Directorate of Factories & Boilers, Government of Kerala 1988-89 - Best Pollution Control Award under group "Heavy Inorganic Industries" in Kerala, from Kerala State Pollution Control Board 1989 - Award for Best Performance in Safety in India under "Chemical Industries" group from National Safety Council. 1989-90 - Prize for Productivity from Kerala State Productivity Council. 1993 - Best Performance award for Energy Conservation in the State of Kerala under group "Chemical & Fertilizers above 3000 KVA" from Government of Kerala 1994-95 - Best Performance award for the Productivity in the State of Kerala under group "Large Industries" from Kerala State Productivity Council 1995-96 - Best Performance award for Productivity in the State of Kerala under group "Large Industries" from Kerala State Productivity Council. 1998 - Best performance award for Energy Conservation in the State of Kerala under group "Major Industries" from Energy Management Centre, Govt. of Kerala. 1998 - Performance award for Energy Conservation under group "Chlor-alkali Sector". Ministry of Power, Government of India. 2003 - Kerala State Energy Conservation Award (2000) in the category of Large Scale industry

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2005 - National Energy Conservation Award "Chlor-alkali Sector"

BANKS
State Bank of Travancore State Bank of Hyderabad Union Bank of India Indian Overseas Bank ICICI Bank

TRADEUNIONS
Recognised trade unions TCC employees association Unrecognised trade unions Thozhilali union AITUC BMS TCC employees union(INTUC)

Eco preserve: TCC is well aware of the responsibility that manufacturing industries bear towards environment. Conserving the resources of environment from pollution and preserving healthy living conditions are important concerns at TCC. TCCs commitment is to sustain the toxic-free environment observing statutory stipulations and legal regulation. TCC believes in pollution prevention rather than pollution control. Their activities comprise awareness programs among the employees, customers, contractors and all those who are associated with them. Their endeavour is to minimize hazardous emission and waste and to reduce the impact of the manufacturing activities. TCC aims to achieve zero effluent discharge by the end of this year.

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Office Timings
Office and administration departments of the company works from 9 a. m to 4.30 p. m. Except on Sundays, first and third Saturdays and a number of other national and festival holidays.The production operation is carried out continuously through 3 shifts for employees. 1.8 a. m to 4 p. m 2.4 p. m to 12 midnights 3.12 midnights to 8 a. M Leave Privilege leaves (30 days/ annum) Stick leaves (15 days/ annum) Causal leaves (15 days/ annum) Paid holidays: 13 days (including four compulsory holidays)

3.6. COMPETITORS
There are about 40 companies , which are producing same kind of product that of TCC. In the 40 companies ,12 companies are in South India. Following are the main competitors of the TCC Ltd: Tamil Nadu Petro Products Ltd Belapur Industries Chemplast (Tuticorn) Andhra Sugars Ltd (Andhra pradesh) Atul Ltd (Ahmadabad) Chem Fab Alkalies Ltd (Pondichery) Kothari Petro Chemicals Ltd Sourashtra chemicals Ltd Grassim Industries Ltd Tata Chemicals Ltd(Gujarat)
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Sree Rayalaseema Alkalies and Allied Chemicals Ltd Indian Rayon and Industries Ltd Jayashree Chemicals Ltd Centuary Rayon Kothari Chemical Ltd Bilt Chemical Ltd Southern Petro Chemical Industries Gujarat Alkalies &Chemicals Ltd Sirpur Paper Mills.

