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Retail Visual Identity at Petrol Pumps


Submitted to the University Of Petroleum and Energy Studies in partial

fulfillment of the requirements leading to the award of the Degree of MBA in Oil and Gas Management

Mr. Rahul Shukla

(Reg. No. r250208021)

Under the guidance of

Mrs. Anupama.T

2008 - 2012

Dehradun 248007

This is to certify that the dissertation, entitled Retail Visual Identity at Petrol

Pumps, submitted to the University Of Petroleum and Energy Studies, in partial

fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of MBA in Oil and Gas Management is a record of original research work done by Mr. Rahul Shukla, During the period of her study (2008 - 2012) in the Department of Management at University of Petroleum and Energy Studies, Dehradun, under my supervision and guidance and the dissertation has not formed the basis for the award of any Degree / Diploma / Associateship / Fellowship or other similar title to any candidate of any university.

______________________ Guide and Supervisor

_______________ Dean

_________________________ Course Coordinator/ Head of the Department

I hereby declare that the dissertation, entitled Retail Visual Identity at Petrol Pumps, submitted to the University Of Petroleum and Energy Studies, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the Degree of MBA in Oil and Gas Management is a record of original research work done by me during the period of 2008 - 2012 under the supervision and guidance of Ms. T.Anupama, Lecturer in Research Methodologies and Quantitative Theory, and it has not formed the basis for the award of any Degree / Diploma / Associateship / Fellowship or other similar title to any candidate in any university.

Place: Bidholi, Dehradun Date: Signature of the Candidate

I express my whole hearted thanks to Mr./Ms.----------, Managing Trustee, --------------, Secretary, ------------- Institution, -----------place, for having given me the opportunity to undergo this course and to undertake the project work. I express my sincere thanks toMr/Ms.--------------------- ., Dean/Associate dean/hod/course coordiantor, ------------------university , -----------------place, for her/his support and for all the resources provided. I am extremely professor/associate grateful to Mrs./Mr., ------------Lecturer/Assistant in ---------------, Department of


Management, and-----------------university , -------------place, for her/his sustained interest and advice that have contributed to a great extend to the completion of the project. I would like to thank Mrs/Mr.--------------., Lecturer/Associate Prof/Prof Department of Management for all the help I express my gratitude and sincere thanks to my family and friends and their encouragement and valuable support throughout my study.


INTRODUCTION. 9 RESEARCH OBJECTIVES .. 10 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY.. 11 FINDINGS Chapter 1 . 12 Overview of petro-retail business in India Chapter 2 . 26 What is Retail Visual Identity(RVI) ? Chapter 3 . Constituents of RVI Chapter 4 31 Implementing RVI at Petro-retail outlets: Tools needed & Examples Chapter 5 45 Benefits of implementing RVI Chapter 6 53 Major challenges involved 28

Chapter 7 Success stories: Companies who have benefited by Implementing RVI Chapter 8 Associate companies providing RVI services to oil companies. Chapter 9 A summary of Opportunities and Challenges Chapter 10 Questionnaire & its Analysis





Chapter 11 77 Conclusions Bibliography (Chapter Wise) ... 78

The objective of this Dissertation study is to understand the constituents that provide a winning or a successful Retail Visual Identity (RVI) to retail outlets, when employed and why it is imperative for companies to establish a winning RVI in the 21st century. Retail Visual Identity consists of creating and maintaining a uniform visual identity in the form of colour, symbols, shape and structure across retail outlets of companies, with the objective to differentiate brands and enhance consumer brand recall. In the era of intense competition when companies are competing to offer similar products and services to the same set of consumers, it has become essential, if not mandatory for companies to grab the mindspace of consumers and ensure high brand recall levels. The market has become claustrophobic with shelves overflowing with similar products, each possessing features promised to outperform the others. A Retail outlet is an important interface between a company and its consumers. It is the place where consumers get to feel the company as far as the buying experience is concerned, which in turn, increases or decreases the consumers motivation to visit again or make repeat purchases. Petrol stations, which are the retail outlets for oil and gas production and marketing companies also known as Petro-retailing companies -have been chosen for the purpose of this study.

What are the factors that create and maintain a successful visual identity, how can a winning RVI be achieved and what are some challenges and opportunities for companies striving to do so, is the objective of this study. Some benefits for companies include brand differentiation, enhancing consumer brand recall and satisfaction thereby leading to long-term profitability for the company over other competing companies.

The objective of the study is to understand the constituents that provide a successful Retail Visual Identity (RVI) to retail outlets, when employed and why it is imperative for companies to establish a winning RVI in the 21st century. Retail Visual Identity consists of creating and maintaining a uniform visual identity in the form of color, symbols, shape and structure across retail outlets of companies, with the objective to differentiate brands and enhance consumer brand recall. In the era of intense competition when companies are competing to offer similar products and services to the same set of consumers, it has become essential, if not mandatory for companies to grab the mind space of consumers and ensure high brand recall levels. The market has become claustrophobic with shelves overflowing with similar products, each possessing features promised to outperform the others. A Retail outlet is an important interface between a company and its consumers. It is the place where consumers get to feel the company as far as the buying experience is concerned, which in turn, increases or decreases the consumers motivation to visit again or make repeat purchases. What are the factors that create and maintain a successful visual identity, how can a winning RVI be achieved and what are some challenges and opportunities for companies striving to do so, is the objective of this study.


1) To assess the current status of Petro-Retail business in India,

2) To define Retail Visual Identity and identify its constituents,

3) To identify the tools which are required to implement RVI in a petrol retail outlet and to demonstrate with examples the constituents of RVI. And,

4) To identify the benefits of implementing RVI


The Study on Retail Visual Identity will be conducted through primary and secondary research. The secondary source will be Internet Sources and websites. It is with an objective of understanding RVI better with visual illustrations, pictures and tables wherever deemed necessary. RVI in India, today, is still at a very nascent stage with respect to its implementation across all the retail outlets of a particular oil company and this holds true for other companies as well. While much written literature on RVI is available abroad, only its application has visibly manifested itself in the form of new-look petrol pumps that we see today. The intention thus, is to extract and organize all the matter available on Retail Visual Identity in the Internet in a structured form and understand it within the scope of the project. The primary source will be to collect data from the RO and consumers.

Sample Design: Non probabilistic judgmental sampling for RO and random sampling for consumers. Sample Size: Ten retail outlets subject to variation as per judgmental sampling & 50 consumers. Research Instruments: Primary data from surveys and RO visits and descriptive study for the consumers. Research measurement: Accuracy will depend on the confidence level which is expected to be around ninety five percent.


