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1. On side AC of triangle ABC an arbitrary point D is selected. The tangent through D to the circumcircle of triangle BDC meets AB in point A1 ; The tangent through D to the circumcircle of triangle BDA meets BC in point C1 . Prove that AC A1 C1 . 2. Let x1 , x2 , , xn be a sequence dened by the following recurrence relation: x1 = 4 xn+1 = x1 x2 xn1 + 5 The rst few terms of the sequence are x1 = 4, x2 = 9, x3 = 41, . Find all positive integers (a, b) such that xa xb is a perfect square. 3. Find the least positive integer n for which there exists a set {s1 , s2 , , sn } consisting of n distinct positive integers such that 1 1 s1 1 1 s2 1 1 sn = 51 . 2010

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5. Into each box of a 2012 2012 square grid, a real number greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 1 is inserted. Consider splitting the grid into 2 nonempty rectangles consisting of boxes of the grid by drawing a line parallel either to the horizontal or the vertical side of the grid. Suppose that for at least one of the resulting rectangles the sum of the numbers in the boxes within the rectangle is less than or equal to 1, no matter how the grid is split into 2 such rectangles. Determine the maximum possible value for the sum of all the 2012 2012 numbers inserted into the boxes.

Solutions 1. (Shar 2012) On side AC of triangle ABC an arbitrary point D is selected. The tangent through D to the circumcircle of triangle BDC meets AB in point A1 ; The tangent through D to the circumcircle of triangle BDA meets BC in point C1 . Prove that AC A1 C1 . Solution. Using alternate segment theorem, we have CDE = CBD, CDC1 = ADF = A1 BD. Hence, EDC1 = A1 BC1 and A1 BC1 D is a cyclic quadrilateral. We then have A1 BD = A1 C1 D = C1 DC and hence AC A1 C1 .

2. (ITAMO 2012) Let x1 , x2 , , xn be a sequence dened by the following recurrence relation: x1 = 4 xn+1 = x1 x2 xn1 + 5 The rst few terms of the sequence are x1 = 4, x2 = 9, x3 = 41, . Find all positive integers (a, b) such that xa xb is a perfect square. Solution. First, note that xn cannot be divisible by 5. Without loss of generality, we assume that a < b (when a = b, xa xb is obviously a perfect square). We then have gcd(xa , xb ) = gcd(xa , x1 x2 xb1 + 5) = gcd(xa , 5) = 1. Hence, for xa xb to be prime both xa and xb must be prime. However, we note that when n 3, xn 5 (mod 36). Since 5 is not a quadratic residue of 36, xn is not a perfect square when n 3. The only solutions are (1, 2), (2, 1) and (k, k). 3. (ISL 2010) Find the least positive integer n for which there exists a set {s1 , s2 , , sn } consisting of n distinct positive integers such that 1 1 s1 1 1 s2 2 1 1 sn = 51 . 2010

Hence the least possible value of n is 39. 4. (BMO 2012) For positive real numbers x, y, z, prove that (x + y)

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Solution. By Cauchy-Schwarz Inequality, we have (z + x)(z + y) z + Hence it suces to prove that (x + y)(z +

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xy

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The above inequality is true due to AM-GM inequality. Equality occurs when x = y = z. 5. (APMO 2012) Into each box of a 2012 2012 square grid, a real number greater than or equal to 0 and less than or equal to 1 is inserted. Consider splitting the grid into 2 non-empty rectangles consisting of boxes of the grid by drawing a line parallel either to the horizontal or the vertical side of the grid. Suppose that for at least one of the resulting rectangles the sum of the numbers in the boxes within the rectangle is less than or equal to 1, no matter how the grid is split into 2 such rectangles. Determine the maximum possible value for the sum of all the 2012 2012 numbers inserted into the boxes. Solution. Dene the term i-th horizontal cut as the act of splitting the box at the i-th horizontal line from the top and j-th vertical cut as the act of splitting the box at the j-th vertical line from the left. Consider the act of splitting the box using 3

horizontal lines rst. We assume that the maximum possible value for the sum of all numbers in the grid is larger than 1. We perform a 1st horizontal cut on the box and compute the sum of the numbers in the grid in each rectangles (the 1st horizontal cut is at the top of the box). Obviously, the sum of numbers above the cut is less than or equal to 1 since there are no grids above the cut. As i increases, there must be a point when the sum of numbers above the cut is larger than 1 since the sum of all numbers in the grid is larger than 1. We highlight the row which increases the sum of numbers in the grid above 1. Repeat the same process for vertical cuts until we obtain the diagram below:

Let the sum of all the numbers in the grids of AEJD, BCIF, ABGL, CDKH, AEM L, BGN F, CIOH, DKP J and M N OP be a, b, c, d, w, x, y, z, o respectively. We note that a, b, c, d, w, x, y, z, o 1 based on how these areas are dened. On the other hand, the sum of all numbers in the box equals to a+b+c+dwxyz+o. The maximum is achieved when w, x, y, z are equal to zero and a, b, c, d, o are equal to 1. Hence, the maximum possible value is 5.

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