3.7. CUSTOMERS
Hindustan Lever Limited-Cochin, Kerala. Indian Rare Earths Ltd-Udyogamandal, Kerala TamilNadu Paper Mills Limited Pugalur, Tamilnadu Pigments India Ltd. - Chalakudy, Kerala. Indian Oil Corporation. - Ernakulam, Kerala. Mysore paper Mills Ltd. - Bhadravathy, Karnataka Fertilizers & Chemicals Travancore Ltd. Ernakulam, Kerala Travancore Titanium Products Ltd.-Trivandrum, Kerala Kerala Minerals & Metals Ltd. - Kollam, Kerala. Hindustan Zinc Ltd - All Units Hindalco. Ltd -Ernakulam, Kerala. Hindustan Newsprint Limited- Kottayam, Kerala Kerala Chemicals & Proteins Ltd. Cochin, Kerala Hindustan Organic Chemicals Ltd- Ambalamugal, Kerala. Kerala Water Authority Trivandrum, Kerala. Hindustan Insecticides Ltd.-Udyogamandal, Kerala. Cochin Minerals & Rutiles Ltd.-Aluva, Kerala. National Thermal Power Corporation All Units Binani Zinc Limited- Edayar, Kerala. Steel Authority of India Limited - All Units

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3.8. Product Profile


Caustic Soda, Chlorine, Hydrochloric Acid form the back born of the chemical industry as it is important to the countrys economic growth. Chlorine and Hydrogen are the by products of caustic soda and these are used to produce Hydrochloric acid. Caustic soda is available in two forms. 1. 48-50%.Caustic soda lye 2. 99.99%.Caustic soda flakes Chlorine is available as liquid and chlorine gas. Hydrochloric acid is produced as 30to32% Hydrochloric acid solution Products and production capacity Products Caustic Soda Lye Caustic Soda Flakes Liquid Chlorine Commercial Acid Sodium Hypochlorite 45 Production in TPD 175(on 100% NaOH basis) 100 72 Hydrochloric 387

PRODUCT-1 CAUSTIC SODA (NaOH)


Caustic soda is a basic alkali. It came in to being in the latter half of 19thcentury with the development of electrolysis. Caustic soda Lye, obtained from Membrane Cell is a clear colourless , odourless and soapy liquid.TCC is producing two types of Caustic soda Lye of concentration 30-33% and 50%.
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USES
A chemical for dissolving out extraneous matter from wood For preparing pure cellulose and for the preparation of Alkali cellulose and for the production of viscose solution As specification agent In bleaching ,dyeing and mercerizing For processing monazite and refining of Bauxite A purification agent and absorbent for acidic gases A clearing agent For refining petroleum fractions Reagent for production of various organic chemicals

INDUSTRIES SERVED
Rayon Paper Soaps Textiles Mineral and rare earth elements Fertilizers Heavy Chemicals Engineering Drugs &Pharmaceuticals Petroleum refining

PRODUCT-2 Chlorine (C12)


Chlorine, a product obtained in the manufacturing process of Caustic soda is an equally important basic chemical. It is renowned water purifying chemical. It is greenish yellow gas. Chlorine as sold after liquefying.

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USES
Providing insecticides(DDT,BHC etc.) and pesticides like Aldrin In purifying drinking water and sterilizing sewage effluents For manufacturing PVC & allied co-polymers As a bleaching agent For producing chloramines & it organic derivatives For upgrading titanium content in limonite

INDUSTRIES SERVED
Insecticides Water purification Plastics Paper &pulp Textiles Sugar Rubber Mineral processing

PRODUCT-3
Hydrochloric Acid (HCL) TCC also produces high purity Hydrochloric acid, it is yellowish green colour. The HCL produced have concentration 30-34%

INDUSTRIES SERVED
Fertilizers Minerals Ossien Starch Industry Plastic Engineering

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PRODUCT-4
Sodium Hypochlorite, known as soda Bleach , finds its application in bleaching & disinfectant and also in the extraction of rare earth chemicals. It is a pale yellowish green colour liquid. Soda bleach is the only branded product that company producing, brand name is koclean.

USES
As a bleaching agent As germicide & cleaning agent For sterilization

INDUSTRIES SERVED
Textiles Paper industry

PRODUCT-5 Caustic soda Flakes


Caustic soda Lye is fused is product Caustic Soda Flakes. There is a continuous caustic fusion plant that produces Caustic soda flakes. It is white deliquescent solid in flakes form. Caustic soda flake have concentration 98.99%.