1.1 R E T A I L I N G
Retailing consists of all the activities directly related to the sale of goods and services to the ultimate consumer for personal, non-business use. The retail environment is one of the most competitive of all business conditions. Whether stores are lined up along a street or within a mall, the contest for customer attention is ever prevalent. Retailers have a number of different communications needs which visual design and displays can fulfill. In addition to the need for visual impact, retailers require an image which is appropriate to their marketplace and which is carried through the separate visual components of their business; their signs, displays, promotions, etc. Study of the target customers and their age profiles need to be kept in mind before embarking on bringing out any visual changes at the retail store or outlet. For example, if customers are older the visual aesthetic will be more traditional. Or, if the retailer serves an adolescent market, the graphics will tend towards their tastes and preferences which appeal to them. The retailers typical graphic design needs fall into the areas of environment, product and promotion. Environmental graphic design can include signs, window display graphics, even creative color programs and graphic detailing on store and building exteriors which are appropriate to the architectural context, identify the business inside and capture the interest of the potential customer . Environmental graphics are important in the retail interior in the form of institutional signs, signs which identify merchandise assortments, right down to signing for specific product types and tags for single items. Floor graphics which differentiate areas of circulation or specific merchandise 12

zones, or wall graphics which serve functional and/or decorative purposes are other examples of retail environmental graphics. Over a period of time, all of this mentioned above become a stores visual identity that customers begin to relate with that store,everytime they visit it.

1.2 O V E R V I E W O F P E T R O - R E T A I L B U S I N E S S I N I N D I A
The Downstream Oil and Gas sector in India is estimated to be worth US $8.03 bn

The Retailing landscape of Petroleum and Petro-products in

India, is dominated by major domestic players like BPCL, HPCL, IOCL, Reliance, GAIL, also including Essar and ONGC to a lesser extent. There are an estimated 19,800 petro-retail outlets, 8,100 LPG Distributors and 6,500 SKO dealers in India. Petrol pumps or petro-retail outlets today offer the average customer both fuel as well as non-fuel offerings3. The steady growth in GDP and purchasing power on part of the Indian population has resulted into a corresponding growth in consumption of petroleum products in India. A few factors, which have particularly been significant in this regard, are:

1. Significant growth in passenger car population

(From 2.3

million private motor vehicles in 1991 to 6.1 million in 2005 Annual growth of more than 7% From 14.1 million two-wheeled motor vehicle in 1991 to 39.3 million in 2005). 2. Significant growth in transportation vehicles like trucks (From 21.3 million trucks and tankers in 1991 to 58.5 million in 2005)


3. Replacement of conventional cooking fuels including kerosene in urban regions by LPG (The use of LPG is increasing in rural areas and is expected to contribute to future growth.) Be it filling 91-octane premium fuels , the convenience of shopping at In&Out Stores (seen at urban BPCL pumps) when a customer is in a hurry or just enjoying a tasty meal at A-1 Plaza restaurants (seen at Reliance pumps) - petro-retail outlets have come a long way today, unlike those in the past. Just to elaborate the efforts of PSUs, with an example, let us consider BPCL. Bharat Petroleum's efforts began with remodelling and upgrading Retail Outlets to world class standards back in 1996. Retail Outlets have been equipped with state-of-the-art infrastructure, including MultiProduct Dispensers to pre-set price and quantity of fuel and Electronic Air Gauges facilitating precise inflation of tyres. Attractive Canopies are suitably designed to provide shelter and adequate lighting of the forecourt at most Retail Outlets. On the Non-Fuel front, Bharat Petroleum has introduced the Errand Mall concept successfully at select markets. Called the 'In & Out, these malls offer the customer a broad range of facilities and brands to choose from. ATM's, Cybercaf, Courier services, Laundry, Photo Studio, Music, Fast Food, Greeting Cards, Courier Services, Bill Payments, Movies / Entertainment Tickets, etc. have made Bharat Petroleum's Retail Outlets a happening place and indeed an rewarding experience for motorists4. Bharat Petroleum has also pioneered the concept of convenience stores at select petrol pumps that operate under the name 'Bazaar'. These Bazaars


provide a wide range of convenience items and fast foods to customers in a clean, air-conditioned and friendly environment. All this to just satisfy the discerning Indian customer, who has an increasing number of choices today, than ever before! Understanding customers needs: Management of the retail end is a key determining factor in the success or otherwise of any business. To gain a sustainable competitive advantage, a retailer needs to understand and satisfy both the apparent and latent needs of the customer. This principle holds true in petroleum retailing too. All our efforts at exploration and production, refining, distribution and marketing finally culminate at the retail point after moving through a long complicated supply chain. The downstream business is extremely intricate and of substantial strategic importance to the national economy. Oil products, especially transportation fuels, would continue to play a key role in the national economic growth. This is what makes the retail business exciting and challenging. It demands continuous efforts at improvement of product and services, higher customer satisfaction, and offers endless opportunities to innovate.

Changing Business Conditions:

The business environment in India has undergone a significant change in the past few years, and nowhere is it as pronounced as in the petroleum sector. Increase in refining capacity has transformed India from a net importer to a net exporter of petroleum products. Petroleum marketing has been decontrolled leading to entry of new domestic and international players into the sector. We have provided 15

operational freedom to the Government oil companies in a host of areas including determining their own market share, freedom to prepare and implement their market plans, selection of dealers etc. We are also gradually moving towards a market determined pricing regime in letter and spirit. This liberalized scenario is making the sector intensely competitive, and the oil companies, especially those in the public sector would need to adopt a more customer-focused approach to the retail end of their business. Besides providing the policy framework for a liberal, decontrolled petroleum sector, the Government is conscious of the need to encourage a disciplined and responsible market. The Petroleum and Natural Gas Regulatory Board Bill is a step in this direction. This Bill seeks to set up a regulatory board to regulate refining, distribution and marketing of products with a view to protect the interest of consumers and promote fair competition among the entities. Ministry of Petroleum & Natural Gas has also issued various control orders and directions to help check adulteration.

Major Challenges faced by Oil companies today:

Some of the major challenges that need to be immediately and purposefully addressed can be summarized as under:


a) Quality b) Quantity c) Price d) Value added services e) Building brand identity f) Generating higher volumes g) Reaching the unserviced areas Above all, the oil companies can build a sustainable competitive advantage only if they are driven by a customer centric approach and seek to continuously improve. While we see modernized, well-illuminated petrol pumps coming along the highways and major urban centers, these innovations by themselves may be only cosmetic. The boom in consumerism has given rise to a mature and demanding set of customers who are aware and particular about their preferences. The customer, for whatever reasons, has little faith in the quality of product dispensed through petrol pumps. While his demands are high, his expectations remain low. Bereft of choice, he is satisfied as long as he gets an unadulterated product. Oil companies interpret quality to mean "no adulteration". But as the market evolves and competitive grows, quality would be interpreted as the impact of the fuel on efficiency and performance of the automobile engines. Similarly, companies are satisfied with an assurance of dispensing the right quantity to the customer and publicize it as a unique selling proposition. The recent initiatives such as "Pure For Sure", "Q&Q", and "Pure Bhi Poora Bhi" need to graduate beyond the promise of unadulterated fuel dispensed in right amount.