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CHAPTER-4 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

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DEFINITION
Job satisfaction has been defined as a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal of ones job; an affective reaction to ones job; and an attitude towards ones job. Weiss (2002) has argued that job satisfaction is an attitude but points out that researchers should clearly distinguish the objects of cognitive evaluation which are affect (emotion), beliefs and behaviours. This definition suggests that we form attitudes towards our jobs by taking into account our feelings, our beliefs, and our behaviours.

Employees Motivation - Herzberg's Hygiene Theory :


Employees Motivation theory was proposed by Herzberg & his assistants in 1969. On the basis of his study of 200 engineers and accountants of the Pittsburgh area in the USA, he established that there are two separate sets of conditions (and not one) which are responsible for the motivation & dissatisfaction of workers. When one set of conditions (called 'motivator') is present in the organisation, workers feel motivated but its absence does not dissatisfy them. Similarly, when another set of conditions (called hygiene factors) is absent in the organisation, the workers feel dissatisfied but its presence does not motivate them. The two sets are unidirectional, that is, their effect can be seen in one direction only.

According to Herzbergs following factors act as motivators:


Achievement Recognition Advancement Work itself Possibility of growth Responsibility Promotion opportunities

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Hygiene factors are:


Company policy& administration, Technical supervision, Inter-personal relations with supervisors, peers &Subordinates, Salary Job security Personal life Working Conditions, Herzberg used semi-structured interviews (the method is called critical incident method). In this technique subjects were asked to describe those events on the job which had made them extremely satisfied or dissatisfied. Herzberg found that events which led people to extreme satisfaction were generally characterised by 'motivators' & those which led people to extreme dissatisfaction were generally characterized by a totally different set of factors which were called 'hygiene factors'. Hygiene factors are those factors which remove pain from the environment. Hence, they are also known as job - environment or job - context factors. Motivators are factors which result in psychological growth. They are mostly job centered. Hence they are also known as job content factors. The theory postulated that motivators and hygiene factors are independent & absence of one does not mean presence of the other. In pleasant situations motivators appear more frequently than hygiene factors while their predominance is reversed in unpleasant situations. A significant model that narrowed the scope of the Dispositional Theory was the Core Self-evaluations Model, proposed by Timothy Judge in 1998.Judge argued that there are four Core Self- evaluations that determine, ones disposition towards job satisfaction: self-esteem, general self-efficacy, locus of control, and neuroticism. This model states that higher levels of self-esteem (the value one places on his/her self) and general self-efficacy (the beliefs in ones own competence) lead to higher work satisfaction. Finally, lower levels of neuroticism lead to higher job satisfaction.
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Hackman & Oldham proposed the job characteristics Model, which is widely used as a framework to study how particular job characteristics impact on job outcomes, including job satisfaction. The model states that there are five core job characteristics (skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback) which impact three critical psychological states (experienced meaningfulness, experienced responsibility for outcomes and knowledge of the actual results), in turn influencing work outcomes (job satisfaction, absenteeism, work motivation, etc).The five core job characteristics can be combined to form a motivating potential score (MPS) for a job, which can be used as an index of how likely job, is to affect an employees attitudes and behaviours---.A meta-analysis of studies that assess the framework of the model provides some support for the validity of the JCM. Edwin A. Lockes Range of Affect Theory (1976) is arguably the most famous job satisfaction model. The main premise of this theory is that satisfaction is determined by a discrepancy between what one wants in a job and what one has in a job. Further, the theory states that how much one values a given facet of work (e.g. the degree of autonomy in a position) moderates how satisfied/dissatisfied one becomes when expectations are/are not met. When a person values a particular facet of a job, his satisfaction is more greatly impacted both positively (when expectations are met) and negatively (when expectations are not met), compared to one who does not value that facet. To illustrate, if Employee A values autonomy in the workplace and Employee B is indifferent about autonomy, then Employee A would be more satisfied in a position that offers a high degree of autonomy compared to Employee B. This theory also states that too much of a particular facet will produces stronger feelings of dissatisfaction the more a worker values that facet. One of the biggest preludes to the study of job satisfaction was the Hawthorne studies. These studies (1924-1933), primarily credited to Elton Mayo of the Harvard Business School, sought to find the effects of various conditions (most notably illumination) on workers productivity. These studies ultimately showed that novel changes in work conditions temporarily increase productivity (called the Hawthorne Effect).It was later found that this increase resulted, not from the new conditions, but from the knowledge of being observed. This finding provided

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strong evidence that people work for purposes other than pay, which paved the way for researchers to investigate other factors in job satisfaction. Scientific management (aka Taylorism) also had a significant impact on the study of job satisfaction. Frederick Winslow Taylors 1911 book, Principles of Scientific Management, argued that there was a single best way to perform any given work task. This book contributed to a change in industrial production philosophies, causing a shift from skilled labour and piecework towards the more modern of assembly lines and hourly wages. The initial use of scientific management by industries greatly increased productivity because workers were forced to work at a faster pace. However, workers became exhausted and dissatisfied, thus leaving researchers with new questions to answer regarding job satisfaction. It should also be noted that the work of W.L. Bryan, Walter Dill Scott, and Hugo Munsterberg set the tone for Taylors work. Some argue that Maslows hierarchy of needs theory, a motivation theory, laid the foundation for job satisfaction theory. This theory explains that people seek to satisfy five specific needs in life physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, self-esteem needs, and self-actualization. This model served as a good basis from which early researchers could develop job satisfaction theories. Under the need-fulfillment theory, it is believed that a person is satisfied if he gets what he wants & the more he wants something or the more important it is to him, the more satisfied he is when he gets it & the more dissatisfied he is when he does not get it. Needs may be need for personal achievement, social achievement & for influence. a) Career Development Need : Desires for career development, improvement in one's own life standards, better education & prospects for children & desire for improving one's own work performance. b) Social Achievement Need : A drive for some kind of collective success is relation to some standards of excellence. It is indexed in terms of desires to increase overall productivity, increased national prosperity, better life community & safety for everyone.

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c) Need for influence : A desire to influence other people & surroundings environment. In the works situation, it means to have power status & being important as reflected in initiative taking and participation in decision making. In summary, this theory tell us that job satisfaction is a function of, or is positively related to the degree to which one's personal & social needs are fulfilled in the job situation.

Measuring job satisfaction


There are many methods for measuring job satisfaction. By far, the most common method for collecting data regarding job satisfaction is the Likert scale (named after Rensis Likert). Other less common methods of for gauging job satisfaction include: Yes/No questions, True/False questions, point systems, checklists, and forced choice answers. This data are sometimes collected using an Enterprise Feedback Management (EFM) system. The Job Descriptive Index (JDI), created by Smith, Kendall, & Hulin (1969), is a specific questionnaire of job satisfaction that has been widely used. It measures ones satisfaction in five facets: pay, promotions and promotion opportunities, coworkers, supervision, and the work itself. The scale is simple, participants answer either yes, no, or cant decide (indicated by ?) in response to whether given statements accurately describe ones job. The Job in General Index is an overall measurement of job satisfaction. It is an improvement to the Job Descriptive Index because the JDI focuses too much on individual facets and not enough on work satisfaction in general. Job satisfaction is defined as an individuals reaction to the job experience (Berry,1997).There are various components that are considered to be vital to job selection. These variables are important because they all influence the way a person feels about their job. These components include the following: pay, promotion, benefits, supervisor, co-workers, work conditions, communication, safety, productivity, and the work itself. Each of these factors figures in to an individuals job satisfaction differently. One might think that pay is considered to be the most