Such narrow and limited perceptions of a quality product and service may not hold good in future when real competition sets in. Quality and Quantity would be the bare minimum a customer would demand. The Government also proposes to hold the oil companies accountable for the quality of product dispensed through their network. Retail sales of diesel account for 80% of total sales and in petrol this percentage is 98%. The image of a company is mainly reflected through retail outlets. Price of petrol and diesel has so far not been a differentiating factor in the retail business. Even after the dismantling of the administered pricing mechanism, the price of products remains the same throughout the length and breadth of the country. We all know that cost of the product is a very important factor in consumer choice. With the entry of a couple of private players, though still in a small way, a sort of price war has already started at a few locations. If anything, this price war is going to become a reality in times to come when the new entrants go in for an aggressive expansion of their retail network. They have already speeded up their efforts at commissioning new retail outlets in the past few months

For the Government oil companies, it is imperative to undertake a concerted exercise at cutting down their costs and improving efficiency to effectively counter this challenge. Leveraging information technology for supply chain management, and monitoring the quality and quantity of product can go a long way to improve efficiency and cut down the costs. One of the more visible transformations in the retail business of auto fuels is the recognition by the oil companies that non-fuel activities could be an important source of revenue at their retail outlets. So we have


convenience stores, fast food centers and other such amenities finding a place at petrol stations. This is a very welcome change. However, the possibilities are immense and efforts in this direction too slow and limited. Further, retail outlet is a location that is easily accessible to both the motorist and pedestrian. The retail outlets have the potential to become a one-stop shop for meeting innumerable needs of the customers on the one hand, and increasing the revenues of the outlet on the other. A statutory framework has also been provided in respect of petrol pumps to be located on national highways. The guidelines issued by the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways stipulate that the petrol stations should be a composite rest area for the highway users and provide all the products and services that a highway user may require under one roof. But a statutory framework can only lay down the minimum requirements; it is for the business entities to explore the other possibilities that are on offer. These could range from convenient stores, restaurants, cyber cafes etc. for the car users to dhabas, dormitories, dhobi services etc. for the truckers. These are mere illustrations. The product that goes into the fuel tank of the automobile is the same, irrespective of the company that owns the petrol stations. So how does one build a unique brand identity, which goes beyond a single petrol station giving value added non-fuel services? This is what will be discussed in the chapters ahead. A small step in this direction of providing customer value, by oil companies, has been that of introduction of premium fuels. The integrity


of these fuels needs to be established and preserved, and their share in the total sale needs to be increased. The sale of premium fuels in our country is 1 to 3% only, whereas in countries like USA it is as high as 35 to 50%. Maybe, as a nation, we could also experiment with an intermediate grade of fuel between the regular and premium brands. This would provide greater choice to the customers, and could be an effective strategy to command customer loyalty. These initiatives have to be blended with a strong concern for the environment as also energy security. Greater investment in the available alternative fuels such as CNG, Ethanol blended petrol and auto LPG is a desirable course of action to pursue, both for addressing social concerns and expanding the reach of the oil companies. We also need to keep pace with the advanced world in our efforts to discover other alternative sources such as Bio-diesel, hydrogen etc. A more proactive approach from our companies in this direction should be expected. A good petrol pump that aims to provide comfortable and convenient service to the customers requires as high an investment as Rs. 50 to 75 lakhs

Depending upon the location and the number and quality of services, the investment levels could go up to Rs. 1.5 crores. However, the per pump throughput has been declining and hovers around 160- 180 kilo litres per month. The profitability, may even the sustainability, of the retail business at such high investment and low volumes needs to be addressed.


Paradoxically, even in such a scenario, the oil companies have launched a very ambitious, and at times reckless, programme of network expansion.

Retail Network Planning:

Obviously, the assessment of the market growth made by the companies indicates high potential in future. However, companies should target to generate higher volumes per retail outlet rather than concentrating only on increasing the numbers. This would give them better returns on their investments. And simultaneously, a different business and investment model is required to be developed for low volume petrol stations located in rural areas. Retail Network planning helps to identify and select existing petrol pumps which can be either updated or closed down depending upon its offered sales potential. This can also be used to set up new petrol pumps at new locations as well. One such technique is Quadrant Analysis that has mentioned later on, in the succeeding chapters that follow.

Other Avenues for growth:

The Rural agricultural market has a large untapped potential for diesel sales, and the oil companies should make efforts to develop these markets. It is not a correct position that social obligations of the PSUs adversely affect their commercial interests. Another neglected area is that of LPG and kerosene marketing. Since both are subsidized products, there is a visible reluctance to expand in these areas. The reach of LPG is restricted to urban or urbanized rural segments.


As LPG has emerged as a major environment friendly cooking fuel, it is expected that Indian oil companies, as responsible corporate entities would try to expand its reach. Similarly, the poor man's fuel-kerosenedemands serious attention. While petrol pump dealerships are mushrooming, nearly 25,000, we have only 6000 kerosene dealers in the entire country

Half the development blocks in the country still do not have a kerosene storage facility or a dealership. And further, the oil companies have transferred the responsibility of distribution to the State Government. This aberration needs to be addressed forthwith. The hydrocarbon sector is also witnessing the emergence of the Natural Gas market in India. It has now moved from a more or less localized controlled business to a market determined activity. Natural Gas is becoming the preferred fuel in several industries. The Government has initiated many steps to increase its availability and subject the Gas market to competitive forces. Some of these important initiatives are increasing domestic gas production, import of LNG, trans national gas pipelines, a Gas pipeline policy and Regulatory framework for Gas marketing and transportation. With the onset of competition, this sector would also throw up the challenge of providing efficient and quality service to the consumers. To sum up, there is a need for a fundamental rethinking in the way we do business. Customers are beginning to notice that they now have a choice when it comes to motor fuels, and they also have a choice of a host of other non-fuel offerings.


So the customer has to be the focus of all our strategies. It is he who will define quality, be it product or service. And the oil companies can afford to neglect the customer at only their own peril. It is expected that the not so privileged customers in the remote and rural areas would also be involved in the booming growth of the petroleum retail sector.

Non-Fuel Retail business: An Overview

The revenue generated from non-oil items is constantly on the increase, depending upon the locality of the retail outlet. Globally, the non-oil or non-fuel revenue from a retail outlet contributes to almost 40 per cent of the total revenue generated in a retail outlet6.