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important component in job satisfaction, although this has not been found to be true. Employees are more concerned with working in an environment they enjoy. Landy in his theory is known as the opponent process theory. He suggested that the primary reaction (the immediate emotional response) combined with the secondary reaction (the later emotional response) creates a stabilized equilibrium which results in job satisfaction. Lawler . Lawler believed that job satisfaction was driven by a motivational framework. This idea deals with how a person measures job satisfaction based on what they got versus what they feel they deserved. Satisfaction is determined by the difference between the exact amount a person received and what they expected. Therefore, dissatisfaction occurs when a person receives less or more than what was expected. Improving job satisfaction Job satisfaction plays significant role in the organisation. Therefore managers should take concrete steps to improve the level of job satisfaction. These steps may be in the form of job redesigning to make the more interesting and challenging. Improving quality of work life ,Linking rewards with performance and improving overall organizational climate.

Importance of job satisfaction


Reduces absenteeism and turnover Spreads goodwill about the organization Individual can live with the organization Job satisfaction has some relation with the mental of the people

Job satisfaction has degree of positive co-relation with the physical health of individual.

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Creating job satisfaction


Organisations can help to create Job satisfaction by putting so, how is job satisfaction created , what are the elements of a job that will ensure that enhances job satisfaction need to incorporate the following: Flexible work arrangements ,possibly including telecommuting Training and other professional growth opportunities Interesting work that offers variety and challenge and allows the worker opportunities to put his or her signature on the finished product Opportunities to use ones talents and to be creative Opportunities to take responsibility and direct ones own work A stable, secure work environment that includes job security/continuity An environment in which workers are supported by an accessible supervisor who provides timely feedback as well as congeners team members Flexible benefits, such as child-care and exercise facilities Up-to-date technology Competitive salary and opportunities for promotion.

What are the statistically significant factors that affect Job satisfaction? Opportunity:
Employees are more satisfied when they have challenging opportunities at work. This includes chances to participate in interesting projects, jobs with a satisfying degree of challenge and opportunities for increased responsibility. Important: this is not simply promotional opportunity. As organisation have become flatter, Promotions can be rare. People have found challenge through projects, team leadership, special assignments-as well as promotions.

Stress:
When negative stress is continuously high, job satisfaction is low. Jobs are more stressful if they interface with employees personal lives or are a continuing source of worry or concern.

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Leadership: Employees are more satisfied when their managers are good leaders. This includes motivating employees to do a good job, striving for excellence or just taking action. Work Standards: Employees are more satisfied when their entire work groups takes pride in the quality of its work. Fair Rewards: Employees are more satisfied when they feel they are satisfied fairly for the work they do. Consider employee responsibilities, the effort they have put forth, the work they have done well and the demands of their jobs. Adequate Responsibility: Employees are more satisfied when they have adequate freedom and authority to do their jobs. Secret: One thing that makes human unique is our ability to focus energy. Whether to heat a home or to cut steel with a laser, focussing energy where its needed produces significant results. As a manager, you need to know what is important and where it is a problem. Focussing time and resources on a specific problem is more likely to produce measurable benefits to the organization.

Factors in employee satisfaction and dissatisfaction Job satisfaction is related to the attitude of the employee, if the employees given a work for which he has no attitude, the job will provide no attraction to him. Hence the question of contribution, creativity or motivation does not arise, it is for the management to design jobs in such a manner that each worker fet the job of his choice the content of the work itself is major source of satisfaction. 1. Personal Factors 2. Job Related Factors 3. Management Related Factors

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1.Personal Factors
Age
Age has also been found to have a direct relationship to level job of satisfaction of employees. In some groups job satisfaction is higher with increasing age, in other groups job satisfaction is lower and in other there is no difference at all.

Marital status
Marital status has an important role in deciding the job satisfaction. Most of the studies have revealed that the married person finds dissatisfaction in his job than his unmarried counterpart. The reasons stated to be are that wages were insufficient due to increased cost of living, educations to children etc. Education Studies conducted among various workers revealed that most of workers who had not completed their school education showed higher satisfaction level. However, educated workers felt less satisfied in their job.

Time of job
It is generally agreed that job satisfaction is high, when you are fresh in your job and decrease during the ninth year of service and rise again with more time of the job.