From the graph shown ahead, we see that non-fuel retailing in 20052006, plays a major role in contributing in the total turnover generated at retail outlets. While countries like USA, UK and


Netherlands are high in rank in this aspect, India still has a long way to go. Many Oil Companies have now come to realize that it is not only about selling fuel but that Extra factor that really counts. This refers to non-fuel retail business propositions that bring in huge additional revenues for a company. McDonalds at retail outlets is one such value-added, non-fuel proposition.

McDonalds head Vikram Bakshi explains that the new scenario began to evolve when oil companies started looking at non-fuel revenue. "28 per cent of all sales in petrol pumps is from nonfuel in France, and 38 per cent in the US," he points out. Now, all the oil companies are betting big on highway outlets7." BHARAT Petroleum Corporation Ltd (BPCL) expects to garner 10 per cent of its overall revenue from non-fuel sales by the year 20068. ICICI and SBI typically generate over 10% of Annual profits/revenue from transactions at ATMS located at petrol pumps across India9.

Some companies that have partnered with Oil companies in India to provide various non-fuel services include : 24

SBI (ATM services ), ICICI Bank (ATM Services), Food World Supermarket, Mc Donalds, Croissants etc.(Pastries/Snacks), Caf Coffee Day, UTI (ATM services), Tata Motors Ltd. for setting up of joint marketing facilities, which entails the setting up of Tata Authorised Service Stations (TASS) at key IOCL outlets for instance, and many more.

2. W H A T I S R E T A I L V I S U A L I D E N T I T Y ( R V I )?
Visual Identity: The term Visual Identity is used to describe the various visual

manifestations of an organization not only its logo, but the other


aspects of its physical presentation, such as its standard layouts (eg: stationery or signage), typography, colour schemes and interior design . Leading communications theorists agree that when the visual identity of an organization is managed through its various communication vehicles, the visual identity itself becomes an organizational resource. The University of Maryland, USA offers programs on Visual Identity and it defines Visual Identity better, as follows: Visual Identity: Is a system of visual communications, graphically coordinated in such a way such that the public easily identifies a firm or an institution, its constituent parts and its activities.

2.1 Constituents of Visual Identity2 :

According to the University Of Maryland, USA constituents of Visual Identity include: Images, colors, symbols, and other graphic elements

Some key definitions which will help us to understand Retail Visual Identity better are :


1.Symbol: Is a graphic identifier i.e., one which reflects the organizations spirit and philosophy that promotes immediate identification by the public. 2.Wordmark: Is the Institution or firms name designed in a individual style. 3.Signature : Signature or the Logo is the official graphic of the symbol and wordmark. 4.Typeface : The size or style of the letter or character on a block of type. 5.Compatible Typography : Typefaces that complement the signature used for supplementary copy such as address blocks, signage and advertisement. 6.Artwork : An illustrative and decorative element, such as a line drawing or photograph, used in a printed work, such as a book. 7.Original Artwork : Is the artwork Hand-prepared by the designer, all reproductions are reproduced digitally or photographically from the original. 8.Reproductive Artwork : Samples of the signature in a variety of sizes, digitally produced from the original arrangement unique and

3. V I S U A L I D E N T I T Y E LE M E N T S 1 :
1. Primary Signature :


Most institutions or firms have a primary as well as a secondary of signature. two parts A : signature the symbol essentially and the consists

wordmark. It is the preferred application in most instances. For example, if we consider an oil PSU like Bharat Petroleum, its Primary Signature is represented as shown above. 2. Compatible Typography:

It comprises of the original typography, used in the logo of the firm. 3. Original Artwork 4. Reproductive Artwork : It is the consistency of visual elements like typography, logo, colours etc. as shown in the original artwork, in all reproductions of the original prototype.



For example, if we consider BPCL, then the correct and incorrect reproduction of the logos are given below: Correct Incorrect

In the illustration 1 above, we observe that the exact Typeface illustrated in the original logo needs to be reproduced in the same font and in the same location, in order to be correct. Similarly, other illustrations shown below highlight the importance of consistency in maintaining artwork, typography, symbol and colour specifications.








From these few illustrations above, we realize how important it is to maintain consistency in the visual identity elements, violation of which can have major copyright implications.


The tools by which Retail Visual Identity is communicated across and established at Retail Outlets are as follows : 1. Canopy 2. Primary Signage 3. Forecourt Equipment 4. Poster Units 5. Masts 6. Spreaders 7. Secondary Signage 1. Canopy : Canopy is the high overarching covering, mounted on poles, over the Dispensing Units at a petrol pump. It serves not only the purpose of shielding the DUs from the weather but also as a tool for a company to communicate across to its customers. The use of Canopy as an effective RVI tool can be pictorially shown as follows:


Another picture to pictorially demonstrate a canopy is shown below:


Most companies experiment with various designs, colour combinations and other Retail Visual Identity elements on the canopy, creating an impact identifiable and appealing to a customer approaching a petrol pump from a distance. Besides, a Canopy in itself, can be of various shapes. For instance, Shell prefers, as shown in the picture above, a rectangular flat panel while BPCL and IOCL have experimented with slightly arching panels to create and establish a distinct look.


Primary Signage :


Primary Signage enables a customer to spot a retail outlet from a distance, especially while driving on Highways. It consists of small, medium and large sized Monoliths or poles with the logo of the parent company. In case of Shell, Primary Signage is illustrated below:

14.5 metre POLE SIGN


5 metre

Mark II 40 series LOW LEVEL SIGN




The choice of a monolith- its design, simplicity or complexity and level of sophistication- varies from company to company. It could be simply be the logo of a company displayed on top of a pole, or could have an information panel or a Display panel below it. On the display panel, the various services provided at the petrol pump can be displayed.


For instance, some common services that are typically provided at petrol pumps are : Fuels- MS, HSD. Lubricants and greases Car Wash Air Pressure Drinking Water Other services like Repair, 24-hrs. ATM , small malls selling

pastries, confectionary, snacks etc. When these services are displayed on a Display Panel, below the company logo, on the monolith, it talks volumes about the company and its concern for customers. Over a period of time, customers in a hurry, knowingly or unknowingly, prefer the petrol pump that displays vis--vis one that doesnt.


3. Forecourt Equipment: Forecourt Equipment comprises of other secondary equipments provided near the Dispensing Units or within the premises of the Petrol pump. For e.g.: Litterbins, Racks for displaying eatables like Potato Chips, cold drinks like Pepsi , Newspapers etc. Pic.3 shown below clearly emphasizes the forecourt equipment commonly seen at petro-retail outlets. Picture below shows Forecourt equipment:



Basin/Towel Unit


Anti-fire Tender Unit

Oil Dispenser

Battery Stand

Newspaper Stand


Other components of RVI at SHELL retail outlets are shown below :

Forecourt equipment, thus, not only help to: Organize, Increase the visibility of other non-fuel products like snacks or newspapers being sold at a petrol pump, Helps in space management and a company can use it as a medium to display its logo on it too.


4. Poster Units: Poster Units comprise of allocated areas for displaying posters of products and services available at the retail outlet.

Picture below shows Poster Units:

Car/Jet Wash WM Poster Unit FS Poster Unit

WM Poster Name Sign

FS Poster Name Sign

Car Wash Sign

Whistle Stop Pod

Select Pod

Select Pod + Downlighter



Masts: They are tall poles with the Logo and name of the parent

company that owns the petrol pump, which enable recognition of the Retail outlet from a distance. 4. Spreaders: They are overhead Product identification units which help the customer driving into a retail outlet to go to the Dispensing Unit of his choice-be it for filling Diesel or Petrol- thus, minimizing confusion or chaos at the retail outlet. Picture below shows Spreaders:

Standard Free Standing


T Spreader


5. Secondary Signage : Secondary signage consistitute other additional signage and displays at the R.O. premises, over and above Primary signage, which enable movement of men and materials within the premises. Picture below shows secondary signage: 1. A free standing Directional sign

Arrow graphic applied to these signs is the only factor that determines whether the sign is a facility or directional sign.


Picture below shows secondary signage: 2. An Entry/Exit sign


Picture below shows secondary signage : 3. A wall mounted facility sign

Arrow graphic applied to these signs is the only factor that determines whether the sign is a facility or directional sign.

Thus, looking at the various types of tools that are used at a retail outlet, we realise the importance that each of them enjoys. Not only do they increase the visual appeal of the retail outlet, they also reduce chaos, confusion and clutter at the premises. The colours, symbols, format of layouts (used for the signage) when maintained consistently across R.O.s of a company, increase identification and brand recall. A customer who visits a petrol pump to fuel his car in the least amount of time, would want to visit it again and it is some of these tools that make the entire experience of fuelling a memorable one.


4.1 B E N E F I T S O F C R E A T I N G A S U C C E S S F U L R E T A I L VISUAL IDENTITY An Example from abroad(USA) : SNAX 24 RETAILING

As in the 1960's when Heron revolutionized the Petrol Retailing Industry with the self-service, cut price concept, SNAX 24 are again pioneering a new concept combining petrol retailing, car-washing and convenience shop retailing. SNAX 24 together with U.S. Retail Design Specialists C.D.I. developed a new forecourt shop-retailing concept under the SNAX 24 brand identity. The name SNAX 24 together with the colors and graphics have been carefully designed to have the widest possible appeal both to the local community as well as the motorist. Inside the store, the product range, the layout of the shop and numerous promotions reflect this wide appeal approach. Fundamental to the success of SNAX 24 is creating a solid base of loyal customers, converting the occasional shopper into a regular one, whilst at the same time becoming a destination point to the local community. Where possible, SNAX 24 operates around the clock, 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, they never close. Shelves are continually replenished with particular attention being paid to the items people buy daily such as fresh produce, newspapers, magazines and fast food.


Some stores have their own In Store Bakery, baking fresh every day a wide range of quality breads, pastries and snacks, both sweet and savory. In addition, a wide range of sandwiches, rolls and filled baguettes are available as well as made to order service. This simple concept of offering customers what they want, when they want it and at prices they can afford require a high degree of expertise and depth of retail knowledge. SNAX 24's management team has vast experience in this area and in addition they have developed sophisticated systems providing them with all the sales data they need in determining product selection. It is a significant departure from conventional petrol forecourt retailing; the consumer will be able to differentiate the SNAX 24 marketing concept identified in the shop from conventional petrol imagery and brand name. The perception of the customer is important in creating a credible shop environment. This deliberate distinction between the profit centers also enable SNAX 24 to operate under other forecourt brands, for instance a number of SNAX 24's developments now operate under the BP brand on the forecourt whilst retaining the SNAX 24 brand within the shop. Interestingly, the major oil companies are now following this approach of creating a distinction between shop and forecourt. SNAX 24 takes great pride in the standards of cleanliness and house keeping within its network. Employee selection is critical in the process of delivering the concept to the customer; customer service is a key element of SNAX 24's recruitment and training programme. Appraisals, inspections, team meetings and various incentives all play their part in


maintaining these high standards and creating a warm and helpful atmosphere.

Picture above shows a Snax 24 Retail outlet.



1. Increased Brand Recall by the customers, 2. Brand differentiation, 3. Increased sales and profitability for the parent company over time, 4. Improvement and Makeover of especially old-format petrol pumps. Besides, it increases the credibility of the parent company in the eyes of the customers when they see that the company is consistent in its communication and its visual identity across locations.

1. Increased Brand Recall by the customers: The objective of any form of communication-be it audio or video, for that matter, is to occupy the Mindspace of the customer. The average urban consumer today is bombarded with atleast 800 different communication messages i.e, advertisements of products by various companies. Be it the name, logo and slogan of a brand of cigarette to biscuits, toothpaste, hoardings along a road, the newspaper that you read regularly-each one of them carry hoardes of competing products offering similar benefits. It becomes imperative therefore, that oil companies through their TV advertisements and radio commercials catch the attention of the consumers, offer them unique benefits and at the same


time, make them recollect the brand everytime they go to fill fuel in their cars. Brand creation is not just naming or symbolically tagging a product but it goes much beyond this. It is birth of a brand, which is headed towards fulfillment of all promises and guaranteeing top class services and products. Such a brand enjoys top of mind recall from its customers and a high level of brand loyalty . Inception of an name or symbol successful launch brand top of mind Idea or product
2 1

of product

of product



The above process shows the way in which a true brand is born and becomes deep rooted in minds of the customers. In other words, it is because of Top-of-Mind Recall i.e, ability of customers to come up with the name of the brand without any external prompting or clues to aid him/her, that determines to a large extent whether the brand has been effective and successful in its communication through advertisements. Studies indicate that IOCLs branding initiatives have been very successful, having deployed Cricketers like Kumble and Dravid as brand ambassadors for Servo and ExtraPremium (Picture shown ahead ) :



Advertisement shown below is a part of the ad. Campaign by IOCL for XtraPremium petrol

This Ad. Campaign by IOCL created for XTRACARE Pumps is displayed at most IOCL retail outlets, to promote Q&Q

Just like IOCs XTRA-CARE pumps that possess a uniform look across outlets with advertisements like the one shown above; similarly, most BPCL retail outlets-besides BPCLs logo and name (signature)-can be typically spotted with the aid of In and Out stores in the vicinity of the Dispensers at the Fuelling island bearing the visual identity shown in the next page :


Picture below shows the logo used at In &Out stores:

Similarly, Sania Mirza endorsing Club HP and Narain Karthikeyan for Speed Hi-Octane MS/HSD of BPCL have lended it increased Brand Recognition and Recall. According to a report, BPCLs revenues with respect to sales of Speed, increased by 15% in 6 months of launching the Speed Campaign featuring Narain Karthikeyan(in the picture shown):