Personality
Once personality traits have their in equitable impact on his mode of functioning in several of life, a person with personality often finds faults with his work environment and ultimately even with him balanced. Personality will adjust in the job finds his own ways for doing his project. He develops his own style of work that possibly appears to be unique and pleasing to others.

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2.Job Related Factors Supervision


To a worker, Supervision is equally a strong contributor to the job satisfaction as well as to the job dissatisfaction. The feelings of workers towards his supervisors are usually similar to his feeling towards the company. The role of supervisor is a focal point for attitude formation. Bad supervision results in absenteeism and labour turnover. Good supervision results in higher production and good industrial relations. Working condition The result of various studies shows that working condition is an important factor. Good working atmosphere and pleasant surroundings help increasing the production of industry. Working conditions are more important to women workers than men workers.

Occupational level
Higher levels of jobs provide more pleasure compared to lower levels. This because higher position carry prestige and status in society which itself becomes the source at satisfaction for job holders.

Opportunities for promotion


It is true that individuals seek satisfaction in their jobs in the context of the job nature and work environment but they also attach importance to the opportunities for promotion that these jobs offer. If the present job offers the opportunity of promotion in future, provides more satisfaction, if opportunities for such promotion is lacking, it reduce satisfaction.

Work Groups
Individual work in group either created formally or they develop on their own to seek emotional satisfaction at the work place the extent such groups are cohesive the degree of satisfaction is high, if the group is not cohesive, job satisfaction is low, in a cohesive group people device satisfaction out of their interpersonal interaction and work place becomes satisfying leaving to job satisfaction.

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3.Management Related Factors Working Condition


Working conditions, particularly physical work environment, like conditions of work place and associated facilities for performing the job determine job satisfaction. These work in two ways. First, these provide means for job performance. Second provision of these conditions affects the individual perception about the organisation. If these factors are favourable, individual experience higher level of job satisfaction.

Co-workers
Various studies had traced this factor as a factor of intermediate importance. Ones associates with others had frequently been motivated as a factor in job satisfaction. Certainly, this seems reasonable because people like to be near their friends. The workers derive satisfaction when the co-workers are helpful, friendly and co-operative.

Salary
The salary is related to the job satisfaction. A employee if he has getting good salary he will satisfy of his work.

Employee moral
High level morale and employee satisfaction reduce employee grievances, further satisfied employees follow the company rules and regulation.

Physical and mental health


Through performance and job satisfaction are influenced by different set of factors, these two can be related if management links rewards to performance.

EMPLOYEE SECURITY
Security is the protection give by society to its members against contingencies of modern life such as sickness, unemployment, old age, invalidity industrial accidents etc. The basic purpose of social security is to protect people of small measure from risks which impair a persons ability to support himself and his family. Security is n attack on five giants that affect workers-wants disease, ignorance, squalor and idleness.

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1.Social insurance
In this scheme a common fund is established with periodical contributes from workers out of which all benefits in each or kind are paid the contribution of the workers is nominal which generally does not exceed their paying capacity. The employees and the state provide the major portion of the finances.

2.Social assistance
In this case, benefits are offered to persons of small means by the government out of its general revenues. It is the state which takes the load in offering certain benefits to common people.

BENEFITS OF SECURITY
1. Medical care 2. Sickness benefit in cash 3. Retirement benefits 4. Invalidity person 5. Maternity benefits 6. Accident benefits 7. Survivors benefits

EMPLOYEE WELFARE FACILITIES INTERNAL


Drinking water Toilets Washing facilities Rest shelters Uniform and protective clothing Recreation facilities Canteens and Medical aid

EXTERNAL
Housing Educational facilities Transportation Sports
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Co-operative stores Social insurance

TRAINING IMPORTANCE OF TRAINING


1. Higher productivity 2. Less learning period 3. Better quality of work 4. Cost reductions 5. Reduced Supervision 6. Low accident rate 7. Personal growth

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