In most cases, companies measure effectiveness of a campaign to increased sales of a product or a service as customers will buy a product if they like it and they perceive it to provide value. Another advertisement shown below is that of Hi-Speed Diesel from BPCL which can also be spotted at many of the Pure for Sure outlets :

2. Brand Differentiation: Brand Differentiation is the ability of consumers to distinguish among brands and between brands of products in related product categories . It can be done by using particular visual elements like logos, symbols, colours, slogans etc. which are unique to a particular brand. Brand


Differentiation is a result of a conscious process undertaken by companies to differentiate their brands. 3. Increased sales and profitability of the parent company over time: Customers will always buy the products they like. Over a period of time, as their needs and requirements are best met by a handful of products, customers begin to rate them as the best among the lot. Even the visual identity is strongly remembered by a customer and in moments of indecision or hurry, a customer will always prefer a tried-and-known product over another product that has been newly introduced in the market place. This results in increased sales and profitability for a firm that not only has the best product offering but also a unique and distinct visual identity. 4.Improvement and Makeover of especially old-format petrol pumps. Not all the petrol pumps of a company are upgraded and visually appealing across locations. Very often in metro cities like Mumbai, Oldformat petrol pumps with just a tin-sheet canopy and a few dispensers below it can be spotted in cramped locations. These might have been established many decades back and the rapid pace of development all around it- be it the coming up of high-rise buildings-cause them to remain more or less the same as before. On the other hand, if space or budgetary constraints do not exist and the petrol outlet promises higher than average monthly sales of MS, HSD and Lubes, then it would be a good decision to implement RVI at select locations.Well-lit, endowed with amenities and well-staffed retail outlets


appeal to the modern urban consumer who is hard-pressed for time and desires prompt and efficient service.

The Picture above shows a modern retail outlet of British Petroleum (BP) abroad. It also shows the allied non-fuel service activities of BP, in the form of BP CONNECT store located in the background.



Proper research regarding choice of creative signage and displays needs to be done before they are manufactured and installed. For example, Indian Oil has opted for the colour Saffron in its logo. As a result, customers today think of IOC when they think of Saffron. Similarly, Customers tend to identify Bharat Petroleum with light yellow and blue (Pure For Sure Campaign) and startling blue and red with Hindustan Petroleum . Colours that might not be visually appealing shouldnt be used keeping in mind customer preferences. Companies should intend to consolidate and build on the existing strength of the companys identity, only then would the RVI program be successful. 1. Identifying Potential Retail outlets where RVI initiatives can be Undertaken: Not all retail outlets yield similar results consistently. Results, in this context, refers to achieving a set sales target every month in terms of sales of MS, HSD or Lubes. Strategies for Retail outlets can be prepared using the Quadrant Analysis :
2 1


Quadrant Analysis

High Location/Low Facility

Develop for Growth Facility Investment
Site Level Economics

High Location/High Facility

Maintain for Cash Generators Obtain for COCO

L oc ati o n

Obtain for COCO

Low Location/High Facility Low Location/Low Facility

Look to Close if Unprofitable
Site Level Economics

No Investment

No Investment in Facilities Examine Site Expansion Beware Trade Area Development Activity Maximise Dealer Input

Depending on which quadrant, a particular retail outlet falls in, appropriate business decisions need to be taken. Retail outlets which generate sales, but can perform still better with RVI upgradations , need to be identified. Very often, companies can do this task of identifying site potential themselves or outsource it to professional consultants specializing in it.


2.Cost Implications: Executing a Retail Visual Identity program is not easy. It involves identification of potential retail outlets that exhibit consistent sales of MS, HSD, Lubes etc. every month and which can be upgraded to a modern, sophisticated one with not only signage and displays but other non-fuel allied services as well. Modernizing an R.O. alone with displays, signage and an ATM to start with would alone cost Rs.20 lacs (approx), excluding their operating costs every month3. 2. Measuring the effectiveness of RVI initiatives : While implementing a uniform Retail Visual Identity across petrol pumps and locations, is a time consuming affair and involves significant costs as well - measuring its effectiveness is not easy. Its impact can be felt only after a period of time, say 6 months, when a significant increase or decrease in average sales at those outlets, is observed .


Collecting post-implementation feedback : Once a particular signage or particular logo has been modified and given a new look at a few select petrol pumps, collecting feedback from the customers who visit often, is a cumbersome task. For this purpose, Questionnaire surveys could be undertaken, to measure the subjective perceptions of the customers. This is a time-consuming process and one has to consider subtle socio- cultural variables like choice of certain colors over others, use or non-use of certain symbols etc.


7. S U C C E S S S T O R I E S : Some companies that have benefited

significantly by implementing an effective RVI program, at the petrol pumps include : Shell Thai Oil Lukoil Elinoil Reliance Yukos BPCL HPCL IOCL and many more

For Example: Mr. Prasanna Kumar is the Chief Manager (Logistics),BPCL, who is also in charge of BPCL's retail operations in the South- says that on an average, sales in the BPCLs outlets in the Chennai region alone have gone up by 15-18 per cent since the `pure for sure' initiative was launched. Other examples abound as well. Some Logos of successful companies with successful RVI initiatives, logos which we see or might have seen daily on our way to work:





ID Technologies is a well-established, Johannesburg-based Project Management company which specializes in the design and project management of corporate retail projects. They specialize in the area of implementing corporate re-branding and re-imaging projects and they assist their clients to establish and maintain a uniform corporate visual identity at all of their retail outlets. They have tremendous expertise in providing technical and engineering aspects of signage and project implementation, having catered to some noteworthy Clients including companies like Shell, British Petroleum, Caltex and Sasol. These client companies have designed and upgraded their retail outlets with the services provided By ID Technologies.

Example of Projects handled :

Shell South Africa RVI Project : ID Technologies were commissioned by Shell SA (Pty) Ltd. To Project Manage and to supply all the Architectural and Engineering Design services for the successful implementation of the multi-million Rand Retail Visual Image Project throughout Southern Africa. The project involved converting 1000 service stations over a 30-month period.


Various services were provided to the networks in the following countries throughout Africa.

2. Minale Tattersfield & Partners ( MT&P) :

Reliance Industries hired the UK-based Minale tattersfield to design its outlets and has opted for blue, green and white as its primary colours as a part of its Retail Visual Identity . Minale Tattersfield provides complete image design sevices including printed and interactive communications, architecture, signage, packaging etc. They also provide services pertaining to areas like strategic tools, Corporate Identity and Branding, Corporate Communications, Packaging Design, 3D Design, Web and Multimedia. When the clients include oil and gas companies like Reliance, they provide Retail Design, Point of Display design services, Brand and corporate Identity services etc. A few major clients : 1.
3 2

Lukoil :
Brief Profile of Lukoil : Russian Oil company Lukoil is the 2nd largest oil company The largest Russian oil business group with an annual The First Russian company to receive full listing on the

worldwide by proven reserves of hydrocarbons. turnover of $30 billion. London Stock Exchange.


Association of Lukoil Company with MT &P : Most of the Lukoil petrol pumps have been designed by Minale Tattersfield. As BP moved aggressively into the Moscow area following the fall of communism, local petrol retailer Lukoil responded by appointing Minale Tattersfield to help it stay ahead of the competition. The brief given to them was simply to use their expertise to potray Lukoil as a modern, dynamic retailer. As a solution to the brief given they designed a new design for Lukoil. The new design for the Lukoil petrol station network builds on the updated identity, using the colour red for instant recognition and the distinctive angle of the K to create a distinctively shaped canopy. Picture below shows the logo created by MT&P For Lukoil :


To reinforce the brand further, the unusual lozenge shape of the logo has also been picked up in a number of design elements including the signage and the windows. The picture below shows a retail outlet of Lukoil with the new visual identity :


Thai Oil :
To develop a completely new retail filling station, for Thai Oil's proposed retail network in Thailand. Building on its existing position as a well respected, technologically advanced company, Thai Oil wanted its retail network to be positioned as a quality modern retailer of international stature. Thai Oil's rhinoceros mascot was developed by abstracting the rhino horns to form a dynamic modern symbol which also evokes the energy flame of the refinery. The new station design combines the corporate and retail image into fully integrated 2D/3D solutions giving continuity and coherence.


Picture below shows the RVI developed by MT&P :


Yukos :
Brief Profile of Yukos:

Yukos is the largest oil producer in the Russian Federation, accounting for 19.2% of all Russian production in 2003. YUKOS is the lowest cost producer of oil and gas in Russia, with lifting costs of around USD 1.62 per barrel, only marginally higher than those in Saudi Arabia. With an extensive network of petrol stations in the increasingly prestigious areas of Samara and Moscow, Yukos was keen to defend


its position against the influx of western retailers such as BP. On a more local level, it wanted to differentiate its image from a Multitude of small independents. Minale Tattersfield brightened the corporate green from a military shade to be more retail-oriented and customer friendly. The effect of this was enhanced by a modern automotive style fascia that uses a cold cathode light for night-time standout. They also rebranded the networks 25 Hours convenience store brand with a distinctive bright orange sunburst. Although new high quality materials were used throughout, the cost of refitting a station rose by less than 10%. Picture below shows the new Retail Visual Identity Designed by MT&P for Yukos.

Other major clients of Minale Tattersfield include Italiana Petroli,


Elinoil, Harrods, Eurostar, Motorola etc. to name a few. Summary table showing Oil companies and their associate RVI service providers. Name of the Oil Company Name of the Associate Company/agency providing RVI services Services provided Q&Q identity creation and other signage to support Q&Q at retail outlets Designing Signage, Canopies and other Point of sales design services Club HP Logo design, Designing New-look retail outlets with Red and Blue colours in the signage to support the club HP theme. Point of Display Design services, Retail design, Brand and corporate Identity services Rediffusion DY &R Indian Institute of Technology Consultants Petrodesign Minale Tattersfield & Partners






Not available

Not available

Not available

Not available



Increase in average sales, increased consumer confidence about good quality fuels.

Increase in average sales in all the Pure for Sure outlets across locations.

Club HP was a highly successful initiativeleading to of customer enrollments and brand loyalty.

A distinguished brand identity and look, that truckers recognize with highways. Increased sales and diversion of customer traffic from its competitors. Not available

large number while driving on

Year since services have been provided by them Other major clients of the associate RVI services provider

Not available

Not available

Not available

Asian Paints, Cadbury Chocolates, Amul etc.

Not available

Not available

Lukoil, Thai Oil, Yukos and Elinoil

This summary table provides a one-time overview of all the key RVI service Providers, the specialized services they provide and some of the major 64

clients (both oil & non-oil companies). Thus, we observe from the table given above that most major oil companies like Reliance prefer taking the services of established agencies like Minale Tattersfield and Partners who have a significant portfolio to their credit. Not only do they understand the business, they have a wide network of creative artists who understand their clients, usually major oil and gas companies requirements, but also the business in general.




While RVI implementation offers several advantages as seen ahead earlier, it also brings with it opportunities and Challenges for companies intending to implement RVI in the future : Opportunities : To be seen as a leader in experimenting with new visual formats and layouts amongst other conservative oil companies(if any), To create new avenues for establishing its unique identity in the marketplace, To enhance a firms recognition, sales and image in the market, as seen through the eyes of the customers, To make vehicle fuelling an enjoyable experience. Challenges: Some typical challenges faced by companies implementing or deciding to implement Retail Visual Identity soon, are : Budgetary constraints, if the company doesnt have good financial muscle, Human and Intellectual capital in the form of in-house or external RVI service providers; the lack of which, can affect the success of an RVI initiative, Very often, proper identification and selection of potential Retail outlets needs to be done where investments can be made,


The performance of retail outlets post-RVI, needs to monitored as well to make modifications, if needed. Though, this should be avoided as much as possible. Companies need to have proper monitoring and feedback mechanisms in place mainly because market conditions and customer preferences are dynamic in nature.

10. Questionnaire
1. Which company do you prefer for taking fuel?


a. IOCL b. BPCL c. HPCL d. Others

2. If any specific company, then why do you prefer that company?

a. Brand name b. Quality & Quantity c. Price d. Other services

3. When you take fuel what is the most important criteria for you?

a. Price b. Mileage c. Overall maintenance of vehicle d. Quantity

4. Which of these do you like the most in a new-look petrol pump?

a. Fancy canopy b. Automated dispensers c. Hoardings and Signage d. ATMs, STD booths etc a. Canopy b. Automated dispensers c. Non-fuel offerings d. Spacious run-ways e. All of the above

5. Which of these makes a petrol pump more efficient according to you?

6. Which companies colour scheme do you like the most?

a. IOCL b. BPCL c. HPCL d. Others

7. Do the colour combinations and other visual elements attract you?

a. Strongly Agree b. Agree c. Cant say d. Disagree e. Strongly Disagree

8. Do you remember the logos of Oil Marketing Companies?

a. Strongly Agree b. Agree c. Cant say d. Disagree


e. Strongly Disagree
9.Do you remember the punch lines of Oil Marketing Companies?

a. Strongly Agree b. Agree c. Cant say d. Disagree e. Strongly Disagree

10.Do you think the new tall signage with facilities offered mentioned on them are useful for the customers in terms of visibility and knowledge about the facilities offered at a particular petrol-pump?

a. Strongly Agree b. Agree c. Cant say d. Disagree e. Strongly Disagree

11. Does the presence of hoarding at kilometer marks makes you buy from that petrol pump especially while you are travelling on a highway?

a. Strongly Agree b. Agree c. Cant say d. Disagree e. Strongly Disagree

12. Do you feel attracted towards the new-look petrol pumps and tend to purchase fuel from there?

a. Strongly Agree b. Agree c. Cant say d. Disagree e. Strongly Disagree

13. Do you want to see more new look petrol pumps in the market?

a. Strongly Agree b. Agree c. Cant say d. Disagree e. Strongly Disagree

14. Any suggestions

Analysis & Interpretation


Sample Status a. Age distribution:

Age 20-25 25-30 30-40 >40

Respondents 17 15 10 8

Age distribution
20 15 10 5 0 Series1 20-25 17 25-30 15 Age 30-40 10 >40 8

b. Profession: 70

Profession Student Business Service Others

Respondents 22 14 8 6

Profession distribution
25 20 15 10 5 0 Series1 Studen Busine Service Others 22 14 8 6


Data Analysis


Company preferred by people for taking fuel

Company a. IOCL b. BPCL c. HPCL e. Combination

Responses 11 10 14 15

Responses (%) 22 20 28 30

Company preferred by people for taking fuel e. Combinat ion 30% a. IOCL 22%

b. BPCL 20% c. HPCL 28%

e. Combination


Reason for selecting any particular company

Reasons Brand name Quality & Quantity Services

Responses 12 24 14

Responses (%) 24 48 28

Reason for selecting any particular company Services 28% Brand name 24%
Brand name Quality & Quantity Services

Quality & Quantity 48%


Criteria for selecting fuel

Criteria b. Mileage c. Overall maintenance of vehicle

Responses 40 10

Responses (%) 80 20

c. Overall maintena nce of vehicle 20%

Criteria for selecting fuel

b. Mileage

b. Mileage 80%

c. Overall maintenance of vehicle


No. of people like to have ATM/Food, beverage stall at Petrol pumps

a. People like to have b. People do not like to have

37 13

74% 26%

b. People do not like to have 26%

No. of people like to have ATM/Food, beverage stall at Petrol pumps

a. People like to have b. People do not like to have

a. People like to have 74%


No. of people perceived that RVI is effective

a. No. of people who support b. No. of people who do not support

24 3

89% 11%

No. of people visiting new look petrol pumps more frequently after there conversion

a. No. of people visiting more frequently b. No. of people who are not visiting more frequently

26 6

81% 19%


Some significant conclusions that can be drawn regarding Retail Visual Identity are as follows : 1. 2. 3. begin to associate a company with certain visual elements, over a period of time. This leads to further repetitive sales as well. 4. Not only is an effective RVI essential, but is imperative for Companies to distinguish themselves from other competing players in the 21st century. 5. amount of time, effort and money. But, it pays huge dividends in the long run. 6. is of utmost importance. It is only the uniformity of the retail outlet that makes its Top-of-mind recall high by the customers who visit it. A popular saying holds true here as well : Whatever is out of sight, soon is out of mind. Establishing a uniform Retail Visual Identity across retail outlets Retail Visual Identity implementation involves significant An effective RVI program results in increase in average sales at the retail outlets where it is implemented. It increases the visual appeal of a retail oulet, enhancing brand recall and customers faith in the brand. It also increases the brand equity of a company as consumers



C H A P T E R - W I S E R E F E R E N CE S

1. For further information see, April 2006, article on Retailing in India. 2. Information accessed online from, refer to presentation on Downstream Petroleum Industry in India, in the media section by Mr.S.C.Tripathi at Petrotech . 2* Same as above. 2+ Same as above. 3. Statistics taken from, refer to presentation on Downstream Petroleum Industry in India, in the media section by Mr.S.C.Tripathi at Petrotech. 3* Data taken from presentation on Downstream Petro-retailing in India, by Mr.P.Jessop. 4, 4*.Refer to Initiatives taken by BPCL on the retailing front, information accessed online from Select Retail SBU on the main webpage to access this location. 5, 5*.Data taken from presentation on Downstream Petro-retailing in India,by Mr.P.Jessop. 6. Data taken from presentation on Downstream Petro-retailing in India, 78

by Mr.P.Jessop. 7. Quotes and Projections taken from article on potential of non-fuel offerings at retail outlets, accessed online at, . 8. Same as above. 9. Data taken from an article on Bottom-of-the-Pyramid Marketing by Prahalad Kakkar, April 2005 issue, Businessworld magazine, pg.36pg.40.

1. For further theory on Visual Identity, refer to Visual Identity programs offered by the University of Maryland, USA, accessed online at

2. Same as above. 3. Same as above.

1. For further theory on Visual Identity, refer to Visual Identity programs offered by the University of Maryland, US, accessed online at

1 Theoritical basis of Visual Identity reproduction taken from,

examples have been customized to suit

the Indian context.

1. Information gathered from Shell RVI Component Identification section, accessed online at 79

2. Information gathered from Shell RVI Component Identification section, accessed online at 4. Article taken from Hindu Business line, NRL launches new-look petro retail outlet by Amit Mitra. 5. Case study of SNAX 24, accessed online from


1. Theory on brand creation taken from article on branding and consumer behaviour, accessed online at : 2. Theory on brand creation taken from article on branding and consumer behaviour, accessed online at : 3. Advertisement taken from, section on ad.campaigns given in the Webpage. 3*.Advertisement taken from, section on ad.campaigns given in the Webpage. 4. Statistics taken from an article OMRB report,Effect of Advertising on sales and profitability dated March 2005, available at select libraries. 5. Definition taken from 6. Picture of BP retail outlet taken from presentation on Petro-retailing given by Mr. P.Jessop.



4. Information gathered from articles on effect of colour on branding in the oil and gas industry accessed onlin, at and 5. Quadrant analysis-concept definition and digram taken from presentation on Petro-retailing strategies and Network Planning given by Mr. P.Jessop. 6. Data taken from presentation on Petro-retailing strategies and Network Planning given by Mr. P.Jessop. 7. Inference taken from presentation on Petro-retailing strategies and Network Planning given by Mr. P.Jessop.

Data taken from what we do section on website of 2. 3. Data taken from an article on petrol pump design strategies adopted by PSUs, accessed online at List of clients of MT&P obtained from Portfolio section of its webpage at



Useful Links and websites : 3. University Of Maryland,USA website on visual Identity programs offered by them : (for pictures) (For picture of retail outlet) 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.

presentations/2005/jan/jan17-petrotech-tripathi.htm 13. 14. /2003012402160200.htm 15. /2005032002451400.htm


16. 17. 18. 19. 2550500.htm 20.